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proteomics review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693711/telocytes-in-skeletal-cardiac-and-smooth-muscle-interstitium-morphological-and-functional-aspects
#1
REVIEW
Mirca Marini, Irene Rosa, Lidia Ibba-Manneschi, Mirko Manetti
Telocytes (TCs) represent a new distinct type of cells found in the stromal compartment of many organs, including the skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles. TCs are morphologically defined as interstitial cells with a small cellular body from which arise very long (up to hundreds of micrometers) and thin moniliform processes (named telopodes) featuring the alternation of slender segments (called podomers) and small dilated portions (called podoms) accommodating some organelles. Although these stromal cells are mainly characterized by their ultrastructural traits, in the last few years TCs have been increasingly studied for their immunophenotypes, microRNA profiles, and gene expression and proteomic signatures...
April 25, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691073/microbiological-diagnosis-of-bacteraemia-and-fungaemia-blood-cultures-and-molecular-methods
#2
María Remedio Guna Serrano, Nieves Larrosa Escartín, Mercedes Marín Arriaza, Juan Carlos Rodríguez Díaz
OBJETIVE: In this review we try to update the new procedures applicable in the microbiological diagnosis of bacteriemia and fungemias. METHOD: Review of scientific literature. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: After defining the process and indicating its fundamental principles, the main biomarkers used in clinical practice are reviewed. Subsequently, the particularities of the pre-analytical phase (collection and transport of samples) are highlighted and the steps to follow for the microbiological identification by classical methods are detailed, based on the culture of the blood samples...
April 21, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689642/increasing-specificity-of-tandem-mass-spectrometry-by-laser-induced-dissociation
#3
Marion Girod
Mass spectrometry offers an arsenal of tools for diverse proteomic investigations. This perspective article reviews some of the recent developments in the field of coupling laser induced dissociation with mass spectrometry (LID-MS). Strategies involving labelling with a chromophore to induce specific photo-absorption properties are considered, with a focus on specific amino acid derivatization. Some of the opportunities and challenges of LID-MS after targeted labelling for increasing specificity in complex sample analysis are discussed...
April 24, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689165/the-taxonomy-of-covalent-inhibitors
#4
Alfred Tuley, Walter Fast
Covalent enzyme inhibitors are widely applied as biochemical tools and therapeutic agents. As a complement to categorization of these inhibitors by reactive group or modification site, we present a categorization by mechanism, which highlights common advantages and disadvantages inherent to each approach. Established categories for reversible and irreversible covalent inhibition are reviewed with representative examples given for each class, including covalent reversible inhibitors, slow substrates, residue-specific reagents, affinity labels (classical, quiescent, and photoaffinity), and mechanism-based inactivators...
April 24, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687643/proteomic-analysis-of-exosomes-and-its-application-in-hiv-1-infection
#5
REVIEW
Collins Cheruiyot, Zemplen Pataki, Bharat Ramratnam, Ming Li
Exosomes are 30-100 nm extracellular vesicles secreted from late endosomes by various types of cells. Numerous studies have suggested that exosomes play significant roles in HIV-1 biogenesis. Proteomics coupled with exosome fractionation has been successfully used to identify various exosomal proteins and helped us to uncover the interactions between exosomes and HIV-1. To inform the current progress in the intersection of exosome, proteomics and HIV-1, this review is focused on: i) analyzing different exosome isolation, purification methods and their implications in HIV-1 studies; ii) evaluating the roles of various proteomic techniques in defining exosomal contents; iii) discussing the research and clinical applications of proteomics and exosome in HIV-1 biology...
April 23, 2018: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686618/advanced-activity-based-protein-profiling-application-strategies-for-drug-development
#6
REVIEW
Shan Wang, Yu Tian, Min Wang, Min Wang, Gui-Bo Sun, Xiao-Bo Sun
Drug targets and modes of action remain two of the biggest challenges in drug development. To address these problems, chemical proteomic approaches have been introduced to profile targets in complex proteomes. Activity-based protein profiling (ABPP) is one of a growing number chemical proteomic approaches that uses small-molecule chemical probes to understand the interaction mechanisms between compounds and targets. ABPP can be used to identify the protein targets of small molecules and even the active sites of target proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683460/quantification-of-site-specific-protein-lysine-acetylation-and-succinylation-stoichiometry-using-data-independent-acquisition-mass-spectrometry
#7
Lei Wei, Jesse G Meyer, Birgit Schilling
Post-translational modification (PTM) of protein lysine residues by NƐ-acylation induces structural changes that can dynamically regulate protein functions, for example, by changing enzymatic activity or by mediating interactions. Precise quantification of site-specific protein acylation occupancy, or stoichiometry, is essential for understanding the functional consequences of both global low-level stoichiometry and individual high-level acylation stoichiometry of specific lysine residues. Other groups have reported measurement of lysine acetylation stoichiometry by comparing the ratio of peptide precursor isotopes from endogenous, natural abundance acylation and exogenous, heavy isotope-labeled acylation introduced after quantitative chemical acetylation of proteins using stable isotope-labeled acetic anhydride...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680270/regulation-of-cancer-cell-signaling-pathways-by-mushrooms-and-their-bioactive-molecules-overview-of-the-journey-from-benchtop-to-clinical-trials
#8
Aliye Aras, Sumbul Khalid, Saima Jabeen, Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Baojun Xu
Mushrooms represent a tremendous source of biologically useful and pharmacologically active molecules. Recent breakthroughs in cancer genetics, genomics, proteomics and translational research have helped us to develop a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms which are contributory in cancer development and progression. Different signaling pathways particularly, Wnt, SHH, TGF/SMAD and JAK/STAT have been shown to modulate cancer progression and development. Increasingly it is being realized that genetic/epigenetic mutations and loss of apoptosis also mandate a 'multi-molecular' perspective for the development of therapies to treat cancer...
April 19, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677564/-omic-technologies-as-a-helpful-tool-in-radioecological-research
#9
REVIEW
Polina Yu Volkova, Stanislav A Geras'kin
This article presents a brief review of the modern 'omic' technologies, namely genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, as well as the examples of their possible use in radioecology. For each technology, a short description of advances, limitations, and instrumental applications is given. In addition, the review contains examples of successful use of 'omic' technologies in the assessment of biological effects of pollutants in the field conditions.
April 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672914/revisiting-the-nih-taskforce-on-the-research-needs-of-eosinophil-associated-diseases-re-tread
#10
REVIEW
Paneez Khoury, Praveen Akuthota, Steven J Ackerman, Joseph R Arron, Bruce S Bochner, Margaret H Collins, Jean-Emmanuel Kahn, Patricia C Fulkerson, Gerald J Gleich, Rashmi Gopal-Srivastava, Elizabeth A Jacobsen, Kristen M Leiferman, Levi-Schaffer Francesca, Sameer K Mathur, Michael Minnicozzi, Calman Prussin, Marc E Rothenberg, Florence Roufosse, Kathleen Sable, Dagmar Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Lisa A Spencer, Jonathan Steinfeld, Andrew J Wardlaw, Michael E Wechsler, Peter F Weller, Amy D Klion
BACKGROUND: Eosinophil-associated diseases (EADs) are rare, heterogeneous disorders characterized by the presence of eosinophils in tissues and/or peripheral blood resulting in immunopathology. The heterogeneity of tissue involvement, lack of sufficient animal models, technical challenges in working with eosinophils, and lack of standardized histopathologic approaches have hampered progress in basic research. Additionally, clinical trials and drug development for rare EADs are limited by the lack of primary and surrogate endpoints, biomarkers, and validated patient-reported outcomes...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669750/current-challenges-and-opportunities-in-treating-glioblastoma
#11
Andrea Shergalis, Armand Bankhead, Urarika Luesakul, Nongnuj Muangsin, Nouri Neamati
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, has a high mortality rate despite extensive efforts to develop new treatments. GBM exhibits both intra- and intertumor heterogeneity, lending to resistance and eventual tumor recurrence. Large-scale genomic and proteomic analysis of GBM tumors has uncovered potential drug targets. Effective and "druggable" targets must be validated to embark on a robust medicinal chemistry campaign culminating in the discovery of clinical candidates...
July 2018: Pharmacological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668468/clinical-proteomics-in-kidney-disease-from-discovery-to-clinical-application
#12
Martin Pejchinovski, Harald Mischak
Proteome analysis has been applied in multiple studies in the context of chronic kidney disease, aiming at improving our knowledge on the molecular pathophysiology of the disease. The approach is generally based on the hypothesis that proteins are key in maintaining kidney function, and disease is a clinical consequence of a significant change of the protein level. Knowledge on critical proteins and their alteration in disease should in turn enable identification of ideal biomarkers that could guide patient management...
December 1, 2017: Prilozi (Makedonska Akademija Na Naukite i Umetnostite. Oddelenie za Medicinski Nauki)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#13
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667544/proteomic-markers-in-cervical-mucus
#14
Yolanda Fernandez-Hermida, Giuseppe Grande, Micaela Menarguez, Anna Laura Astorri, Rafael Azagra
Cervical Mucus (CM) is a viscous fluid produced by the cervical glands. It plays a key role in the transport and capacitation of sperm through the female genital tract. The CM undergoes modifications that make it have different biophysical and biochemical characteristics throughout the cycle, becoming an important element for the identification of ovulation. Since CM is rich in secreted proteins, it may represent moreover a source of putative biomarkers for female reproductive tract diseases. This review is an attempt to collect relevant knowledge about the physicochemical properties and functions of the cervical mucus, including its important role as a clinical marker of female fertility, and draws attention to CM as a source of potential proteomic biomarkers...
April 18, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667529/emerging-therapeutic-targets-for-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#15
James A Walker, Meena Upadhyaya
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is an autosomal dominantly inherited tumor predisposition syndrome with an incidence of one in 3000-4000 individuals with no currently effective therapies. The NF1 gene on chromosome 17 encodes neurofibromin, which functions as a negative regulator of RAS. NF1 is a chronic multi-system disorder affecting many different tissues. Due to cell-specific complexities of RAS signaling, therapeutic approaches for NF1 will likely have to focus on a particular tissue and manifestation of the disease...
April 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667236/recent-advances-in-matrix-assisted-laser-desorption-ionisation-mass-spectrometry-imaging-maldi-msi-for-in-situ-analysis-of-endogenous-molecules-in-plants
#16
Liang Qin, Yawen Zhang, Yaqin Liu, Huixin He, Manman Han, Yanyan Li, Maomao Zeng, Xiaodong Wang
INTRODUCTION: Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) as a label-free and powerful imaging technique enables in situ evaluation of a tissue metabolome and/or proteome, becoming increasingly popular in the detection of plant endogenous molecules. OBJECTIVE: The characterization of structure and spatial information of endogenous molecules in plants are both very important aspects to better understand the physiological mechanism of plant organism. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI) is a commonly-used tissue imaging technique, which requires matrix to assist in situ detection of a variety of molecules on the surface of a tissue section...
April 17, 2018: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662668/proteomic-biomarkers-in-body-fluids-associated-with-pancreatic-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Cristina Jimenez-Luna, Carolina Torres, Raul Ortiz, Carmelo Dieguez, Joaquina Martinez-Galan, Consolacion Melguizo, Jose C Prados, Octavio Caba
Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly malignant disease that represents the fourth leading cancer-related death worldwide. There has been very little improvement in survival rates over recent years, and surgical resection remains the only reliable curative approach. Factors that contribute to this dismal prognosis for PC include its rapid progression and invasion, the absence of specific symptoms, and the little impact of available chemotherapy. Importantly, the management of this malignancy is also limited by the lack of highly specific and sensitive biomarkers for its diagnosis and follow-up, and their identification is therefore considered a promising strategy to improve outcomes in these patients...
March 27, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662485/our-environment-shapes-us-the-importance-of-environment-and-sex-differences-in-regulation-of-autoantibody-production
#18
REVIEW
Michael Edwards, Rujuan Dai, S Ansar Ahmed
Consequential differences exist between the male and female immune systems' ability to respond to pathogens, environmental insults or self-antigens, and subsequent effects on immunoregulation. In general, females when compared with their male counterparts, respond to pathogenic stimuli and vaccines more robustly, with heightened production of antibodies, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and chemokines. While the precise reasons for sex differences in immune response to different stimuli are not yet well understood, females are more resistant to infectious diseases and much more likely to develop autoimmune diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660150/sample-preparation-in-foodomic-analyses
#19
REVIEW
Tamara Martinović, Martina Šrajer Gajdošik, Djuro Josić
Representative sampling and adequate sample preparation are key factors for successful performance of further steps in foodomic analyses, as well as for correct data interpretation. Incorrect sampling and improper sample preparation can be sources of severe bias in foodomic analyses. It is well known that both wrong sampling and sample treatment cannot be corrected anymore. These, in the past frequently neglected facts, are now taken into consideration, and the progress in sampling and sample preparation in foodomics is reviewed here...
April 16, 2018: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659820/recent-mouse-models-and-vaccine-candidates-for-preventing-chronic-latent-tuberculosis-infection-and-its-reactivation
#20
César Pedroza-Roldán, Mario Alberto Flores-Valdez
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major challenge in public health worldwide. Until today, the only widely used and approved vaccine is the Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG). This vaccine provides a highly variable level of protection against the active, pulmonary form of tuberculosis, and practically none against the latent form of TB infection. This disparity in protection has been extensively studied, and for this reason, several groups have focused their research on the quest for attenuated vaccines based on M...
August 31, 2017: Pathogens and Disease
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