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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339083/health-risk-assessment-of-environmental-selenium-emerging-evidence-and-challenges-review
#1
Marco Vinceti, Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Annalisa Bargellini, Anna Valeria Vergoni, Aristides Tsatsakis, Margherita Ferrante
New data have been accumulated in the scientific literature in recent years which allow a more adequate risk assessment of selenium with reference to human health. This new evidence comes from environmental studies, carried out in populations characterized by abnormally high or low selenium intakes, and from high-quality and large randomized controlled trials with selenium recently carried out in the US and in other countries. These trials have consistently shown no beneficial effect on cancer and cardiovascular risk, and have yielded indications of unexpected toxic effects of selenium exposure...
March 24, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336725/quantitative-shotgun-proteomics-unveils-candidate-novel-oesophageal-adenocarcinoma-specific-proteins
#2
J Robert O'Neill, Hui-Song Pak, Erola Pairo-Castineira, Vicki Save, Simon Paterson-Brown, Rudolf Nenutil, Bořivoj Vojtěšek, Ian Overton, Alex Scherl, Ted R Hupp
Oesophageal cancer is the eighth most common cancer worldwide and the majority of patients have systemic disease at presentation. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC), the predominant subtype in western countries, is largely resistant to current chemotherapy regimens. Selective markers are needed to enhance clinical staging and to allow targeted therapies yet there are minimal proteomic data on this cancer type. After histological review, lysates from OAC and matched normal oesophageal and gastric samples from seven patients were subjected to LC MS/MS after tandem mass tag labelling and OFFGEL fractionation...
March 23, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335420/efforts-and-challenges-in-engineering-the-genetic-code
#3
REVIEW
Xiao Lin, Allen Chi Shing Yu, Ting Fung Chan
This year marks the 48th anniversary of Francis Crick's seminal work on the origin of the genetic code, in which he first proposed the "frozen accident" hypothesis to describe evolutionary selection against changes to the genetic code that cause devastating global proteome modification. However, numerous efforts have demonstrated the viability of both natural and artificial genetic code variations. Recent advances in genetic engineering allow the creation of synthetic organisms that incorporate noncanonical, or even unnatural, amino acids into the proteome...
March 14, 2017: Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331971/an-integrated-view-of-asteroid-regeneration-tissues-cells-and-molecules
#4
REVIEW
Yousra Ben Khadra, Michela Sugni, Cinzia Ferrario, Francesco Bonasoro, Ana Varela Coelho, Pedro Martinez, Maria Daniela Candia Carnevali
The potential for repairing and replacing cells, tissues, organs and body parts is considered a primitive attribute of life shared by all the organisms, even though it may be expressed to a different extent and which is essential for the survival of both individual and whole species. The ability to regenerate is particularly evident and widespread within invertebrates. In spite of the wide availability of experimental models, regeneration has been comprehensively explored in only a few animal systems (i.e., hydrozoans, planarians, urodeles) leaving many other animal groups unexplored...
March 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325629/towards-integrating-extracellular-matrix-and-immunological-pathways
#5
David F Boyd, Paul G Thomas
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex and dynamic structure made up of an estimated 300 different proteins. The ECM is also a rich source of cytokines and growth factors in addition to numerous bioactive ECM degradation products that influence cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The ECM is constantly being remodeled during homeostasis and in a wide range of pathological contexts. Changes in the ECM modulate immune responses, which in turn regulate repair and regeneration of tissues. Here, we review the many components of the ECM, enzymes involved in ECM remodeling, and the signals that feed into immunological pathways in the context of a dynamic ECM...
March 18, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325592/intersexuality-in-aquatic-invertebrates-prevalence-and-causes
#6
REVIEW
Tiago F Grilo, Rui Rosa
This review is the first assembling information on intersexuality in aquatic invertebrates, from freshwater to estuarine and marine environments. Intersex is a condition whereby an individual of a gonochorist (separate sexes) species has oocytes or distinct stages of spermatogonia, at varying degrees of development, within the normal gonad of the opposite gender (i.e. spermatocytes in the ovary or oocytes in the testis), often involving alterations in the gonadal structure, reproductive tract or external genitalia...
March 18, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321417/technologies-for-proteome-wide-discovery-of-extracellular-host-pathogen-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Nadia Martinez-Martin
Pathogens have evolved unique mechanisms to breach the cell surface barrier and manipulate the host immune response to establish a productive infection. Proteins exposed to the extracellular environment, both cell surface-expressed receptors and secreted proteins, are essential targets for initial invasion and play key roles in pathogen recognition and subsequent immunoregulatory processes. The identification of the host and pathogen extracellular molecules and their interaction networks is fundamental to understanding tissue tropism and pathogenesis and to inform the development of therapeutic strategies...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317069/deciphering-the-role-of-ectosomes-in-cancer-development-and-progression-focus-on-the-proteome
#8
REVIEW
Magdalena Surman, Ewa Stępień, Dorota Hoja-Łukowicz, Małgorzata Przybyło
Ectosomes are small heterogeneous membrane vesicles generated by budding from the plasma membrane in a variety of cell types and, more frequently, in tumor cells. They are shed into the extracellular space and are proposed as a novel form of intracellular communication in which information is transmitted from the originating cell to recipient cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. This review focuses on a single population of extracellular vesicles-ectosomes. We summarize recent studies of tumor-derived ectosomes which examine their biogenesis and protein cargo, and their influence on different aspects of cancer progression...
March 19, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303493/the-effect-of-molecular-diagnostics-on-the-treatment-of-glioma
#9
REVIEW
Nancy Ann Oberheim Bush, Nicholas Butowski
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the use of molecular diagnostics in glioma and its effect on the development of novel therapeutics and management decisions. RECENT FINDINGS: Genomic and proteomic profiling of brain tumors has provided significant expansion of our understanding of oncogenesis, characterization, and prognostication of brain tumors. Molecular markers such as MGMT, EGFR, IDH, 1p19q, ATRX, TERT, FGFR-TACC, and BRAF are now being used to classify brain tumors as well as influence management decisions...
April 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303220/anemone-medicinal-plants-ethnopharmacology-phytochemistry-and-biology
#10
REVIEW
Da-Cheng Hao, Xiaojie Gu, Peigen Xiao
The Ranunculaceae genus Anemone (order Ranunculales), comprising more than 150 species, mostly herbs, has long been used in folk medicine and worldwide ethnomedicine. Various medicinal compounds have been found in Anemone plants, especially triterpenoid saponins, some of which have shown anti-cancer activities. Some Anemone compounds and extracts display immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. More than 50 species have ethnopharmacological uses, which provide clues for modern drug discovery...
March 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302914/new-insights-into-mechanisms-of-small-vessel-disease-stroke-from-genetics
#11
REVIEW
Rhea Tan, Matthew Traylor, Loes Rutten-Jacobs, Hugh Markus
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a common cause of lacunar strokes, vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) and vascular dementia. SVD is thought to result in reduced cerebral blood flow, impaired cerebral autoregulation and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying SVD are incompletely understood. Recent studies in monogenic forms of SVD, such as cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), and 'sporadic' SVD have shed light on possible disease mechanisms in SVD...
April 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301983/applying-systems-biology-methodology-to-identify-genetic-factors-possibly-associated-with-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Brad G Kurowski, Amery Treble-Barna, Alexis J Pitzer, Shari L Wade, Lisa J Martin, Ranjit S Chima, Anil Jegga
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is linked with a number of medical, neurological, cognitive, and behavioral sequelae. The influence of genetic factors on the biology and related recovery after TBI is poorly understood. Studies that seek to elucidate the impact of genetic influences on neurorecovery after TBI will lead to better individualization of prognosis and inform development of novel treatments, which are considerably lacking. Current genetic studies related to TBI have focused on specific candidate genes...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301937/tools-for-studying-glycans-recent-advances-in-chemoenzymatic-glycan-labeling
#13
Aime Lopez Aguilar, Jennie Grace Briard, Linette Yang, Ben Ovryn, Matthew Scott Macauley, Peng Wu
The study of cellular glycosylation presents many challenges due, in large part, to the nontemplated nature of glycan biosynthesis and glycans' structural complexity. Chemoenzymatic glycan labeling (CeGL) has emerged as a new technique to address the limitations of existing methods for glycan detection. CeGL combines glycosyltransferases and unnatural nucleotide sugar donors equipped with a bioorthogonal chemical tag to directly label specific glycan acceptor substrates in situ within biological samples. This article reviews the current CeGL strategies that are available to characterize cell-surface and intracellular glycans...
March 17, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301739/systems-biology-of-metabolism
#14
Jens Nielsen
Metabolism is highly complex and involves thousands of different connected reactions; it is therefore necessary to use mathematical models for holistic studies. The use of mathematical models in biology is referred to as systems biology. In this review, the principles of systems biology are described, and two different types of mathematical models used for studying metabolism are discussed: kinetic models and genome-scale metabolic models. The use of different omics technologies, including transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and fluxomics, for studying metabolism is presented...
March 8, 2017: Annual Review of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301386/kidney-perfusion-some-like-it-hot-others-prefer-to-keep-it-cool
#15
Ina Jochmans, Michael L Nicholson, Sarah A Hosgood
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Machine perfusion technologies provide an opportunity for improved preservation, organ assessment, and resuscitation of damaged kidneys. This review summarizes the recent advances in hypothermic and normothermic kidney machine perfusion technologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Modifications to the perfusion conditions with the addition of oxygen during hypothermic machine perfusion can support a low level of metabolism, which in experimental settings improves graft function...
March 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293970/-csf-analysis-for-protein-biomarker-identification-in-patients-with-leptomeningeal-metastases-from-cns-lymphoma
#16
N Galicia, R Dégano, P Díez, M Gonzalez-Gonzalez, R Góngora, N Ibarrola, M Fuentes
Leptomeningeal metastases (LM) from lymphoma remain a difficult complication for oncologist due to the high incidence in morbidity and mortality. Early diagnostic and initiation of treatment are essential to prevent neurological deterioration. Areas covered: In this review, several proteomic approaches are described in order to help and provide the basis for the identification of biomarkers useful in early diagnosis, also in discovery novel targets for therapeutic agents. In fact, the identification of biomarkers will have a high potential to detect leptomeningeal lymphoma, as well as to predict its progression and treatment response...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292023/green-tea-and-its-anti-angiogenesis-effects
#17
REVIEW
Bahman Rashidi, Mehrnoush Malekzadeh, Mohammad Goodarzi, Aria Masoudifar, Hamed Mirzaei
The development of new blood vessels from a pre-existing vasculature (also known as angiogenesis) is required for many physiological processes including embryogenesis and post-natal growth. However, pathological angiogenesis is also a hallmark of cancer and many ischaemic and inflammatory diseases. The pro-angiogenic members of the VEGF family (vascular endothelial growth factor family), VEGF-A, VEGF-B, VEGF-C, VEGF-D and placental growth factor (PlGF), and the related receptors, VEGFR-1, VEGFR-2 and VEGFR-3 have a central and decisive role in angiogenesis...
March 8, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289911/transcriptomics-as-a-tool-to-discover-new-antibacterial-targets
#18
REVIEW
Ángel Domínguez, Elisa Muñoz, M Carmen López, Miguel Cordero, José Pedro Martínez, Miguel Viñas
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens, multiple drug-resistance, and extremely drug-resistant strains demonstrates the need for improved strategies to discover new drug-based compounds. The development of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics has provided new tools for global studies of living organisms. However, the compendium of expression profiles produced by these methods has introduced new scientific challenges into antimicrobial research. In this review, we discuss the practical value of transcriptomic techniques as well as their difficulties and pitfalls...
March 13, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289683/multidimensional-integrative-genomics-approaches-to-dissecting-cardiovascular-disease
#19
REVIEW
Douglas Arneson, Le Shu, Brandon Tsai, Rio Barrere-Cain, Christine Sun, Xia Yang
Elucidating the mechanisms of complex diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a significant challenge due to multidimensional alterations at molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. To better understand CVD and offer insights into the underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic strategies, data from multiple omics types (genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, microbiomics) from both humans and model organisms have become available. However, individual omics data types capture only a fraction of the molecular mechanisms...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289389/understanding-physiology-in-the-continuum-integration-of-information-from-multiple-omics-levels
#20
Kubra Kamisoglu, Alison Acevedo, Richard R Almon, Susette Coyle, Siobhan Corbett, Debra C Dubois, Tung T Nguyen, William J Jusko, Ioannis P Androulakis
In this paper, we discuss approaches for integrating biological information reflecting diverse physiologic levels. In particular, we explore statistical and model-based methods for integrating transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics data. Our case studies reflect responses to a systemic inflammatory stimulus and in response to an anti-inflammatory treatment. Our paper serves partly as a review of existing methods and partly as a means to demonstrate, using case studies related to human endotoxemia and response to methylprednisolone (MPL) treatment, how specific questions may require specific methods, thus emphasizing the non-uniqueness of the approaches...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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