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proteomics review

Zahid Rasul Niazi, Naqab Khan, Samiullah Khan, Mehboob Alam, Mohammad A Kamal
BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disorder are persistently increasing and relentlessly affecting the individuals, families and society as whole. Regrettably these disorders are resistant to the available drugs, the outcomes are only palliative while the side effects of the therapy harm the patient compliance as well as treatment. Drugs from venomous source have been considered as an effective alternative for such types of disorders, particularly neurodegenerative diseases. Due to emerging advancement in the field of proteomics, genomics and molecular biology, characterization and screening of these novel compounds become more assessable...
June 14, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Giulia M Sancesario, Sergio Bernardini
Recent progresses in high-throughput technologies have led to a new scenario in investigating pathologies, named the "Omics era", which integrate the opportunity to collect large amounts of data and information at the molecular and protein levels together with the development of novel computational and statistical tools that are able to analyze and filter such data. Subsequently, advances in genotyping arrays, next generation sequencing, mass spectrometry technology, and bioinformatics allowed for the simultaneous large-scale study of thousands of genes (genomics), epigenetics factors (epigenomics), RNA (transcriptomics), metabolites (metabolomics) and proteins(proteomics), with the possibility of integrating multiple types of omics data ("multi -omics")...
June 16, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Kyle T Amber, Manuel Valdebran, Sergei A Grando
Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially life-threatening mucocutaneous autoimmune blistering disease. Patients develop non-healing erosions and blisters due to cell-cell detachment of keratinocytes (acantholysis), with subsequent suprabasal intraepidermal splitting. Identified almost 30 years ago, desmoglein-3 (Dsg3), a Ca2+ -dependent cell adhesion molecule belonging to the cadherin family, has been considered the "primary" autoantigen in PV. Proteomic studies have identified numerous autoantibodies in patients with PV that have known roles in the physiology and cell adhesion of keratinocytes...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Muneer A Malla, Anamika Dubey, Shweta Yadav, Ashwani Kumar, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed Fathi Abd Allah
Rapid industrialization and population explosion has resulted in the generation and dumping of various contaminants into the environment. These harmful compounds deteriorate the human health as well as the surrounding environments. Current research aims to harness and enhance the natural ability of different microbes to metabolize these toxic compounds. Microbial-mediated bioremediation offers great potential to reinstate the contaminated environments in an ecologically acceptable approach. However, the lack of the knowledge regarding the factors controlling and regulating the growth, metabolism, and dynamics of diverse microbial communities in the contaminated environments often limits its execution...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Silva-Palacios, M Ostolga-Chavarría, C Zazueta, M Königsberg
Increase in life-span is commonly related with age-related diseases and with gradual loss of genomic, proteomic and metabolic integrity. Nrf2 (Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-p45 derived factor 2) controls the expression of genes whose products include antioxidant proteins, detoxifying enzymes, drug transporters and numerous cytoprotective proteins. Several experimental approaches have evaluated the potential regulation of the transcription factor Nrf2 to enhance the expression of genes that contend against accumulative oxidative stress and promote healthy aging...
June 15, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Leen J Luyten, Nelly D Saenen, Bram G Janssen, Karen Vrijens, Michelle Plusquin, Harry A Roels, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Fetal development is a crucial window of susceptibility in which exposure-related alterations can be induced on the molecular level, leading to potential changes in metabolism and development. The placenta serves as a gatekeeper between mother and fetus, and is in contact with environmental stressors throughout pregnancy. This makes the placenta as a temporary organ an informative non-invasive matrix suitable to investigate omics-related aberrations in association with in utero exposures such as ambient air pollution...
June 13, 2018: Environmental Research
Manuela D'Eletto, Federica Rossin, Olga Fedorova, Maria Grazia Farrace, Mauro Piacentini
The maintenance of protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is a fundamental aspect of cell physiology that is essential for the survival of organisms under a variety of environmental and/or intracellular stress conditions. Acute and/or persistent stress exceeding the capacity of the intracellular homeostatic systems results in protein aggregation and/or damaged organelles that leads to pathological cellular states often resulting in cell death. These events are continuously suppressed by a complex macromolecular machinery that uses different intracellular pathways to maintain the proteome integrity in the various subcellular compartments ensuring a healthy cellular life span...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Waleed Sohail, Fatimah Majeed, Amber Afroz
The prevalence of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 (DM 2) is increasing every passing year due to some global changes in lifestyles of people. The exact underlying mechanisms of the progression of this disease are not yet known. However recent advances in the combined omics more particularly in proteomics and genomics have opened a gateway towards the understanding of predetermined genetic factors, progression, complications and treatment of this disease. Here we shall review the recent advances in proteomics that have led to an early and better diagnostic approaches in controlling DM 2 more importantly the comparison of structural and functional protein biomarkers that are modified in the diseased state...
June 11, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Agnieszka A Piatek, Scott C Lenaghan, C Neal Stewart
Genome editing is a powerful suite of technologies utilized in basic and applied plant research. Both nuclear and plastid genomes have been genetically engineered to alter traits in plants. While the most frequent molecular outcome of gene editing has been knockouts resulting in a simple deletion of an endogenous protein of interest from the host's proteome, new genes have been added to plant genomes and, in several instances, the sequence of endogenous genes have been targeted for a few coding changes. Targeted plant characteristics for genome editing range from single gene targets for agronomic input traits to metabolic pathways to endow novel plant function...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Francesco Paolo Schena, Grazia Serino, Fabio Sallustio, Mario Falchi, Sharon N Cox
Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is the most common worldwide primary glomerulonephritis with a strong autoimmune component. The disease shows variability in both clinical phenotypes and endpoints and can be potentially subdivided into more homogeneous subtypes through the identification of specific molecular biomarkers. This review focuses on the role of omics in driving the identification of potential molecular subtypes of the disease through the integration of multilevel data from genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, proteomics and metabolomics...
June 13, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Sanjeeva Srivastava
This special issue focusing on proteomics-based investigations of neglected and tropical diseases has eight published articles of which five are research articles and three reviews and viewpoints articles. The idea of this special issue was originated in 14th Human Proteome Organization World Congress (HUPO 2015) in Vancouver during a discussion session of Human Infectious Diseases (HID) group meeting as part of HUPO's flagship project on Human Proteome Project (HPP). This session was well attended by the scientists working on infectious diseases as well as editor of Proteomics Clinical Applications, and constructive discussions led to the culmination of this special issue...
June 14, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
Ryohei Narumi, Keiko Masuda, Takeshi Tomonaga, Jun Adachi, Hiroki R Ueda, Yoshihiro Shimizu
High-sensitivity mass spectrometry approaches using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) or multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) methods are powerful tools for targeted quantitative proteomics-based investigation of dynamics in specific biological systems. Both high-sensitivity detection of low-abundance proteins and their quantification using this technique employ stable isotope-labeled peptide internal standards. Currently, there are various ways for preparing standards, including chemical peptide synthesis, cellular protein expression, and cell-free protein or peptide synthesis...
June 2018: Synthetic and Systems Biotechnology
Fieke W Hoff, Chenyue W Hu, Amina A Qutub, Eveline S J M de Bont, Terzah M Horton, Steven M Kornblau
Although cure rates for acute leukemia have steadily improved over the past decades, leukemia remains a deadly disease. Enhanced risk stratification and new therapies are needed to improve outcome. Extensive genetic analyses have identified many mutations that contribute to the development of leukemia. However, most mutations occur infrequently and most gene alterations have been difficult to target. Most patients have more than one driver mutation in combination with secondary mutations, that result in a leukemic transformation via the alteration of proteins...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Benjamin Piña, Laia Navarro, Carlos Barata, Demetrio Raldúa, Rubén Martínez, Marta Casado
The genome revolution represents a complete change on our view of biological systems. The quantitative determination of changes in all major molecular components of the living cells, the "omics" approach, opened whole new fields for all health sciences. Genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and others, together with appropriate prediction and modeling tools, will mark the future of developmental toxicity assessment both for wildlife and humans. This is especially true for disciplines, like teratology, which rely on studies in model organisms, as studies at lower levels of organization are difficult to implement...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jata Shankar, Shraddha Tiwari, Sonia K Shishodia, Manali Gangwar, Shanu Hoda, Raman Thakur, Pooja Vijayaraghavan
Aspergillus species are the major cause of health concern worldwide in immunocompromised individuals. Opportunistic Aspergilli cause invasive to allergic aspergillosis, whereas non-infectious Aspergilli have contributed to understand the biology of eukaryotic organisms and serve as a model organism. Morphotypes of Aspergilli such as conidia or mycelia/hyphae helped them to survive in favorable or unfavorable environmental conditions. These morphotypes contribute to virulence, pathogenicity and invasion into hosts by excreting proteins, enzymes or toxins...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Laurène M André, C Rosanne M Ausems, Derick G Wansink, Bé Wieringa
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) and 2 (DM2) are autosomal dominant degenerative neuromuscular disorders characterized by progressive skeletal muscle weakness, atrophy, and myotonia with progeroid features. Although both DM1 and DM2 are characterized by skeletal muscle dysfunction and also share other clinical features, the diseases differ in the muscle groups that are affected. In DM1, distal muscles are mainly affected, whereas in DM2 problems are mostly found in proximal muscles. In addition, manifestation in DM1 is generally more severe, with possible congenital or childhood-onset of disease and prominent CNS involvement...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Emmanuel Margolin, Ros Chapman, Anna-Lise Williamson, Edward P Rybicki, Ann E Meyers
Plant molecular farming offers a cost effective and scalable approach to the expression of recombinant proteins which has been proposed as an alternative to conventional production platforms for developing countries. In recent years, numerous proofs-of-concept have established that plants can produce biologically active recombinant proteins and immunologically relevant vaccine antigens that are comparable to those made in conventional expression systems. Driving many of these advances is the remarkable plasticity of the plant proteome which enables extensive engineering of the host cell, as well as the development of improved expression vectors facilitating higher levels of protein production...
June 11, 2018: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Iwona Belczacka, Agnieszka Latosinska, Jochen Metzger, David Marx, Antonia Vlahou, Harald Mischak, Maria Frantzi
Cancer is a heterogeneous multifactorial disease, which continues to be one of the main causes of death worldwide. Despite the extensive efforts for establishing accurate diagnostic assays and efficient therapeutic schemes, disease prevalence is on the rise, in part, however, also due to improved early detection. For years, studies were focused on genomics and transcriptomics, aiming at the discovery of new tests with diagnostic or prognostic potential. However, cancer phenotypic characteristics seem most likely to be a direct reflection of changes in protein metabolism and function, which are also the targets of most drugs...
June 11, 2018: Mass Spectrometry Reviews
Hongliang Guo, Xiao-Dong Wang, Duu-Jong Lee
Protective action of lignin/hemicellulose networks and crystalline structures of embedded cellulose render lignocellulose material resistant to external enzymatic attack. To eliminate this bottleneck, research has been conducted in which advanced proteomic techniques are applied to identify effective commercial hydrolytic enzymes. This mini-review summarizes researches on lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, the mechanisms of the responses of various lignocellulose-degrading strains and microbial communities to various carbon sources and various biomass substrates, post-translational modifications of lignocellulose-degrading enzymes, new lignocellulose-degrading strains, new lignocellulose-degrading enzymes and a new method of secretome analysis...
May 31, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Michael R Hamblin, Ying-Ying Huang, Vladimir Heiskanen
Photobiomodulation (PBM), also known as low-level laser (light) therapy, was discovered over 50 years ago, but only recently has it been making progress towards wide acceptance. PBM originally used red and near-infrared (NIR) lasers, but now other wavelengths and non-coherent light emitting diodes (LEDs) are being explored. The almost complete lack of side-effects makes the conduction of controlled clinical trials relatively easy. Laboratory research has mainly concentrated on mammalian cells (normal or cancer) in culture, and small rodents (mice and rats) as models of different diseases...
June 8, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
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