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macrolide overview

Marisa Haenni, Agnese Lupo, Jean-Yves Madec
The genus Streptococcus includes Gram-positive organisms shaped in cocci and organized in chains. They are commensals, pathogens, and opportunistic pathogens for humans and animals. Most Streptococcus species of veterinary relevance have a specific ecological niche, such as S. uberis , which is almost exclusively an environmental pathogen causing bovine mastitis. In contrast, S. suis can be considered as a true zoonotic pathogen, causing specific diseases in humans after contact with infected animals or derived food products...
March 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Rocco Maurizio Zagari, Stefano Rabitti, Leonardo Henry Eusebi, Franco Bazzoli
BACKGROUND: Helicobacter pylori infection is still frequent in the community and all infected subjects should be offered an eradication therapy. Nowadays physicians have to face the challenge of antibiotic resistance in treating Helicobacter pylori-infected individuals. AIM: This review provides an overview of current international guidelines and reports recent evidence from systematic reviews and clinical trials on the treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection and should help physicians to better treat their patients...
January 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Biljana Arsic, Jill Barber, Ana Čikoš, Milan Mladenovic, Nevena Stankovic, Predrag Novak
Mainly used in veterinary medicine, the 16-membered macrolide antibiotics (e.g. tylosin A and josamycin) are much less studied than their 14- and 15-membered erythromycin-based cousins. Even though they share similar antibacterial profile (they are active primarily against Gram-positive and a limited range of Gram-negative organisms), the 16-membered macrolides show some advantages, including better gastrointestinal tolerance, lack of drug-drug interactions and activity against some resistant strains with additional interactions by extending the peptide tunnel reach...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Alexandra M Mancuso, Mona A Gandhi, Judianne Slish
Solithromycin is a macrolide antibiotic that has undergone review for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. Solithromycin is also being investigated and has shown promise for the treatment of gonorrhea. With increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of novel antibiotics to combat infections is essential. The unique ribosome-binding stability of solithromycin and mild side effect profile make this a promising new antibiotic. This article will provide an overview on the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and safety of this drug for the treatment of gonorrhea...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
Tiphaine Gaillard, Marylin Madamet, Francis Foguim Tsombeng, Jérôme Dormoi, Bruno Pradines
Malaria, a parasite vector-borne disease, is one of the most significant health threats in tropical regions, despite the availability of individual chemoprophylaxis. Malaria chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy remain a major area of research, and new drug molecules are constantly being developed before drug-resistant parasites strains emerge. The use of anti-malarial drugs is challenged by contra-indications, the level of resistance of Plasmodium falciparum in endemic areas, clinical tolerance and financial cost...
November 15, 2016: Malaria Journal
Ugur Sahin, Selami Kocak Toprak, Pinar Ataca Atilla, Erden Atilla, Taner Demirer
Infections are the most common and significant cause of mortality and morbidity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). The presence of neutropenia and mucosal damage are the leading risk factors in the early pre-engraftment phase. In the early post-engraftment phase, graft versus host disease (GvHD) induced infection risk is increased in addition to catheter related infections. In the late phase, in which reconstitution of cellular and humoral immunity continues, as well as the pathogens seen during the early post-engraftment phase, varicella-zoster virus and encapsulated bacterial infections due to impaired opsonization are observed...
August 2016: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Laure F Pittet, Klara M Posfay-Barbe
Since the first description of Bordetella holmesii in 1995, almost 100 publications have contributed to the increasing knowledge of this emerging bacterium. Although first reported to induce bacteremia mainly in immunocompromised patients, it has also been isolated in healthy persons and has shown the capacity to induce pertussis-like symptoms and other clinical entities, such as meningitis, arthritis, or endocarditis. Respiratory diseases are generally less severe than those induced by Bordetella pertussis...
April 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Charles Feldman, Ronald Anderson
Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519-528)...
March 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Fei Yu, Yong Li, Sheng Han, Jie Ma
Antibiotics, an important type of environmental contamination, have attracted many researchers to the study of their removal from aqueous solutions. Adsorption technology is a fast, efficient, and economical physicochemical method that is extensively used in wastewater treatment. From original activated carbon and carbon nanotubes to the latest graphene-based materials, carbon-based materials have been widely used as highly effective adsorbents for contaminant removal from aqueous solution because of their large specific surface area, high porosity, and high reaction activity...
June 2016: Chemosphere
Marta O Barbosa, Nuno F F Moreira, Ana R Ribeiro, Manuel F R Pereira, Adrián M T Silva
Although there are no legal discharge limits for micropollutants into the environment, some regulations have been published in the last few years. Recently, a watch list of substances for European Union-wide monitoring was reported in the Decision 2015/495/EU of 20 March 2015. Besides the substances previously recommended to be included by the Directive 39/2013/EU, namely two pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and the synthetic hormone 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2)) and a natural hormone (17-beta-estradiol (E2)), the first watch list of 10 substances/groups of substances also refers three macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin), other natural hormone (estrone (E1)), some pesticides (methiocarb, oxadiazon, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin, acetamiprid and triallate), a UV filter (2-ethylhexyl-4-methoxycinnamate) and an antioxidant (2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) commonly used as food additive...
May 1, 2016: Water Research
Bin Cao, Jiu-Xin Qu, Yu-Dong Yin, Johan Van Eldere
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infectious disease affecting children and adults of any age. Mycoplasma pneumoniae has emerged as leading causative agent of CAP in some region, and the abrupt increasing resistance to macrolide that widely used for management of M. pneumoniae has reached to the level that it often leads to treatment failures. OBJECTIVE: We aim to discuss the drivers for development of macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae, antimicrobial stewardship and also the potential treatment options for patients infected with macrolide-resistant M...
July 2017: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Tony K L Kiang, Mary H H Ensom
We conducted a systematic search to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the utility of saliva for clinical pharmacokinetic monitoring (CPM) of antibiotics. Although the majority of identified studies lacked sufficient pharmacokinetic data needed to assign an appropriate suitability classification, most aminoglycosides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, penicillins/cephalosporins, and tetracyclines are likely not suitable for CPM in saliva. No clear pattern of correlation was observed between physiochemical properties that favor drug distribution into saliva and the likelihood of the antibiotic being classified as suitable for CPM in saliva (and vice versa)...
March 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Lionel A Mandell
Community-acquired pneumonia is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. Although it can be caused by a wide variety of micro-organisms, the pneumococcus, atypicals, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and certain Gram-negative rods are the usual pathogens encountered. The site-of-care decision is critical in determining the site and type of care as well as the extent of diagnostic workup. Antimicrobial therapy should be started as soon as possible particularly in those requiring admission to hospital, but typically the physician does not know with any degree of certainty the identity of the etiologic pathogen...
August 2015: Postgraduate Medicine
H Wyns, E Plessers, P De Backer, E Meyer, S Croubels
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a structural part of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is one of the most effective stimulators of the immune system and has been widely applied in pigs as an experimental model for bacterial infection. For this purpose, a variety of Escherichia coli serotypes, LPS doses, routes and duration of administration have been used. LPS administration induces the acute phase response (APR) and is associated with dramatic hemodynamic, clinical and behavioral changes in pigs. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6 are involved in the induction of the eicosanoid pathway and the hepatic production of acute phase proteins, including C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp) and pig major acute phase protein (pig-MAP)...
August 15, 2015: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Peter Schmid
The emergence and increasing prevalence of resistant pathogens primarily in intensive care units demand the discovery and development of new antimicrobial agents and new therapeutic approaches. This review provides an overview of new antibacterial agents that are currently in research and development pipelines. Data were collected from published literature, meeting abstracts, public government and company websites. Well-known antibacterial classes like beta-lactams, quinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines, and pleuromutilins are represented by new molecules with enhanced antibacterial or pharmacological properties...
November 2014: Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift
An Mt Van Nuffel, Vidula Sukhatme, Pan Pantziarka, Lydie Meheus, Vikas P Sukhatme, Gauthier Bouche
Clarithromycin (CAM) is a well-known macrolide antibiotic available as a generic drug. CAM is traditionally used for many types of bacterial infections, treatment of Lyme disease and eradication of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori. Extensive preclinical and clinical data demonstrate a potential role for CAM to treat various tumours in combination with conventional treatment. The mechanisms of action underlying the anti-tumour activity of CAM are multiple and include prolonged reduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, autophagy inhibition, and anti-angiogenesis...
2015: Ecancermedicalscience
Agata A Cisek, Magdalena Rzewuska, Lucjan Witkowski, Marian Binek
Rhodococcus equi is an important etiologic agent of respiratory- and non-respiratory tract infections, diseases of animals and humans. Therapy includes the use of various group of chemotherapeutic agents, however resistance acquirement is quite common. To date there is no preferred treatment protocol for infections caused by isolates resistant to macrolides and rifampicin. The resistance acquirement is a result of many molecular mechanisms, some of which include alterations in the cell envelope composition and structure, activity of the efflux pumps, enzymatic destruction or inactivation of antibiotics, and changes in the target site...
2014: Acta Biochimica Polonica
G A Voskanian, A Z Vinarov
Treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis is one of the most urgent problems of modern urology. According to most of the existing recommendations, fluoroquinolones are the drugs of choice in treatment of prostatitis. Recently, however, many researchers have noted the increasing role of intracellular pathogens, and high activity of macrolides and tetracyclines against these pathogens. This article provides an overview of the literature on recommended and promising antibiotics used in the treatment of patients with chronic prostatitis...
May 2014: Urologii︠a︡
Valentina Bianchini, Mario Luini, Laura Borella, Antonio Parisi, Romie Jonas, Sonja Kittl, Peter Kuhnert
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common food-borne zoonotic pathogen causing human gastroenteritis worldwide and has assumed more importance in Italy following the increased consumption of raw milk. Our objectives were to get an overview of genotypes and antibiotic resistances in C. jejuni isolated from milk, cattle feces, and pigeons in dairy herds of Northern Italy. flaB-typing was applied to 78 C. jejuni isolates, previously characterized by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing, and genotypic resistances towards macrolides and quinolones based on point mutations in the 23S rRNA and gyrA genes, respectively, were determined...
July 2014: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Takayuki Hoshii, Satoshi Matsuda, Atsushi Hirao
Mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine kinase that responds to environmental determinants such as growth factor concentration, nutrient availability, energy sufficiency and stress. mTOR forms two different complexes, called mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTORC2, and these complexes have distinct substrate molecules that function in the regulation of protein translation and cellular metabolism. Although mTOR was originally discovered as a target protein of rapamycin, a natural macrolide immunosuppressant, rapamycin mainly inhibits the kinase activity of mTORC1, whereas mTORC2 is affected to a much lesser extent...
August 2014: Journal of Biochemistry
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