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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145494/global-analysis-of-gene-expression-mediated-by-ox1-orexin-receptor-signaling-in-a-hypothalamic-cell-line
#1
Eric Koesema, Thomas Kodadek
The orexins and their cognate G-protein coupled receptors have been widely studied due to their associations with various behaviors and cellular processes. However, the detailed downstream signaling cascades that mediate these effects are not completely understood. We report the generation of a neuronal model cell line that stably expresses the OX1 orexin receptor (OX1) and an RNA-Seq analysis of changes in gene expression seen upon receptor activation. Upon treatment with orexin, several families of related transcription factors are transcriptionally regulated, including the early growth response genes (Egr), the Kruppel-like factors (Klf), and the Nr4a subgroup of nuclear hormone receptors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142232/tdp-43-misexpression-causes-defects-in-dendritic-growth
#2
Josiah J Herzog, Mugdha Deshpande, Leah Shapiro, Avital A Rodal, Suzanne Paradis
Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD) share overlapping genetic causes and disease symptoms, and are linked neuropathologically by the RNA binding protein TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein-43 kDa). TDP-43 regulates RNA metabolism, trafficking, and localization of thousands of target genes. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which dysfunction of TDP-43 contributes to disease pathogenesis and progression remain unclear. Severe changes in the structure of neuronal dendritic arbors disrupt proper circuit connectivity, which in turn could contribute to neurodegenerative disease...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142061/effects-of-regulatory-bc1-rna-deletion-on-synaptic-plasticity-learning-and-memory
#3
Ain Chung, Nessy Dahan, Juan Marcos Alarcon, André A Fenton
Nonprotein coding dendritic BC1 RNA regulates translation of mRNAs in neurons. We examined two lines of BC1 knockout mice and report that loss of BC1 RNA exaggerates group I mGluR-stimulated LTD of the Schaffer collateral synapse, with one of the lines showing a much more enhanced DHPG-induced LTD than the other. When the animals were given the hippocampus-synaptic plasticity-dependent active place avoidance task, learning and memory were impaired in the BC1-KO line with the more severely altered DHPG-induced LTD...
December 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141232/foxp1-promotes-embryonic-neural-stem-cell-differentiation-by-repressing-jagged1-expression
#4
Luca Braccioli, Stephin J Vervoort, Youri Adolfs, Cobi J Heijnen, Onur Basak, R Jeroen Pasterkamp, Cora H Nijboer, Paul J Coffer
Mutations in FOXP1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders including intellectual disability and autism; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain ill-defined. Here, we demonstrate with RNA and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing that FOXP1 directly regulates genes controlling neurogenesis. We show that FOXP1 is expressed in embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs), and modulation of FOXP1 expression affects both neuron and astrocyte differentiation. Using a murine model of cortical development, FOXP1-knockdown in utero was found to reduce NSC differentiation and migration during corticogenesis...
November 14, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141229/widespread-translational-remodeling-during-human-neuronal-differentiation
#5
John D Blair, Dirk Hockemeyer, Jennifer A Doudna, Helen S Bateup, Stephen N Floor
Faithful cellular differentiation requires temporally precise activation of gene expression programs, which are coordinated at the transcriptional and translational levels. Neurons express the most complex set of mRNAs of any human tissue, but translational changes during neuronal differentiation remain incompletely understood. Here, we induced forebrain neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and measured genome-wide RNA and translation levels with transcript-isoform resolution. We found that thousands of genes change translation status during differentiation without a corresponding change in RNA level...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136637/transcriptional-profiling-of-toll-like-receptor-2-deficient-primary-murine-brain-cells-during-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#6
Kousuke Umeda, Sachi Tanaka, Fumiaki Ihara, Junya Yamagishi, Yutaka Suzuki, Yoshifumi Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is capable of persisting in the brain, although it is efficiently eliminated by cellular immune responses in most other sites. While Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) reportedly plays important roles in protective immunity against the parasite, the relationship between neurological disorders induced by T. gondii infection and TLR2 function in the brain remains controversial with many unknowns. In this study, primary cultured astrocytes, microglia, neurons, and peritoneal macrophages obtained from wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were exposed to T...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134693/microglia-from-offspring-of-dams-with-allergic-asthma-exhibit-epigenomic-alterations-in-genes-dysregulated-in-autism
#7
Annie Vogel Ciernia, Milo Careaga, Janine M LaSalle, Paul Ashwood
Dysregulation in immune responses during pregnancy increases the risk of a having a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among pregnant women, and symptoms often worsen during pregnancy. We recently developed a mouse model of maternal allergic asthma (MAA) that induces changes in sociability, repetitive, and perseverative behaviors in the offspring. Since epigenetic changes help a static genome adapt to the maternal environment, activation of the immune system may epigenetically alter fetal microglia, the brain's resident immune cells...
November 14, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134514/expression-of-bc1-impairs-spatial-learning-and-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-via-app-translation
#8
Tongmei Zhang, Pei Pang, Zemin Fang, Yu Guo, Hao Li, Xinyan Li, Tian Tian, Xin Yang, Wenting Chen, Shu Shu, Na Tang, Jianhua Wu, Houze Zhu, Lei Pei, Dan Liu, Qing Tian, Jian Wang, Lin Wang, Ling-Qiang Zhu, Youming Lu
Aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides, which are the cleavage products of amyloid precursor protein (APP), is a major pathological hallmark in the brain of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Now, we know little about the roles of APP translation in the disease progression of AD. Here, we show that BC1, a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), is expressed in the brain of AD mice. BC1 induces APP mRNA translation via association with a fragile X syndrome protein (FMRP). Inhibition of BC1 or BC1-FMRP association in AD mice blocks aggregation of Aβ in the brain and protects against the spatial learning and memory deficits...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133793/binding-to-smn2-pre-mrna-protein-complex-elicits-specificity-for-small-molecule-splicing-modifiers
#9
Manaswini Sivaramakrishnan, Kathleen D McCarthy, Sébastien Campagne, Sylwia Huber, Sonja Meier, Angélique Augustin, Tobias Heckel, Hélène Meistermann, Melanie N Hug, Pascale Birrer, Ahmed Moursy, Sarah Khawaja, Roland Schmucki, Nikos Berntenis, Nicolas Giroud, Sabrina Golling, Manuel Tzouros, Balazs Banfai, Gonzalo Duran-Pacheco, Jens Lamerz, Ying Hsiu Liu, Thomas Luebbers, Hasane Ratni, Martin Ebeling, Antoine Cléry, Sergey Paushkin, Adrian R Krainer, Frédéric H-T Allain, Friedrich Metzger
Small molecule splicing modifiers have been previously described that target the general splicing machinery and thus have low specificity for individual genes. Several potent molecules correcting the splicing deficit of the SMN2 (survival of motor neuron 2) gene have been identified and these molecules are moving towards a potential therapy for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA). Here by using a combination of RNA splicing, transcription, and protein chemistry techniques, we show that these molecules directly bind to two distinct sites of the SMN2 pre-mRNA, thereby stabilizing a yet unidentified ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complex that is critical to the specificity of these small molecules for SMN2 over other genes...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130192/lcm-seq-a-method-for-spatial-transcriptomic-profiling-using-laser-capture-microdissection-coupled-with-polya-based-rna-sequencing
#10
Susanne Nichterwitz, Julio Aguila Benitez, Rein Hoogstraaten, Qiaolin Deng, Eva Hedlund
LCM-seq couples laser capture microdissection of cells from frozen tissues with polyA-based RNA sequencing and is applicable to single neurons. The method utilizes off-the-shelf reagents and direct lysis of the cells without RNA purification, making it a simple and relatively cheap method with high reproducibility and sensitivity compared to previous methods. The advantage with LCM-seq is also that tissue sections are kept intact and thus the positional information of each cell is preserved.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129916/a-post-transcriptional-program-coordinated-by-csde1-prevents-intrinsic-neural-differentiation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#11
Hyun Ju Lee, Deniz Bartsch, Cally Xiao, Santiago Guerrero, Gaurav Ahuja, Christina Schindler, James J Moresco, John R Yates, Fátima Gebauer, Hisham Bazzi, Christoph Dieterich, Leo Kurian, David Vilchez
While the transcriptional network of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) has been extensively studied, relatively little is known about how post-transcriptional modulations determine hESC function. RNA-binding proteins play central roles in RNA regulation, including translation and turnover. Here we show that the RNA-binding protein CSDE1 (cold shock domain containing E1) is highly expressed in hESCs to maintain their undifferentiated state and prevent default neural fate. Notably, loss of CSDE1 accelerates neural differentiation and potentiates neurogenesis...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129468/inhibition-of-rac1-ameliorates-neuronal-oxidative-stress-damage-via-reducing-bcl-2-rac1-complex-formation-in-mitochondria-through-pi3k-akt-mtor-pathway
#12
Yundan Pan, Na Wang, Pingping Xia, E Wang, Qulian Guo, Zhi Ye
Although the neuroprotective effects of Rac1 inhibition have been reported in various cerebral ischemic models, the molecular mechanisms of action have not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether the inhibition of Rac1 provided neuroprotection in a diabetic rat model of focal cerebral ischemia and hyperglycemia-exposed PC-12 cells. Intracerebroventricular administration of lentivirus expressing the Rac1 small hairpin RNA (shRNA) and specific Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 not only decreased the infarct volumes and improved neurologic deficits with a correlated significant activation of mitochondrial DNA specific proteins, such as OGG1 and POLG, but also elevated Bcl-2 S70 phosphorylation in mitochondria...
November 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127725/a-loss-of-function-homozygous-mutation-in-ddx59-implicates-a-conserved-dead-box-rna-helicase-in-nervous-system-development-and-function
#13
Vincenzo Salpietro, Stephanie Efthymiou, Andreea Manole, Bhawana Maurya, Sarah Wiethoff, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Maria Concetta Cutrupi, Valeria Dipasquale, Sara Manti, Juan A Botia, Mina Ryten, Jana Vandrovcova, Oscar D Bello, Conceicao Bettencourt, Kshitij Mankad, Ashim Mukherjee, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Henry Houlden
We report on a homozygous frameshift deletion in DDX59 (c.185del: p.Phe62fs*13) in a family presenting with oro-facio-digital syndrome phenotype associated to a broad neurological involvement characterized by microcephaly, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and white matter signal abnormalities associated with cortical and sub-cortical ischemic events. DDX59 encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase and its role in brain function and neurological diseases is unclear. We showed a reduction of mutant cDNA and perturbation of SHH signalling from patient-derived cell lines; furthermore, analysis of human brain gene expression provides evidence that DDX59 is enriched in oligodendrocytes and might act within pathways of leukoencephalopathies associated genes...
November 11, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126398/characteristics-of-allelic-gene-expression-in-human-brain-cells-from-single-cell-rna-seq-data-analysis
#14
Dejian Zhao, Mingyan Lin, Erika Pedrosa, Herbert M Lachman, Deyou Zheng
BACKGROUND: Monoallelic expression of autosomal genes has been implicated in human psychiatric disorders. However, there is a paucity of allelic expression studies in human brain cells at the single cell and genome wide levels. RESULTS: In this report, we reanalyzed a previously published single-cell RNA-seq dataset from several postmortem human brains and observed pervasive monoallelic expression in individual cells, largely in a random manner. Examining single nucleotide variants with a predicted functional disruption, we found that the "damaged" alleles were overall expressed in fewer brain cells than their counterparts, and at a lower level in cells where their expression was detected...
November 10, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125978/decoding-hidden-messages-in-neurons-insights-from-epitranscriptome-controlled-and-specialized-ribosome-controlled-translation
#15
REVIEW
Yi-Shuian Huang, Wen-Hsin Lu
Activity-regulated protein synthesis, especially in the restricted synaptic domains, is critical to maintaining connections and communication between neurons. Accumulating evidence has linked dysregulated translation to various neurodevelopmental or neurodegenerative diseases. In the past 3 decades, after finding ribosomes and specific mRNAs localized around synapses, a significant amount of work has furthered our understanding of how the genetic sequences in mRNAs and their cognate RNA-binding proteins are coordinated to build up synaptic proteomes...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125873/u6-snrna-expression-prevents-toxicity-in-tdp-43-knockdown-cells
#16
Masao Yahara, Akira Kitamura, Masataka Kinjo
Depletion of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated transactivation response (TAR) RNA/DNA-binding protein 43 kDa (TDP-43) alters splicing efficiency of multiple transcripts and results in neuronal cell death. TDP-43 depletion can also disturb expression levels of small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) as spliceosomal components. Despite this knowledge, the relationship between cell death and alteration of snRNA expression during TDP-43 depletion remains unclear. Here, we knocked down TDP-43 in murine neuroblastoma Neuro2A cells and found a time lag between efficient TDP-43 depletion and appearance of cell death, suggesting that several mechanisms mediate between these two events...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125039/astrocyte-autophagy-flux-protects-neurons-against-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-and-ischemic-reperfusion-injury
#17
Xue Liu, Fengfeng Tian, Shiquan Wang, Feng Wang, Lize Xiong
The role of autophagy varies with the type of acute brain injury. In general, autophagy mediates a clear neuroprotective effect in intoxication caused by various psychoactive agents, subarachnoid hemorrhage and spinal cord injury. In contrast, autophagic cell death has also been reported to actively contribute to neuronal loss in neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy. However, it still remains to be determined whether autophagy pays a cytoprotective or a cytotoxic role in stroke. Previous studies focused primarily on the role of neurons rather than the role of astrocytes in brain injury...
November 10, 2017: Rejuvenation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123152/neural-specific-deletion-of-mitochondrial-p32-c1qbp-leads-to-leukoencephalopathy-due-to-undifferentiated-oligodendrocyte-and-axon-degeneration
#18
Mikako Yagi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Noriaki Sagata, Daiki Setoyama, Rie Amamoto, Yuichi Matsushima, Dongchon Kang
Mitochondrial dysfunction is a critical step in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. The p32/ C1qbp gene functions as an essential RNA and protein chaperone in mitochondrial translation, and is indispensable for embryonic development. However, little is known about the consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction of p32 deletion in the brain development. Here, we found that mice lacking p32 in the central nervous system (p32cKO mice) showed white matter degeneration accompanied by progressive oligodendrocyte loss, axon degeneration and vacuolation in the mid brain and brain stem regions...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122628/a-novel-curcumin-derivative-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-neuropathy
#19
Daniel J Daugherty, Alexandra Marquez, Nigel A Calcutt, David Schubert
Neuropathy is a common complication of long-term diabetes. Proposed mechanisms of neuronal damage caused by diabetes that are downstream of hyperglycemia and/or loss of insulin signaling include ischemic hypoxia, inflammation and loss of neurotrophic support. The curcumin derivative J147 is a potent neurogenic and neuroprotective drug candidate initially developed for the treatment of neurodegenerative conditions associated with aging that impacts many pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy...
November 6, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121802/hispolon-suppresses-lps-or-lta-induced-inos-no-production-and-apoptosis-in-bv-2-microglial-cells
#20
Ming-Shun Wu, Chih-Chiang Chien, Kur-Ta Cheng, Gottumukkala V Subbaraju, Yen-Chou Chen
Hispolon (HIS) is an active polyphenol compound derived from Phellinus linteus (Berkeley & Curtis), and our previous study showed that HIS effectively inhibited inflammatory responses in macrophages (Yang et al., 2014); however, its effect on neuronal inflammation is still undefined. In this study, HIS concentration- and time-dependently inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)-induced inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS)/NO production with increased heme oxygenase (HO)-1 proteins in BV-2 microglial cells...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
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