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Wan Jung Kim, Keith Korthals, Suhua Li, Christine Le, Jaroslaw Kalisiak, K Barry Sharpless, Valery V Fokin, Yukiko Miyamoto, Lars Eckmann
Giardia lamblia is an important and ubiquitous cause of diarrheal disease. The primary agents in the treatment of giardiasis are nitroheterocyclic drugs, particularly the imidazoles metronidazole and tinidazole, and the thiazole, nitazoxanide. Although these drugs are generally effective, treatment failures occur in up to 20% of cases and resistance has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. Prior work had suggested that side chain modifications of the imidazole core can lead to effective new 5-nitroimidazole drugs that can combat nitro drug resistance, but the full potential of nitroheterocycles other than imidazole to yield effective new antigiardial agents has not been explored...
April 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Camila Braz Menezes, Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomoniasis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease (STD) in the world. Transmission: Trichomoniasis is transmitted by sexual intercourse and transmission via fomites is rare. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The WHO estimates an incidence of 276 million new cases each year and prevalence of 187 million of infected individuals. However, the infection is not notifiable. Pathology/Symptomatology: The T. vaginalis infection results in a variety of clinical manifestations - in most cases the patients are asymptomatic, but some may develop signs typically associated to the disease...
June 27, 2016: Microbial Cell
Diogo Branquinho, Nuno Almeida, Carlos Gregório, José Eduardo Pina Cabral, Adriano Casela, Maria Manuel Donato, Luís Tomé
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori eradication rates in Portugal are declining, due to increased resistance of this bacterium to antimicrobial agents, especially Clarithromycin. Quadruple Levofloxacin-containing regimens could be an option for first-line treatment, but its efficacy should be evaluated as fluoroquinolone resistance is rapidly increasing. Our aim was to compare the efficacy of Clarithromycin and Levofloxacin-based sequential quadruple therapies as first-line treatment options and determine factors associated with treatment failure...
February 15, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
Shuwen Yan, Bo Yao, Lushi Lian, Xinchen Lu, Shane A Snyder, Rui Li, Weihua Song
The photochemical transformation of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) in wastewater effluents is an emerging concern for environmental scientists. In the current study, the photodegradation of 29 PPCPs was examined in effluents under simulated solar irradiation. Direct photodegradation, triplet state effluent organic matter ((3)EfOM*)-mediated and hydroxyl radical (HO(•))-mediated degradation are three major pathways in the removal process. With the photodegradation of trace levels of PPCPs, the excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence intensities of the effluents were also gradually reduced...
February 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Rajbir Singh, Srinivas S Ramachandra, Jithendra K Dayakara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
Indu M Raja, Asha Basavareddy, Deepali Mukherjee, Bikash Ranjan Meher
OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and tolerability of oral metronidazole and tinidazole in patients with bacterial vaginosis (BV) using Amsel's criteria. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind study, conducted by the Departments of Pharmacology and Gynecology of a tertiary care teaching hospital. Patients diagnosed with BV received either tablet metronidazole 500 mg twice daily for 5 days or tablet tinidazole 500 mg once daily + one placebo for 5 days and instructed to come for follow-up at the 1(st) week and 4(th) week...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Kamila Mitrowska, Maja Antczak
In this study, a new method for the determination of 12 nitroimidazoles and their hydroxymetabolites (metronidazole, hydroxymetronidazole, dimetridazole, ronidazole, hydroxydimetridazole, ipronidazole, hydroxyipronidazole, carnidazole, ornidazole, secnidazole, ternidazole, tinidazole) in beeswax has been developed and validated. The optimized sample preparation procedure included melting and dilution of beeswax in a mixture of n-hexane and isopropanol followed by extraction with 2% acetic acid. The extracts were purified on strong cation exchange based solid-phase extraction cartridges and evaporated in a vacuum system with vortex motion...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Nan Lu, Ting Wang, Pan Zhao, Lianjun Zhang, Xiaowen Lun, Xueli Zhang, Xiaohong Hou
In the presented work, metal-organic framework (MOF) material MIL-101(Cr) (MIL, Matérial Institute Lavoisier) was used as a sorbent for vortex assisted dispersive micro-solid-phase extraction (VA-D-μ-SPE) of trace amount of metronidazole (MNZ), ronidazole (RNZ), secnidazole (SNZ), dimetridazole (DMZ), tinidazole (TNZ), and ornidazole (ONZ) in different environmental water samples. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was used to quantify the target analytes...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Nitya Sarjapuram, Niharika Mekala, Meetali Singh, Utpal Tatu
Travellers' diarrhoea caused by enteric protozoa like Entamoeba histolytica is among the most common protozoan diseases in developing countries. In developing countries, amoebiasis is the second most prevalent protozoan disease. This protozoan parasite is often known to coexist as a part of the normal gut microbiota. It is estimated that around 50-60 % of population in developing countries might be harbouring Entamoeba in an asymptomatic manner. Due to physiological perturbation or upon immuno-compromise, it can become virulent and then cause diarrhoea, bloody stools and may invade other organs if left untreated...
October 5, 2016: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Daniele Maria Knupp de Souza, Claudio Galuppo Diniz, Didier Silveira Castellano Filho, Laura Maria Andrade de Oliveira, Débora Martins Coelho, Luciana De Souza Talha, Thiago César do Nascimento, Alessandra Barbosa Ferreira-Machado, Vânia Lúcia da Silva
INTRODUCTION: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a syndrome related to Gardnerella vaginalis and is characterized by an imbalance in the vaginal microbiota. This work focused on the evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the occurrence of the vaginolysin (vly) gene in G. vaginalis isolated from BV and non-BV patients. METHODOLOGY: The vaginal secretions were collected randomly and processed for G. vaginalis isolation. The isolates were presumptively identified by β-hemolysis and oxidase and catalase tests...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
Dariana Pimentel Gomes Hübner, Patrícia de Brum Vieira, Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Camila Braz Menezes, Franciane Rios Senger, Gloria Narjara Santos da Silva, Simone Cristina Baggio Gnoatto, Tiana Tasca
Caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, trichomoniasis is the most common non-viral STD worldwide. Currently, metronidazole and tinidazole are the only drugs approved for treatment of the condition. However, problems such as metronidazole-resistant T. vaginalis isolates and allergic reactions have been reported. Based on data previously published by our group, structural changes in betulinic acid (1) were performed, generating three new compounds that were tested for in vitro anti-T.vaginalis activity in this study...
December 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jin Guan, Chi Zhang, Yang Wang, Yiguang Guo, Peiting Huang, Longshan Zhao
A new analytical method was developed for simultaneous determination of 12 pharmaceuticals using ultrasound-assisted dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Six nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, ketoprofen, mefenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, naproxen, sulindac, and piroxicam) and six antibiotics (tinidazole, cefuroxime axetil, ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadiazine, and chloramphenicol) were extracted by ultrasound-assisted DLLME using dichloromethane (800 μL) and methanol/acetonitrile (1:1, v/v, 1200 μL) as the extraction and dispersive solvents, respectively...
November 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Amol P Muthal, Supada R Rojatkar, Subhash Laxmanrao Bodhankar
BACKGROUND: γ-oryzanol is a major bioactive constituent in rice. Most of the literature reports isolation of 24-methylenecycloartanyl ferulate (24-mCAF) from rice bran oil (RBO) of other than Indian variety. Current research has successfully applied high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method for isolation of 24-mCAF from Indian variety (Indrayani) of RBO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: HPTLC method was developed for standard γ-oryzanol using tinidazole as an internal standard...
May 2016: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Jianfei Tao, Ling Mao, Bailun Zhou, Qun Liu, Aigang Yang, Guobing Wei, Runhui Liu, Wei-Dong Zhang, Wen Xu, Ji Ye
A sensitive and reliable bioanalytical method was established for quantitati\ve and pharmacokinetic investigation of nine ginsenosides and seven bufadienolides in rat plasma after the oral administration of Shexiang Baoxin Pill by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, using tinidazole and digoxin as internal standards (ISTDs). All of the analytes and ISTDs obtained satisfactory recoveries by solid-phase extraction using an Oasis HLB μElution Plate, which was eluted with methanol and ethyl acetate successively, and chromatographic separation was achieved on a Shim-pack XR-ODSIIcolumn (75 × 2...
March 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Jie Feng, Wanliang Shi, Shuo Zhang, David Sullivan, Paul G Auwaerter, Ying Zhang
Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Noha Ferrah, Karin Leder, Katherine Gibney
BACKGROUND: Thirty to seventy per cent of overseas travellers experience traveller's diarrhoea (TD), a potential cause of serious gastrointestinal (GI) sequelae. However, there is limited evidence on the optimal management of TD. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this article are to characterise the aetiologies and management of returned travellers with ongoing GI symptoms referred to a specialist infectious diseases service. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients referred to the Victorian Infectious Disease Service (VIDS) in 2013-15 with a history of overseas travel and GI symptoms present for longer than two weeks...
May 2016: Australian Family Physician
Yosef Nikodimos, Meareg Amare
Cyclic voltammetric investigation of metronidazole at carbon paste electrode revealed an irreversible reduction peak centered at about -0.4 V. Observed peak potential shift with pH in the range 2.0 to 8.5 indicated the involvement of protons during the reduction of metronidazole, whereas the peak potential shift with scan rate in the range 10-250 mV/s confirmed the irreversibility of the reduction reaction. A better correlation coefficient for the dependence of peak current on the scan rate than on the square root of scan rate indicated an adsorption controlled kinetics...
2016: Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry
Braj Gaurav Sharma, Neeraj Kumar, Dhruv Kumar Nishad, Naveen K Khare, Aseem Bhatnagar
Tinidazole is a versatile anti-amoebic and anti-anaerobic drug used in treatment of intestinal infection. The aim of present study was to develop and evaluate a guar gum based novel target release Tinidazole matrix tablet in animal models and healthy human volunteer using Gamma Scintigraphy technique. Anti-anaerobic and anti-protozoal activity of the developed formulation was studied in vitro against Bacteroides fragilis and Dentamoeba fragilis. Tinidazole was successful radiolabelled with (99m)Tc-pertechnetate using stannous chloride as a reducing agent and stable up to 24h in normal saline and serum...
June 30, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Atieh Makhlough, Hafez Fakheri, Samaneh Hojati, Vahid Hosseini, Zohreh Bari
BACKGROUND The prevalence of peptic ulcer disease in hemodialysis patients is more than the general population. They are also more prone to complications including upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of 14 days hybrid regimen with 14 days triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) eradication in hemodialysis patients. METHODS Forty hemodialysis patients with naïve H.pylori infection were randomized to receive either hybrid regimen (pantoprazole 40 mg + amoxicillin 500 mg, both twice a day during the first 7 days, followed by pantoprazole 40 mg + amoxicillin 500 mg + clarithromycin 500 mg + tinidazole 500 mg, all twice a day, for the second 7 days, or standard triple therapy including pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and amoxicillin 500 mg, all twice a day for 14 days...
January 2016: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
F Franceschi, V Ojetti, M Gabrielli, C Petruzziello, A Tortora, G Gasbarrini, L R Lopetuso, F Scaldaferri, A Gasbarrini
OBJECTIVE: Helicobater (H.) pylori eradication rates with standard first-line triple therapy have declined to unacceptable levels. To date, amoxicillin-resistant H. pylori strains have rarely been detected. Whether increasing the dosage of amoxicillin in a standard 7 days eradicating regimen may enhance its efficacy is not known. The aim of this paper is to compare the efficacy of a 7 days high-dose amoxicillin based first-line regimen with sequential therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We have retrospectively analyzed data from 300 sex and age matched patients, who underwent 3 different therapeutic schemes: (1) standard LCA, lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1000 mg bid for 7 days; (2) high dose LCA (HD-LCA), lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and amoxicillin 1000 mg tid for 7 days; (3) sequential LACT, lansoprazole 30 mg bid plus amoxicillin 1000 mg bid for 5 days, followed by lansoprazole 30 mg bid, clarithromycin 500 mg bid and tinidazole 500 mg bid for 5 days...
2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
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