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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689066/understanding-dietary-and-staple-food-transitions-in-china-from-multiple-scales
#1
Xiao Chang, Ruth S DeFries, Liming Liu, Kyle Davis
China is facing both non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and micronutrient deficiency, which have been largely related to transitions within Chinese diets, for example, the overconsumption of vegetable oils and animal-source products and decreasing consumption of coarse staple foods. In this study, we use three metrics-dietary diversity score (DDS), staple diversity score (SDS) and the proportion of coarse staple consumption (PoCS)- to investigate overall dietary transitions as well as trends in staple food consumption for nine provinces in China from 1997 to 2009...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684089/alternative-ribosomal-proteins-are-required-for-growth-and-morphogenesis-of-mycobacterium-smegmatis-under-zinc-limiting-conditions
#2
Allexa Dow, Sladjana Prisic
Zinc is an essential micronutrient required for proper structure and function of many proteins. Bacteria regularly encounter zinc depletion and have evolved diverse mechanisms to continue growth when zinc is limited, including the expression of zinc-independent paralogs of zinc-binding proteins. Mycobacteria have a conserved operon encoding four zinc-independent alternative ribosomal proteins (AltRPs) that are expressed when zinc is depleted. It is unknown if mycobacterial AltRPs replace their primary paralogs in the ribosome and maintain protein synthesis under zinc-limited conditions, and if such replacements contribute to their physiology...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681913/toward-eradication-of-b-vitamin-deficiencies-considerations-for-crop-biofortification
#3
REVIEW
Simon Strobbe, Dominique Van Der Straeten
'Hidden hunger' involves insufficient intake of micronutrients and is estimated to affect over two billion people on a global scale. Malnutrition of vitamins and minerals is known to cause an alarming number of casualties, even in the developed world. Many staple crops, although serving as the main dietary component for large population groups, deliver inadequate amounts of micronutrients. Biofortification, the augmentation of natural micronutrient levels in crop products through breeding or genetic engineering, is a pivotal tool in the fight against micronutrient malnutrition (MNM)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679395/placental-adaptations-to-micronutrient-dysregulation-in-the-programming-of-chronic-disease
#4
Pierre Hofstee, Daniel McKeating, Anthony V Perkins, James S M Cuffe
Poor nutrition during pregnancy is known to impair foetal development and increase the risk of chronic disease in offspring. Both macronutrients and micronutrients are required for a healthy pregnancy although significantly less is understood about the role of micronutrients in the programming of chronic disease. This is despite the fact that modern calorie rich diets are often also deficient in key micronutrients. The importance of micronutrients in gestational disorders is clearly understood but how they impact long term disease in humans requires further investigation...
April 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673873/before-the-beginning-nutrition-and-lifestyle-in-the-preconception-period-and-its-importance-for-future-health
#5
REVIEW
Judith Stephenson, Nicola Heslehurst, Jennifer Hall, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Jayne Hutchinson, Janet E Cade, Lucilla Poston, Geraldine Barrett, Sarah R Crozier, Mary Barker, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Janis Baird, Gita D Mishra
A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671831/the-potential-of-integrating-provitamin-a-biofortified-maize-in-smallholder-farming-systems-to-reduce-malnourishment-in-south-africa
#6
REVIEW
Mthokozisi K Zuma, Unathi Kolanisi, Albert T Modi
Biofortification interventions have the potential to combat malnutrition. This review explored the use of provitamin A-biofortified maize (PVABM) as a vitamin A deficiency (VAD) reduction agricultural-based strategy. Maize has been identified as one of the key staple crops for biofortification to reduce hidden hunger in Africa. Most nutrition interventions have not been successful in reducing hunger because rural communities, who mainly rely on agriculture, have been indirectly excluded. The biofortification intervention proposed here aims to be an inclusive strategy, based on smallholder farming systems...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656297/reducing-mineral-and-vitamin-deficiencies-through-biofortification-progress-under-harvestplus
#7
Howarth Bouis
Fundamentally, the prevalence of mineral and vitamin deficiencies is high in developing countries due to the fact that agricultural systems do not produce sufficient foods rich in minerals and vitamins. Biofortification involves breeding staple food crops to increase their micronutrient content, targeting staple foods widely consumed by low-income families globally. In so doing, biofortification contributes to solving the underlying problem of mineral and vitamin deficiencies by increasing the amount of iron, zinc, and provitamin A produced by food systems...
April 13, 2018: World Review of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644395/metabolic-phenotyping-of-malnutrition-during-the-first-1000-days-of-life
#8
REVIEW
Jordi Mayneris-Perxachs, Jonathan R Swann
Nutritional restrictions during the first 1000 days of life can impair or delay the physical and cognitive development of the individual and have long-term consequences for their health. Metabolic phenotyping (metabolomics/metabonomics) simultaneously measures a diverse range of low molecular weight metabolites in a sample providing a comprehensive assessment of the individual's biochemical status. There are a growing number of studies applying such approaches to characterize the metabolic derangements induced by various forms of early-life malnutrition...
April 11, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627451/regulation-and-function-of-avian-selenogenome
#9
REVIEW
Shuping Li, Fei Gao, Jiaqiang Huang, Yuanyuan Wu, Sen Wu, Xin Gen Lei
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient required by avian species. Dietary Se/vitamin E deficiency induces three classical diseases in chicks: exudative diathesis, nutritional pancreatic atrophy, and nutritional muscular dystrophy. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review is to summarize and analyze the evolution, regulation, and function of avian selenogenome and selenoproteome and their relationship with the three classical Se/vitamin E deficiency diseases...
April 5, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627032/factors-associated-with-distal-symmetric-polyneuropathies-in-adult-zambians-a-cross-sectional-observational-study-of-the-role-of-hiv-non-antiretroviral-medication-exposures-and-nutrition
#10
Michelle Kvalsund, Takondwa Chidumayo, Johanna Hamel, David Herrmann, Douglas Heimburger, Amanda Peltier, Gretchen Birbeck
BACKGROUND: Non-antiretroviral (ART) drug exposures and poor nutrition may be important modifiable risk factors for distal symmetric polyneuropathies (DSP) in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of DSP prevalence and factors associated with DSP among clinic attendees in urban and rural Zambia. All participants underwent neurologist-performed examination. Laboratory investigations seeking comorbid risk factors for DSP were performed for DSP cases...
May 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619077/risk-factors-for-vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-among-children-under-five-in-the-state-of-palestine
#11
Aeysha Bushra Chaudhry, Shakoor Hajat, Najwa Rizkallah, Ala'a Abu-Rub
Background: Vitamin A and D are essential for the proper growth and development of a child. Due to the complex political circumstances in the state of Palestine, research on micronutrient deficiency is scarce. Methods: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) and UNICEF conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 2013 after the implementation of various micronutrient supplementation and fortification programs. Risk factors for levels of vitamin A ( n  = 1054) and vitamin D ( n  = 150) were assessed among children aged 6 to 59 months using chi-square tests and logistic regression with each of the outcome variables, vitamin A and D deficiencies...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615406/selenoproteins-regulate-stress-erythroid-progenitors-and-spleen-microenvironment-during-stress-erythropoiesis
#12
Chang Liao, Ross C Hardison, Mary J Kennett, Bradley A Carlson, Robert F Paulson, K Sandeep Prabhu
Micronutrient selenium (Se) plays a key role in redox regulation through its incorporation into selenoproteins as the 21st amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). Because Se deficiency appears to be a cofactor in the anemia associated with chronic inflammatory diseases, we reasoned that selenoproteins may contribute to erythropoietic recovery from anemia, referred to as stress erythropoiesis. Here, we report that loss of selenoproteins through Se deficiency or by mutation of the Sec tRNA (tRNA [Sec] ) gene ( Trsp ) severely impairs stress erythropoiesis at two stages...
April 3, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614986/rapunzel-syndrome-an-infrequent-cause-of-severe-iron-deficiency-anemia-and-abdominal-pain-presenting-to-the-pediatric-emergency-department
#13
Giuseppe Cannalire, Luigi Conti, Maurizio Celoni, Carmine Grassi, Andrea Cella, Giulia Bensi, Patrizio Capelli, Giacomo Biasucci
BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) and abdominal pain are commonly seen in a pediatric emergency department (8 and 18% incidence respectively in our center). They are manifestations of a wide variety of diseases ranging from benign to immediately life-threatening. Trichobezoar is an under-diagnosed entity that has to be considered in children and adolescents, expecially female, suffering from trichotillomania (compulsion to pull hair) and trichophagy (compulsion to swallow hair)...
April 4, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614534/-current-concepts-of-cardiologic-therapies-in-the-elderly
#14
Ursula Müller-Werdan, Kristina Norman
MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION IN THE OLD PATIENT: Even old patients may crucially benefit from reopening the occluded coronary artery by percutaneous coronary intervention with stent implantation. Bleeding complications can be reduced by choosing the radial instead of the femoral vascular approach for cardiac catheterization. STATINS FOR THE ELDERLY: WHEN TO START UND WHEN TO STOP?: Elderly benefit no less than the younger from statins. "Goal-oriented statin therapy" is preferable to the "statin strategy of fixed dose"...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610168/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-selective-eating-as-a-cause-of-blindness-in-a-high-income-setting
#15
Silvia Martini, Angela Rizzello, Ilaria Corsini, Benedetta Romanin, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Sara Grandi, Rosalba Bergamaschi
Vitamin A is a fat-soluble micronutrient involved in the regulation of several physiologic functions, such as visual acuity, epithelial tissue integrity, immune response, and gene expression, thus playing a crucial role in childhood growth and development. Although vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in resource-limited settings is still an actual issue and represents the leading cause of preventable childhood blindness, its occurrence in high-income countries is rare, although possibly underdiagnosed because of its nonspecific early manifestations...
April 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605475/evaluation-of-reported-contents-in-prescription-and-over-the-counter-prenatal-multivitamins
#16
Kelsey DeSalvo, Carol A Stamm, Laura M Borgelt
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the reported amount of 14 vitamins and 10 minerals in over-the-counter (OTC) and prescription (Rx) prenatal multivitamins and minerals (PMVMs) and compare them to the Health and Medicine Division (HMD) of the National Academies recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) and tolerable upper intake levels for intake. DESIGN: Observational convenience sample of supplemental facts labels on OTC and Rx PMVMs identified and evaluated from online retailers, grocery stores, and pharmacies...
March 28, 2018: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590715/nutritional-status-and-nutrition-quality-in-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#17
Darija Vranešić Bender, Marinela Nutrizio, Mirja Jošić, Dina Ljubas Kelečić, Irena Karas, Marina Premužić, Viktor Domislović, Cecilija Rotim, Željko Krznarić
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a major health burden with increasing prevalence worldwide due to its close association with the epidemic of obesity. Currently there is no standardized pharmacological treatment, and the only proven effective therapeutic strategy is lifestyle modification, therefore it is important to determine the potential dietary targets for the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. We assessed nutritional status in 30 patients diagnosed with NAFLD using anthropometric parameters, hand grip strength, and lifestyle and dietetic parameters (physical activity, NRS2002 form and three-day food diary)...
December 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589768/ioc-consensus-statement-dietary-supplements-and-the-high-performance-athlete
#18
Ronald J Maughan, Louise M Burke, Jiri Dvorak, D Enette Larson-Meyer, Peter Peeling, Stuart M Phillips, Eric S Rawson, Neil P Walsh, Ina Garthe, Hans Geyer, Romain Meeusen, Luc van Loon, Susan M Shirreffs, Lawrence L Spriet, Mark Stuart, Alan Vernec, Kevin Currell, Vidya M Ali, Richard G M Budgett, Arne Ljungqvist, Margo Mountjoy, Yannis Pitsiladis, Torbjørn Soligard, Uğur Erdener, Lars Engebretsen
Nutrition usually makes a small but potentially valuable contribution to successful performance in elite athletes, and dietary supplements can make a minor contribution to this nutrition program. Nonetheless, supplement use is widespread at all levels of sport. Products described as supplements target different issues, including the management of micronutrient deficiencies, supply of convenient forms of energy and macronutrients, and provision of direct benefits to performance or indirect benefits such as supporting intense training regimens...
March 28, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587370/stakeholders-perceptions-of-agronomic-iodine-biofortification-a-swot-ahp-analysis-in-northern-uganda
#19
Solomon Olum, Xavier Gellynck, Collins Okello, Dominic Webale, Walter Odongo, Duncan Ongeng, Hans De Steur
Agronomic biofortification (i.e., the application of fertilizer to elevate micronutrient concentrations in staple crops) is a recent strategy recommended for controlling Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDDs). However, its success inevitably depends on stakeholders' appreciation and acceptance of it. By taking Northern Uganda as a case, this study aimed to capture and compare the perceptions of seven key stakeholder groups with respect to agronomic iodine biofortification. Therefore, we employed a SWOT (Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis in combination with an Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)...
March 24, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584805/a-ten-year-immunopersistence-study-of-hepatitis-e-antibodies-in-rural-bangladesh
#20
Brittany L Kmush, K Zaman, Md Yunus, Parimalendu Saha, Kenrad E Nelson, Alain B Labrique
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute, viral hepatitis in Southeast Asia. Several studies have suggested that antibody persistence after HEV infection may be transient, possibly increasing the risk of re-infection and contributing to the frequency of outbreaks in HEV endemic regions. The specific conditions under which antibodies to HEV are lost, or "sero-reversion" occurs, are poorly understood. Here, one hundred participants from population-based studies in rural Bangladesh were revisited in 2015, ten years after a documented HEV infection to examine long-term antibody persistence...
March 23, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
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