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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149687/pyrrolidinyl-pna-polypyrrole-silver-nanofoam-electrode-as-a-novel-label-free-electrochemical-mirna-21-biosensor
#1
Tawatchai Kangkamano, Apon Numnuam, Warakorn Limbut, Proespichaya Kanatharana, Tirayut Vilaivan, Panote Thavarungkul
A label-free electrochemical miRNA biosensor was developed based on a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (acpcPNA)/polypyrrole (PPy)/silver nanofoam (AgNF) modified electrode. The AgNF was electrodeposited as redox indicator on a gold electrode, which was then functionalized with an electropolymerized layer of PPy, a conducting polymer, to immobilize the PNA probes. The fabrication process was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The biosensor was used to detect miRNA-21, a biomarker abnormally expressed in most cancers...
November 6, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149532/exploitation-of-micrornas-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-human-microglial-cells
#2
Meghana Rastogi, Neha Srivastava, Sunit K Singh
JEV infection in CNS leads to the JE neuroinflammation. Children and old age individual have been reported to be more prone to JEV infection. MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs, which regulate the gene expression. These are ∼22 nucleotide long, conserved RNA sequence that binds at the 3'UTR of a target mRNA and regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression. The role of microRNAs has been reported in several diseases like cancer, viral infection, neuro-degeneration, diabetes etc. In the present study, the human microglial cells were infected with JEV (JaOAr strain)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149410/tctp-in-neuronal-circuitry-assembly
#3
Cláudio Gouveia Roque, Christine E Holt
Although tctp expression in many areas of the human brain was reported more than 15 years ago, little was known about how it functions in neurons. The early notion that Tctp is primarily expressed in mitotic cells, together with reports suggesting a relative low abundance in the brain, has perhaps potentiated this almost complete disregard for the study of Tctp in the context of neuron biology. However, recent evidence has challenged this view, as a number of independent genome-wide profiling studies identified tctp mRNA among the most enriched in the axonal compartment across diverse neuronal populations, including embryonic retinal ganglion cells...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149408/function-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-organ-growth-lessons-from-drosophila-studies
#4
Kwang-Wook Choi, Sung-Tae Hong, Thao Phuong Le
Regulation of cell growth and proliferation is crucial for development and function of organs in all animals. Genetic defects in growth control can lead to developmental disorders and cancers. Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins implicated in cancer. Recent studies have revealed multiple roles of TCTP in diverse cellular events, but TCTP functions in vivo are poorly understood in vertebrate systems. We have used Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, as a model organism for genetic dissection of Tctp function...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#5
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149105/lgr5-expression-is-regulated-by-egf-in-early-colorectal-adenomas-and-governs-egfr-inhibitor-sensitivity
#6
R G Morgan, E Mortensson, D N Legge, B Gupta, T J Collard, A Greenhough, A C Williams
BACKGROUND: LGR5 serves as a co-receptor for Wnt/β-catenin signalling and marks normal intestinal stem cells; however, its role in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains controversial. LGR5(+) cells are known to exist outside the stem cell niche during CRC progression, and the requirement for epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling within early adenomas remains to be fully elucidated. METHODS: Epidermal growth factor and gefitinib treatments were performed in EGF-responsive LGR5(+) early adenoma RG/C2 cells...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149079/sphingosine-1-phosphate-s1p-signaling-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Shailaja Mahajan-Thakur, Sandra Bien-Möller, Sascha Marx, Henry Schroeder, Bernhard H Rauch
The multifunctional sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a lipid signaling molecule and central regulator in the development of several cancer types. In recent years, intriguing information has become available regarding the role of S1P in the progression of Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most aggressive and common brain tumor in adults. S1P modulates numerous cellular processes in GBM, such as oncogenesis, proliferation and survival, invasion, migration, metastasis and stem cell behavior. These processes are regulated via a family of five G-protein-coupled S1P receptors (S1PR1-5) and may involve mainly unknown intracellular targets...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148694/ambient-aqueous-synthesis-of-ultrasmall-ni0-85se-nanoparticles-for-non-invasive-photoacoustic-imaging-and-combined-photothermal-chemo-therapy-of-cancer
#8
Xianwen Wang, Fei Li, Xu Yan, Yan Ma, Zhaohua Miao, Liang Dong, Huajian Chen, Yang Lu, Zhengbao Zha
Big size induced long-term retention in the body has hampered the translational applications of many reported nanomedicine. Herein, we reported a multifunctional theranostic agent composed of ultrasmall polyacrylic acid functionalized Ni0.85Se nanoparticles (PAA-Ni0.85Se NPs), which were successfully obtained through a facile ambient aqueous precipitation strategy. Without exhibiting any noticeable toxicity, the as-prepared PAA-Ni0.85Se NPs (average diameter of 6.40 ± 1.89 nm) showed a considerable absorption in near-infrared (NIR) region and high photothermal conversion efficiency (PTCE) of 54...
November 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148603/mcp2-activates-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-promoting-the-migration-and-invasion-of-escc-cells
#9
Jian Zhou, Shutao Zheng, Tao Liu, Qing Liu, Yumei Chen, Doudou Tan, Rong Ma, Xiaomei Lu
MCP2, aliased CCL8, has been suggested to be implicated in the metastasis of cancer cells; however no direct evidence has been established in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In our present study, to investigate the role MCP2 played in the metastasis of ESCC cells; in vitro cell co-culture system was established. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were used to evaluate the migratory and invasive variation of ESCC cells before and after treatment with recombinant human MCP2. It was shown that MCP2 was able to activate the NF-κB signaling pathway inducing the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and promoting the migration and invasion of ESCC cells in vitro...
November 17, 2017: Cell Biology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148535/the-role-of-apc-in-wnt-pathway-activation-in-serrated-neoplasia
#10
Jennifer Borowsky, Troy Dumenil, Mark Bettington, Sally-Ann Pearson, Catherine Bond, Lochlan Fennell, Cheng Liu, Diane McKeone, Christophe Rosty, Ian Brown, Neal Walker, Barbara Leggett, Vicki Whitehall
Conventional adenomas are initiated by APC gene mutation that activates the WNT signal. Serrated neoplasia is commonly initiated by BRAF or KRAS mutation. WNT pathway activation may also occur, however, to what extent this is owing to APC mutation is unknown. We examined aberrant nuclear β-catenin immunolocalization as a surrogate for WNT pathway activation and analyzed the entire APC gene coding sequence in serrated and conventional pathway polyps and cancers. WNT pathway activation was a common event in conventional pathway lesions with aberrant nuclear immunolocalization of β-catenin and truncating APC mutations in 90% and 89% of conventional adenomas and 82% and 70% of BRAF wild-type cancers, respectively...
November 17, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148176/differential-proteomic-analysis-reveals-protein-networks-and-pathways-that-may-contribute-to-helicobacter-pylori-fkbp-type-ppiase-associated-gastric-diseases
#11
Yanmei Zhu, Yuehua Gong, Aodi Li, Moye Chen, Dan Kang, Jun Liu, Yuan Yuan
PURPOSE: Though Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been classified as class I carcinogen, key virulence factor generated by H. pylori that causes gastric cancer remains to be fully determined. Recently, we identified a gastric cancer-associated H. pylori gene, peptidylprolyl isomerase-FK506 binding protein (PPIase-FKBP), and showed that PPIase-FKBP was capable of inducing oncogenic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. But its mechanism was unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We carried out a comparative proteomic analysis of human gastric epithelial cells that either express PPIase-FKBP or green fluorescent protein (GFP) using two-dimensional (2-D) gel electrophoresis and then matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS/MS)...
November 16, 2017: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148169/antitumor-and-anti-metastatic-mechanisms-of-rhizoma-paridis-saponins-in-lewis-mice
#12
Shuli Man, Hongyan Chai, Jingxia Cui, Jingwen Yao, Long Ma, Wenyuan Gao
Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of death in the world. Rhizoma paridis saponins (RPS) have been found to show inhibition of pulmonary adenoma in previous research. However, the detailed mechanisms of RPS from a holistic view have not been established. In this study, Lewis pulmonary adenoma mice were successfully established to analyze the pathways involved in RPS intervening tumor formation and progression. As a result, RPS inhibited levels of cytokines or receptors such as VEGFD, VEGFR3, RAGE, IL6R, IL17BR, and CXCL16 which were regarded as the initiators induced tumor cell proliferation, adhesion, angiogenesis, and invasion...
November 17, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148109/notch-signaling-controls-transdifferentiation-of-pulmonary-neuroendocrine-cells-in-response-to-lung-injury
#13
Erica Yao, Chuwen Lin, Qingzhe Wu, Kuan Zhang, Hai Song, Pao-Tien Chuang
Production of an appropriate number of distinct cell types in precise locations during embryonic development is critical for proper tissue function. Homeostatic renewal or repair of damaged tissues in adults also requires cell expansion and transdifferentiation to replenish lost cells. However, the responses of diverse cell types to tissue injury are not fully elucidated. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms underlying transdifferentiation remain poorly understood. This knowledge is essential for harnessing the regenerative potential of individual cell types...
November 16, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147906/regulation-of-signal-transduction-by-dj-1
#14
Stephanie E Oh, M Maral Mouradian
The ability of DJ-1 to modulate signal transduction has significant effects on how the cell regulates normal processes such as growth, senescence, apoptosis, and autophagy to adapt to changing environmental stimuli and stresses. Perturbations of DJ-1 levels or function can disrupt the equilibrium of homeostatic signaling networks and set off cascades that play a role in the pathogenesis of conditions such as cancer and Parkinson's disease.DJ-1 plays a major role in various pathways. It mediates cell survival and proliferation by activating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147904/the-multifaceted-roles-of-dj-1-as-an-antioxidant
#15
Prahlad V Raninga, Giovanna Di Trapani, Kathryn F Tonissen
The DJ-1 protein was originally linked with Parkinson's disease and is now known to have antioxidant functions. The protein has three redox-sensitive cysteine residues, which are involved in its dimerisation and functional properties. A mildly oxidised form of DJ-1 is the most active form and protects cells from oxidative stress conditions. DJ-1 functions as an antioxidant through a variety of mechanisms, including a weak direct antioxidant activity by scavenging reactive oxygen species. DJ-1 also regulates a number of signalling pathways, including the inhibition of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-induced apoptosis under oxidative stress conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147899/introduction-overview
#16
Hiroyoshi Ariga, Sanae M M Iguchi-Ariga
The DJ-1 gene is an oncogene and also causative gene for a familial form of Parkinson disease. Although exits of cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease, are completely opposite, there are some common points of view between both diseases, including growth and death signaling pathways, and oxidative stresses affect the onset and pathogenesis of both cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. DJ-1 has versatile functions and plays a role in protection against oxidative stress. Inactivation and/or excess activation of DJ-1 functions, therefore, leads to onsets of oxidative stress-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and male infertility in addition to cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, and studies about DJ-1 will give rise to the common mechanism among these diseases...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147673/the-regulation-of-snail-on-the-ubiquitin-edge
#17
Qian Yu, Binhua P Zhou, Yadi Wu
Metastasis accounts for a majority of cancer death. One key feature during metastasis is epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by transcription factors such as Snail and Twist. In non-malignant cells, Snail has a short half-life and is degraded via ubiquitination, but its stability is increased in cancer cell. However, the mechanism by which Snail escapes ubiquitination and degradation remains unknown. Recently, we found that Dub3 is a deubiquinase of Snail. Most importantly, we determined that Dub3 responded to extracellular signals such as IL-6, and that the resultant signaling prevented Snail degradation, and promoted cancer growth, invasion, and migration...
2017: Cancer Cell & Microenvironment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147649/knockdown-of-sirt1-suppresses-bladder-cancer-cell-proliferation-and-migration-and-induces-cell-cycle-arrest-and-antioxidant-response-through-foxo3a-mediated-pathways
#18
Qingxuan Hu, Gang Wang, Jianping Peng, Guofeng Qian, Wei Jiang, Conghua Xie, Yu Xiao, Xinghuan Wang
Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common tumors, but its underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. Our transcriptome analysis suggested a close link of Sirtuins, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR), cell cycle regulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, and Forkhead Box Class O (FOXO) signaling pathway in BCa. SIRT1 is a key member of Sirtuins, playing important roles in aging and energy metabolism, which has been reported to be involved in various metabolic diseases and tumors...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147629/trial-watch-immune-checkpoint-blockers-for-cancer-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Claire Vanpouille-Box, Claire Lhuillier, Lucillia Bezu, Fernando Aranda, Takahiro Yamazaki, Oliver Kepp, Jitka Fucikova, Radek Spisek, Sandra Demaria, Silvia C Formenti, Laurence Zitvogel, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs) are literally revolutionizing the clinical management of an ever more diversified panel of oncological indications. Although considerable attention persists around the inhibition of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) and programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1, best known as PD-1) signaling, several other co-inhibitory T-cell receptors are being evaluated as potential targets for the development of novel ICBs. Moreover, substantial efforts are being devoted to the identification of biomarkers that reliably predict the likelihood of each patient to obtain clinical benefits from ICBs in the absence of severe toxicity...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147627/stat1-gene-deficient-mice-develop-accelerated-breast-cancer-growth-and-metastasis-which-is-reduced-by-il-17-blockade
#20
Sanjay Varikuti, Steve Oghumu, Mohamad Elbaz, Greta Volpedo, Dinesh K Ahirwar, Pablo C Alarcon, Rachel H Sperling, Ellen Moretti, Marissa S Pioso, Jennifer Kimble, Mohd W Nasser, Ramesh K Ganju, Cesar Terrazas, Abhay R Satoskar
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) mediates interferon gamma signaling which activates the expression of various genes related to apoptosis, inflammation, cell cycle and angiogenesis. Several experimental and clinical studies have investigated the role of STAT1 in primary tumor growth in breast cancer; however, its role in tumor metastasis remains to be determined. To determine the role of STAT1 in breast cancer metastasis, we analyzed growth and metastasis in WT or STAT1(-/-) mice orthotopically implanted with metastatic 4T1...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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