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kidney transplantation MRI

Alexandra Ljimani, Hans-Jörg Wittsack, Rotem S Lanzman
Renal transplantation is the therapy of choice for patients with end-stage renal diseases. Improvement of immunosuppressive therapy has significantly increased the half-life of renal allografts over the past decade. Nevertheless, complications can still arise. An early detection of allograft dysfunction is mandatory for a good outcome. New advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the noninvasive assessment of different functional renal parameters in addition to anatomic imaging. Most of these techniques were widely tested on renal allografts in past decades and a lot of clinical data are available...
March 19, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
A C Van Erp, R A Rebolledo, D Hoeksma, N R Jespersen, P J Ottens, R Nørregaard, M Pedersen, C Laustsen, J G M Burgerhof, J C Wolters, J Ciapaite, H E Bøtker, H G D Leuvenink, B Jespersen
Hepatic and renal energy status prior to transplantation correlates with graft survival. However, effects of brain death (BD) on organ-specific energy status are largely unknown. We studied metabolism, perfusion, oxygen consumption, and mitochondrial function in the liver and kidneys following BD. BD was induced in mechanically-ventilated rats, inflating an epidurally-placed Fogarty-catheter, with sham-operated rats as controls. A 9.4T-preclinical MRI system measured hourly oxygen availability (BOLD-related R2*) and perfusion (T1-weighted)...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tuck Yean Yong, Kareeann Sok Fun Khow
Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) refers to spontaneous ischemic necrosis of skeletal muscle among people with diabetes mellitus, unrelated to arterial occlusion. People with DMI may have coexisting end-stage renal disease (ESRD) but little is known about its epidemiology and clinical outcomes in this setting. This scoping review seeks to investigate the characteristics, clinical features, diagnostic evaluation, management and outcomes of DMI among people with ESRD. Electronic database (PubMed/MEDLINE, CINAHL, SCOPUS and EMBASE) searches were conducted for ("diabetic muscle infarction" or "diabetic myonecrosis") and ("chronic kidney disease" or "renal impairment" or "dialysis" or "renal replacement therapy" or "kidney transplant") from January 1980 to June 2017...
March 6, 2018: World Journal of Nephrology
Yuan Xie, Yanjun Li, Jiqiu Wen, Xue Li, Zhe Zhang, Jianrui Li, Yan'e Zhao, Peng Wang, Jun Zhang, Ying Tian, Long Jiang Zhang, Guang Ming Lu
Objective: To determine the feasibility of reduced field-of-view diffusion-weighted imaging (rFOV DWI) with multi-b values to detect functional variability in transplanted kidneys. Materials and Methods: Using a 3T MRI scanner, multi-b rFOV DWI of transplanted kidney or native kidney was performed in 40 renal transplantation recipients and 18 healthy volunteers. The patients were stratified, according to an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR): Group 1, eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1...
March 2018: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Giuliano Ramadori, Patrizia Bosio, Federico Moriconi, Ihtzaz A Malik
BACKGROUND: After orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), recurrent HCC mostly develops within 2 years. All cases of de novo HCC described so far occurred later than 2 years after OLT. Prevention of post-transplantation HCC has usually been tried to achieve by curing or controlling recurrent liver disease. This has been rationale for treatment with interferon (IFN)/ribavirin of HCV-recurrence in patients after OLT, transplanted for advanced HCV-induced liver disease and/or HCC...
March 6, 2018: BMC Cancer
Ghaneh Fananapazir, Christoph Troppmann
Vascular complications are a significant source of morbidity and mortality among renal transplant recipients. Imaging using ultrasound, CT, and MRI plays a key role in diagnosing such complications. This review focuses on the major vascular complications of renal grafts, which include transplant renal arterial and venous stenoses, arterial and venous thromboses, arteriovenous fistulas, and pseudoaneurysms. Etiology, diagnostic modalities useful for diagnosis, and imaging appearance will be presented.
March 3, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Erum A Hartung, Guray Erus, Abbas F Jawad, Nina Laney, Jimit J Doshi, Stephen R Hooper, Jerilynn Radcliffe, Christos Davatzikos, Susan L Furth
BACKGROUND: The neuroanatomic basis for cognitive impairment in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is incompletely characterized. We performed advanced quantitative structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether CKD affects brain structure and whether poorer neurocognitive performance in CKD is associated with structural brain differences. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 85 individuals with CKD stages 2 to 5 and 63 healthy controls, aged 8 to 25 years PREDICTORS: CKD versus control, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and kidney transplant status were analyzed as predictors of MRI findings...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Christian Nusshag, Christian Morath, Martin Zeier, Markus A Weigand, Uta Merle, Thorsten Brenner
RATIONALE: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease entity primarily described in children, but not less relevant in adults. It is characterized by a misdirected activation of the immune system, resulting in an uncontrolled cytokine release from macrophages and cytotoxic T-cells (CTLs). Primary HLH relies on a genetic predisposition, whereas secondary HLH develops in the context of infections, malignancies or autoimmune diseases. However, the awareness and therapeutic knowledge for HLH in adulthood is limited...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Emin Deger, Azim Celik, Hamad Dheir, Volkan Turunc, Ahmet Yardimci, Mert Torun, Mutlu Cihangiroglu
Background Renal allograft dysfunction monitoring is mainly performed using the serum creatinine (SC) level, Doppler ultrasound (US), or renal biopsy. Recently proposed diffusion-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods have been explored as new, non-invasive tools for assessing renal function after transplantation. Purpose To investigate the value of fractional anisotropy (FA) measurements in the evaluation of acute rejection cases after renal transplant. Material and Methods Doppler US and MRI diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 21 patients with graft dysfunction requiring graft biopsy after renal transplantation and in 21 patients with normal graft function...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
Rolf H Christensen, Torbjörn Lundgren, Peter Stenvinkel, Torkel B Brismar
BACKGROUND: No gold standard exists for renal volumetry in vivo. PURPOSE: To devise and evaluate segmentation methods on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five combinations of MRI pulse sequences and measuring methods were used to measure the renal volumes of five men aged 54-72 years scanned before autologous renal stem cell transplantation and three, six, and 12 months post transplantation. RESULTS: Renal volume did not change after stem cell transplantation...
September 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
Elizabeth Hollis, Mohamed Shehata, Mohamed Abou El-Ghar, Mohammed Ghazal, Tarek El-Diasty, Michael Merchant, Andrew E Switala, Ayman El-Baz
OBJECTIVE: The main goal of this study is to determine which parameters [e.g. clinical biomarkers, demographics and image-markers using 4D (3D + b-value) diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI)] are more correlated with transplanted kidney status in patients who have undergone kidney transplantation, and can be used for early assessment of acute renal rejection. METHODS: The study included 16 patients with stable graft function and 37 patients with acute rejection (AR), determined by renal biopsy post-transplantation...
December 2017: British Journal of Radiology
Susan Francis, Charlotte E Buchanan, Ben Prestwich, Maarten W Taal
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the recent technological advances in quantitative sodium (Na) MRI to provide a noninvasive measure of tissue viability for use in clinical studies of patients with kidney disease. Na MRI is the only noninvasive imaging technique that allows for the absolute spatial quantification of tissue sodium concentration (TSC), providing assessment of the corticomedullary sodium gradient (CMSG) in the kidney, and allowing measures of TSC in the skin and muscle...
November 2017: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Michael Kehrer, Sebastian Koob, Andreas Strauss, Dieter Christian Wirtz, Jan Schmolders
Background Multiple myeloma is a haematological blood cancer of the bone marrow and is classified by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a plasma cell neoplasm. In multiple myeloma, normal plasma cells transform into malignant myeloma cells and produce large quantities of an abnormal immunoglobulin called monoclonal protein or M protein. This ultimately causes multiple myeloma symptoms such as bone damage or kidney problems. The annual worldwide incidence of multiple myeloma is estimated to be 6 - 7/100,000 and accounts for 1% of all cancer...
October 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Samar Biswas, Neelanjana Paul, Shyamal K Das
Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal genetic disorder characterized by excessive copper deposition initially in liver (hepatic variant) followed by brain (neuropsychiatric variant) and other organs such as cornea and kidney due to defect in biliary copper excretion. Predominant presentations of neuropsychiatric variant are extrapyramidal motor dysfunctions such as dystonias, Parkinsonism, choreoathetosis, tremor, and ataxias. Nonmotor symptoms (NMS) can appear before clinical disease expression and during ongoing disease process...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
Suzan Dahdal, Robert Kalicki, Niklaus Von Steiger, Parham Sendi
A 29-year-old man complained of a 2-day history of frontal headache and new-onset fever but no other symptoms. Two months prior to admission, he underwent his third kidney transplantation. Clinical and laboratory examinations were unremarkable. Brain MRI showed a meningeal irritation consistent with viral meningitis. A diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis and fungaemia was made after detection of a remarkably high and visible load of Cryptococcus neoformans in the cerebrospinal fluid.
August 3, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
Omar K Siddiqi, Frederick L Ruberg
The amyloidoses are a group of systemic diseases characterized by organ deposition of misfolded protein fragments of diverse origins. The natural history of the disease, involvement of other organs, and treatment options vary significantly based on the protein of origin. In AL amyloidosis, amyloid protein is derived from immunoglobulin light chains, and most often involves the kidneys and the heart. ATTR amyloidosis is categorized as mutant or wild-type depending on the genetic sequence of the transthyretin (TTR) protein produced by the liver...
January 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Matti Peperhove, Van Dai Vo Chieu, Mi-Sun Jang, Marcel Gutberlet, Dagmar Hartung, Susanne Tewes, Gregor Warnecke, Christiane Fegbeutel, Axel Haverich, Wilfried Gwinner, Frank Lehner, Jan Hinrich Bräsen, Hermann Haller, Frank Wacker, Faikah Gueler, Katja Hueper
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate T1 mapping as a non-invasive, functional MRI biomarker in patients shortly after solid organ transplantation to detect acute postsurgical kidney damage and to correlate T1 times with renal function. METHODS: 101 patients within 2 weeks after solid organ transplantation (49 kidney transplantation, 52 lung transplantation) and 14 healthy volunteers were examined by MRI between July 2012 and April 2015 using the modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI) sequence...
January 2018: European Radiology
Paraish Misra, Anish Kirpalani, General Leung, Paraskevi A Vlachou, Jason Y Lee, Serge Jothy, Jeffrey Zaltzman, Darren A Yuen
BACKGROUND: Surgical thrombectomy in the context of acute renal vein thrombosis (RVT) post-transplantation has had limited success, with considerable variation in the surgical techniques used. Unfortunately, it is usually followed by allograft nephrectomy within a few days if rapid allograft recovery does not ensue. We report a case of acute RVT in which nephrectomy was not performed despite a prolonged requirement for dialysis post-thrombectomy, but with recovery of renal function 2 weeks later...
July 10, 2017: BMC Nephrology
Sokratis Stoumpos, Martin Hennessy, Alex T Vesey, Aleksandra Radjenovic, Ram Kasthuri, David B Kingsmore, Patrick B Mark, Giles Roditi
OBJECTIVES: Traditional contrast-enhanced methods for scanning blood vessels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or CT carry potential risks for patients with advanced kidney disease. Ferumoxytol is a superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticle preparation that has potential as an MRI contrast agent in assessing the vasculature. METHODS: Twenty patients with advanced kidney disease requiring aorto-iliac vascular imaging as part of pre-operative kidney transplant candidacy assessment underwent ferumoxytol-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (FeMRA) between December 2015 and August 2016...
January 2018: European Radiology
R P H Meier, V Piller, M E Hagen, C Joliat, J-B Buchs, A Nastasi, R Ruttimann, N C Buchs, S Moll, J-P Vallée, F Lazeyras, P Morel, L Bühler
Robot-assisted kidney transplantation is feasible; however, concerns have been raised about possible increases in warm ischemia times. We describe a novel intra-abdominal cooling system to continuously cool the kidney during the procedure. Porcine kidneys were procured by standard open technique. Groups were as follows: Robotic renal transplantation with (n = 11) and without (n = 6) continuous intra-abdominal cooling and conventional open technique with intermittent 4°C saline cooling (n = 6). Renal cortex temperature, magnetic resonance imaging, and histology were analyzed...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
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