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staphylococcus bacteremia

Xiqi Li, Cesar A Arias, Samuel L Aitken, Jessica Galloway Peña, Diana Panesso, Michael Chang, Lorena Diaz, Rafael Rios, Yazan Numan, Sammi Ghaoui, Sruti DebRoy, Micah M Bhatti, Dawn E Simmons, Isaam Raad, Ray Hachem, Stephanie A Folan, Pranoti Sahasarabhojane, Awdhesh Kalia, Samuel A Shelburne
Background: Pathobionts, bacteria that are typically human commensals but can cause disease, contribute significantly to antimicrobial resistance. Staphylococcus epidermidis is a prototypical pathobiont as it is a ubiquitous human commensal but also a leading cause of healthcare-associated bacteremia. We sought to determine the etiology of a recent increase in invasive S. epidermidis isolates resistant to linezolid. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on 176 S...
March 12, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Hassan Al Moussawi, Michael Krzyzak, Zainab Awada, Jean M Chalhoub
A brain abscess is defined as a focal intracerebral infection consisting of an encapsulated collection of pus, which can be a life-threatening complication of infections, trauma, or surgery. While immunocompromised patients can have a wide array of causative organisms, bacterial species represent the most common etiology in immunocompetent individuals. The incidence of brain abscesses ranges from 0.4 to 0.9 per 100,000, with a high predisposition among immunocompromised patients and in those with disruption of the blood-brain barrier...
January 13, 2018: Curēus
Shuguang Li, Shijun Sun, Chentao Yang, Hongbin Chen, Yuyao Yin, Henan Li, Chunjiang Zhao, Hui Wang
To investigate the epidemiology and genetic structure of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia in China, a total of 416 isolates from 22 teaching hospitals in 12 cities from 2013 and 2016 were characterized by antibiogram analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST), spa typing and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCC mec ) typing. The predominant meticillin-susceptible (MSSA) genotypes in 2013 were ST188 (19.1%), ST7 (8.7%), and ST398 (7.8%), respectively, and they continued to be the main genotypes in 2016...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
James B Wood, Gregory P Fricker, C Buddy Creech
We conducted a survey of pediatric infectious diseases providers in the Emerging Infections Network regarding the workup and treatment of children with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB). We found significant practice variation in the management of children with SAB. These findings emphasize the need for further research to guide best practices.
March 8, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Eric Y Kok, Jesus G Vallejo, Lauren M Sommer, Louie Rosas, Sheldon L Kaplan, Kristina G Hulten, J Chase McNeil
Background : Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), particularly those belonging to the USA300 pulsotype, have been well described to cause severe osteoarticular infections (OAI). Vancomycin MIC ≥ 1.5 μg/ml has been demonstrated to contribute to disease severity in adults with MRSA and even MSSA bacteremia. Little data exists describing the outcomes of MSSA OAI in terms of molecular characteristics and vancomycin MIC. Methods : All patients/isolates were chosen from a surveillance study at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH)...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marguerite L Monogue, Jessica K Ortwine, Wenjing Wei, Khalid Eljaaly, Kavita P Bhavan
BACKGROUND: Anti-staphylococcal penicillins have long been the first-line treatment option for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) infections. Recent retrospective data comparing nafcillin and cefazolin report similar clinical efficacy despite concerns about high inoculum MSSA infections. METHODS: This was a retrospective, non-inferiority, cohort study comparing treatment failure rates between nafcillin and cefazolin in patients with MSSA bacteremia from any source, other than meningitis...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Public Health
Nicolas Allou, Hugo Lo Pinto, Romain Persichini, Bruno Bouchet, Eric Braunberger, Nathalie Lugagne, Olivier Belmonte, Olivier Martinet, Benjamin Delmas, Laurence Dangers, Jérôme Allyn
Little is known about cannula-related infection (CRI) in patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, the risk factors, prognosis, and microbiological characteristics of CRI in patients supported by ECMO. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in one intensive care unit (ICU). Among 220 consecutive patients with peripheral ECMO, 39 (17.7%) developed CRI. The incidence of CRI was 17.2 per 1,000 ECMO days. The main isolated microorganisms were Enterobacteriaceae (38%), Staphylococcus spp...
March 5, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
N Jung, S Rieg
AIMS: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection is one of the most common serious bacterial infections worldwide. It represents a heterogenous clinical entity with a high risk of metastatic complications and a high in-hospital mortality ranging between 20 and 30%. The outcome can be improved by optimised diagnostic and therapeutic management. Thus, our minireview should provide important and often missed pieces of information in the management of S. aureus bloodstream infection. METHODS: We describe the essentials in the management of S...
March 6, 2018: Infection
Nicolas Cortes-Penfield, Nora T Oliver, Andrew Hunter, Maria Rodriguez-Barradas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Chien-Fang Fu, Jiun-Da Huang, Jann-Tay Wang, Shu-Wen Lin, Chien-Chih Wu
BACKGROUND: Vancomycin is a standard treatment for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia, and its efficacy is closely linked to the recommended serum trough concentration of 15-20 mg/L. However, it is unknown how the pre-dialysis trough serum concentration (Cpre-HD) correlates with MRSA eradication in renal failure patients undergoing intermittent hemodialysis (HD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between Cpre-HD and the treatment outcomes in this population...
2018: PloS One
J S Davis, J Turnidge, S Y C Tong
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Antistaphylococcal penicillins (ASPs) are recommended as first line treatment for invasive infections caused by methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA). Cefazolin is an alternative option, but there is theoretical concern about using it due to the fact that some MSSA strains produce beta-lactamases active against cefazolin. We aimed to compare outcomes from patients with MSSA infections treated with flucloxacillin and cefazolin. METHODS: We analysed data from The Australia and New Zealand Co-operative Outcomes of Staphylococcal Sepsis (ANZCOSS) observational study, which included all consecutive unique episodes of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia from 27 hospital-based or independent microbiology laboratories from January 2007 to September 2013...
February 27, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Dimitra Kalemaki
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteriuria (SABU) concomitant to S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) has been associated with deep-seated infections and worse prognosis. However, the relevant studies were small and inconsistent. Here, we aim to provide a review of the relevant literature, and a meta-analysis of these studies. METHODS: We searched PubMed and Scopus for studies comparing patients with SAB and concomitant SABU to patients with SAB without SABU. RESULTS: Nine relevant studies were identified, involving 1429 patients with SAB, of whom 18...
February 28, 2018: Infectious Diseases
Assiya El Kettani, Fakhreddine Maaloum, Idrissa Diawara, Khalid Katfy, Nadia Harrar, Khalid Zerouali, Houria Belabbes, Naima Elmdaghri
Background and Objectives: Acinetobacter baumannii bacteremia are grave because of the multi-resistance of the organism to antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of A. baumannii isolated from blood cultures and to describe their antibiotic resistance patterns. Materials and Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on blood cultures between 2010 and 2014 from all Ibn Rochd University Hospital intensive care units; it was based on the exploitation of microbiology laboratory database (duplicates were excluded)...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
Elena Espejo, Marta Andrés, Rosa-Maria Borrallo, Emma Padilla, Enric Garcia-Restoy, Feliu Bella
The objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical and microbiological characteristics of bacteremia associated with pressure ulcers (BAPU) and factors associated with mortality. This study was a prospective observational cohort study of patients with BAPU at a teaching hospital between January 1984 and December 2015. Fifty-six episodes were included. The incidence of BAPU decreased from 2.78 cases per 10,000 hospital discharges in the period from 1984 to 1999 to 1.05 cases per 10,000 hospital discharges in the period from 2000 to 2015 (p < 0...
February 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Cesar A Arias, Jinnethe Reyes, Lina Paola Carvajal, Sandra Rincon, Lorena Diaz, Diana Panesso, Gabriel Ibarra, Rafael Rios, Jose M Munita, Mauro J Salles, Carlos Alvarez-Moreno, Jaime Labarca, Coralith Garcia, Carlos M Luna, Carlos Mejia-Villatoro, Jeannete Zurita, Manuel Guzman-Blanco, Eduardo Rodriguez-Noriega, Apurva Narechania, Laura J Rojas, Paul J Planet, George M Weinstock, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Carlos Seas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Trang D Trinh, Evan J Zasowski, Kimberly C Claeys, Anthony M Casapao, Matthew Compton, Abdalhamid Lagnf, Shravya D Kidambi, Donald P Levine, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Vancomycin remains the standard of care for invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Treatment failures from heteroresistant vancomycin-intermediate subpopulations (hVISA) are challenging to detect. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) identified by modified population analysis profile (PAP) is an alternative testing method. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of PAP MIC on vancomycin failures in two high inoculum infections: MRSA infective endocarditis and pneumonia...
February 22, 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Sara Cajander, Gunlög Rasmussen, Elisabet Tina, Anders Magnuson, Bo Söderquist, Jan Källman, Kristoffer Strålin
OBJECTIVE: In the pathogenesis of sepsis, activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory responses are key components, but knowledge is lacking on the association between bacterial etiology and development of dysregulated responses with sustained immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the immunosupression marker HLA-DR on monocytes (mHLA-DR) is associated with bacterial etiology and markers of inflammation during the clinical trajectory of bloodstream infection (BSI)...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin H Gern, Alexander L Greninger, Scott J Weissman, Jennifer R Stapp, Yue Tao, Xuan Qin
OBJECTIVES: In vitro trends of cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities from pediatric clinical isolates of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) between 2011 and 2016 were analyzed for surveillance. METHODS: Our laboratory continues to use agar disk diffusion for staphylococcal susceptibilities applying Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute's 2012 breakpoints. RESULTS: A total of 3992 MSSA clinical isolates in the last 6 years were analyzed for their in vitro cefazolin and ceftriaxone susceptibilities...
February 20, 2018: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
Joshua T Freeman, Matthew R Blakiston, Deverick J Anderson
The correlations between census-derived sociodemographic variables and hospital-onset methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (HO-MRSAB) rates were examined at the US state level. On multivariable analysis, only percent African American remained statistically significant. This finding highlights an important disparity and suggests that risk adjustment is needed when comparing HO-MRSAB rates among US states. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-3.
February 19, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Akinori Maeda, Isaku Saku, Shotaro Kanda, Kazuo Saita, Toru Akiyama
INTRODUCTION: Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is a rare condition, usually affecting children after trauma or muscular effort. Blood cultures always yield positive findings, with Staphylococcus aureus being the most common culprit. There are few reports in adults. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report a case of OIM abscess in an adult. A 24-year-old male was admitted to our hospital because of right hip pain and fever. He was diagnosed with OIM abscess, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was detected on bacterial examination...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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