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warfarin information race or culture or ethnic

Jennifer Y Lo, L LuAnn Minich, Lloyd Y Tani, Jacob Wilkes, Qian Ding, Shaji C Menon
Management guidelines for refractory Kawasaki disease (KD) are vague. We sought to assess practice variation and identify factors associated with large/complex coronary artery aneurysms (LCAA) and resource utilization in refractory KD. This retrospective cohort study identified patients aged ≤18 years with KD (2004 to 2014) using the Pediatric Health Information System. Refractory KD was defined as receiving >1 dose of intravenous immunoglobulin. Demographics, medications, concomitant infections, length of stay (LOS), and charges were collected...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Cardiology
P Varim, C Varim, H Ergenç, M Uyanık, S Yaylacı, M Vatan, H Gündüz
Time in Therapeutic Range (TTR) is a value used to assess the efficacy of Warfarin treatment. The aim of our study is to determine the effective INR levels and the rate of TTR in patients on Warfarin regimen due to Atrial Fibrillation (AF) or Mechanical Prosthetic Valve (MPV). A total of 94 patients (58 female, and 36 male, mean age: 64.9±11years) on Warfarin treatment due to AF or MPV with at least 10 INR levels measurements in the last 6 months were included in this retrospective study. The patients were divided into 2 groups...
June 2016: Georgian Medical News
Sagar U Nigwekar, Sophia Zhao, Julia Wenger, Jeffrey L Hymes, Franklin W Maddux, Ravi I Thadhani, Kevin E Chan
Accurate identification of risk factors for calcific uremic arteriolopathy (CUA) is necessary to develop preventive strategies for this morbid disease. We investigated whether baseline factors recorded at hemodialysis initiation would identify patients at risk for future CUA in a matched case-control study using data from a large dialysis organization. Hemodialysis patients with newly diagnosed CUA (n=1030) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014, were matched by age, sex, and race in a 1:2 ratio to hemodialysis patients without CUA (n=2060)...
April 14, 2016: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
G Y H Lip, T Potpara, G Boriani, C Blomström-Lundqvist
The main priority in atrial fibrillation (AF) management is stroke prevention, following which decisions about rate or rhythm control are focused on the patient, being primarily for management of symptoms. Given that AF is commonly associated with various comorbidities, risk factors such as hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus and sleep apnoea should be actively looked for and managed in a holistic approach to AF management. The objective of this review is to provide an overview of modern AF stroke prevention with a focus on tailored treatment strategies...
May 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
Harsh Golwala, Larry R Jackson, DaJuanicia N Simon, Jonathan P Piccini, Bernard Gersh, Alan S Go, Elaine M Hylek, Peter R Kowey, Kenneth W Mahaffey, Laine Thomas, Gregg C Fonarow, Eric D Peterson, Kevin L Thomas
BACKGROUND: Significant racial/ethnic differences exist in the incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, less is known about racial/ethnic differences in quality of life (QoL), treatment, and outcomes associated with AF. METHODS: Using data from the Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation, we compared clinical characteristics, QoL, management strategies, and long-term outcomes associated with AF among various racial/ethnic groups...
April 2016: American Heart Journal
Sarayu Arvind Pai, Nilima Kshirsagar
Our objective was to compare the pharmacogenetic information provided in the package inserts (PIs) of 7 drugs marketed in the United States and India, namely, abacavir, capecitabine, carbamazepine, clopidogrel, irinotecan, valproic acid, and warfarin. We evaluated the pharmacogenetic information provided in Indian PIs for the highest level where it was included, robustness and completeness, clinical validity, and clinical utility and compared it with corresponding data of US PIs. Pharmacogenetic studies carried out in India were identified using PubMed...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Tomoko S Kato, Marco R Di Tullio, Min Qian, Mengfei Wu, John L P Thompson, Douglas L Mann, Ralph L Sacco, Patrick M Pullicino, Ronald S Freudenberger, John R Teerlink, Susan Graham, Gregory Y H Lip, Bruce Levin, Jay P Mohr, Arthur J Labovitz, Conrado J Estol, Dirk J Lok, Piotr Ponikowski, Stefan D Anker, Shunichi Homma
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) patients have a high incidence of new-onset AF. Given the adverse prognostic influence of AF in HF, identifying patients at high risk of developing AF is important. METHODS AND RESULTS: The incidence and factors associated with new-onset AF were investigated in patients in sinus rhythm with reduced LVEF enrolled in the Warfarin versus Aspirin in Reduced Cardiac Ejection Fraction (WARCEF) trial. Analyses involved clinical factors alone (n=2,219), and clinical plus echocardiographic findings (n=1,125)...
2016: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
Ricardo Ventura Santos, Gláucia Oliveira da Silva, Sahra Gibbon
Public funding for research on the action of drugs in countries like the United States requires that racial classification of research subjects should be considered when defining the composition of the samples as well as in data analysis, sometimes resulting in interpretations that Whites and Blacks differ in their pharmacogenetic profiles. In Brazil, pharmacogenomic results have led to very different interpretations when compared with those obtained in the United States. This is explained as deriving from the genomic heterogeneity of the Brazilian population...
March 1, 2015: BioSocieties
Olakunle Akinboboye
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae...
2015: Journal of Multidisciplinary Healthcare
Louis Moyer
Miscellaneous Cases ISESSION TYPE: Affiliate Case Report SlidePRESENTED ON: Sunday, October 26, 2014 at 10:45 AM - 12:00 PMINTRODUCTION: Atrioesophageal fistula (AEF) is a life-threatening complication of left atrial ablation for atrial fibrillation. AEF resulting in embolic stroke is rare and difficult to recognize, but prompt diagnosis may increase options for repair and survival.CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old female with a PMH significant for atrial fibrillation on warfarin underwent two left atrial ablations within 10 days...
October 1, 2014: Chest
Sayeed Nasser, Judy Mullan, Beata Bajorek
OBJECTIVE: To explore healthcare professionals' views about the benefits and challenges of using information technology (IT) resources for educating patients about their warfarin therapy. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of both community and hospital-based healthcare professionals (e.g., doctors, pharmacists and nurses) involved using a purpose-designed questionnaire. The questionnaires were distributed using a multi-modal approach to maximise response rates. RESULTS: Of the total 300 questionnaires distributed, 109 completed surveys were received (43...
April 2012: Pharmacy Practice
K E Liu, C-L Lo, Y-H Hu
OBJECTIVES: Due to the narrow therapeutic range and high drug-to-drug interactions (DDIs), improving the adequate use of warfarin for the elderly is crucial in clinical practice. This study examines whether the effectiveness of using warfarin among elderly inpatients can be improved when machine learning techniques and data from the laboratory information system are incorporated. METHODS: Having employed 288 validated clinical cases in the DDI group and 89 cases in the non-DDI group, we evaluate the prediction performance of seven classification techniques, with and without an Adaptive Boosting (AdaBoost) algorithm...
2014: Methods of Information in Medicine
Brady S Moffett, Shelly Kim, Lisa R Bomgaars
BACKGROUND: Warfarin therapy in pediatric patients can be difficult to manage with bleeding as a primary adverse event. Therapy initiation can be difficult as doses to achieve therapeutic outcomes are being determined. Evaluation of readmission for bleeding in pediatric patients discharged on warfarin therapy may be useful to prevent adverse events. METHODS: The Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) was queried to identify all patients <19 years of age who were discharged from a pediatric hospital on warfarin therapy...
September 2013: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Whei-Kuo Wu, Paul G Hujsak, Fareed Kureshy
AutoGenomics, Inc. (Carlsbad, CA, USA) have developed a multiplex microarray assay for genotyping both VKORC1 and CYP2C9 using the INFINITI(™) Analyzer. Multiple alleles in each DNA sample are analyzed by polymerase chain reaction amplification, followed by detection primer extension using the INFINITI Analyzer. The INFINITI Analyzer performs single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis using universal oligonucleotides immobilized on the biochip. To genotype broader ethnic groups, genomic DNA from whole blood was tested for nine SNPs for VKORC1 and six for CYP2C9 genotypes...
October 2007: Expert Opinion on Medical Diagnostics
Elaine M Hylek
Oral vitamin K antagonists are highly efficacious in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic disease. Optimal use of these agents in clinical practice is challenged by their narrow therapeutic window. The proportion of time spent in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) range of 2.0-3.0 [time in the therapeutic range (TTR)] has been closely associated with adverse outcomes, i.e., stroke, hemorrhage, mortality. Although TTR is a validated marker, it has several limitations. TTR does not capture short-term risks associated with highly variable periods or periods characterized by extreme deviations in INR...
April 2013: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Andrea L Jorgensen, Richard J FitzGerald, James Oyee, Munir Pirmohamed, Paula R Williamson
BACKGROUND: Warfarin is a highly effective anticoagulant however its effectiveness relies on maintaining INR in therapeutic range. Finding the correct dose is difficult due to large inter-individual variability. Two genes, CYP2C9 and VKORC1, have been associated with this variability, leading to genotype-guided dosing tables in warfarin labeling. Nonetheless, it remains unclear how genotypic information should be used in practice. Navigating the literature to determine how genotype will influence warfarin response in a particular patient is difficult, due to significant variation in patient ethnicity, outcomes investigated, study design, and methodological rigor...
2012: PloS One
Renata Alonso Gadi Soares, Paulo Caleb Junior Lima Santos, George Luiz Lins Machado-Coelho, Raimundo Marques do Nascimento, Jose Geraldo Mill, Jose Eduardo Krieger, Alexandre Costa Pereira
BACKGROUND: Warfarin-dosing pharmacogenetic algorithms have presented different performances across ethnicities, and the impact in admixed populations is not fully known. AIMS: To evaluate the CYP2C9 and VKORC1 polymorphisms and warfarin-predicted metabolic phenotypes according to both self-declared ethnicity and genetic ancestry in a Brazilian general population plus Amerindian groups. METHODS: Two hundred twenty-two Amerindians (Tupinikin and Guarani) were enrolled and 1038 individuals from the Brazilian general population who were self-declared as White, Intermediate (Brown, Pardo in Portuguese), or Black...
August 2012: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
Guilherme Suarez-Kurtz, Mariana R Botton
Warfarin is the most commonly prescribed oral anticoagulant worldwide despite its narrow therapeutic index and the notorious inter- and intra-individual variability in dose required for the target clinical effect. Pharmacogenetic polymorphisms are major determinants of warfarin pharmacokinetic and dynamics and included in several warfarin dosing algorithms. This review focuses on warfarin pharmacogenomics in sub-Saharan peoples, African Americans and admixed Brazilians. These 'Black' populations differ in several aspects, notably their extent of recent admixture with Europeans, a factor which impacts on the frequency distribution of pharmacogenomic polymorphisms relevant to warfarin dose requirement for the target clinical effect...
February 2013: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Keyan Salari, Hugh Watkins, Euan A Ashley
Medicine has always been personalized. For years, physicians have incorporated environmental, behavioural, and genetic factors that affect disease and drug response into patient management decisions. However, until recently, the 'genetic' data took the form of family history and self-reported race/ethnicity. As genome sequencing declines in cost, the availability of specific genomic information will no longer be limiting. Rather, our ability to parse these data and our decision whether to use it will become primary...
July 2012: European Heart Journal
Janice B Schwartz, Lynn Kane, Kelly Moore, Alan H B Wu
INTRODUCTION: Warfarin doses vary greatly among patients and warfarin administration is accompanied by risk of bleeding. Genes responsible for its metabolism (CYP2C9) and effect on clotting (VKORC1) have been identified. It has been suggested that genotyping for variants in these genes can improve warfarin dosing and decrease bleeding complications. We evaluated performance of pharmacogenetic-based warfarin dosing estimation algorithms in old and very old patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of stable patients older than 65 years receiving warfarin with therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) anticoagulation...
November 2011: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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