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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196965/genomic-microdiversity-of-bifidobacterium-pseudocatenulatum-underlying-differential-strain-level-responses-to-dietary-carbohydrate-intervention
#1
Guojun Wu, Chenhong Zhang, Huan Wu, Ruirui Wang, Jian Shen, Linghua Wang, Yufeng Zhao, Xiaoyan Pang, Xiaojun Zhang, Liping Zhao, Menghui Zhang
The genomic basis of the response to dietary intervention of human gut beneficial bacteria remains elusive, which hinders precise manipulation of the microbiota for human health. After receiving a dietary intervention enriched with nondigestible carbohydrates for 105 days, a genetically obese child with Prader-Willi syndrome lost 18.4% of his body weight and showed significant improvement in his bioclinical parameters. We obtained five isolates (C1, C15, C55, C62, and C95) of one of the most abundantly promoted beneficial species, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, from a postintervention fecal sample...
February 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193158/transcriptional-and-physiological-analyses-of-fe-deficiency-response-in-maize-reveal-the-presence-of-strategy-i-components-and-fe-p-interactions
#2
Laura Zanin, Silvia Venuti, Anita Zamboni, Zeno Varanini, Nicola Tomasi, Roberto Pinton
BACKGROUND: Under limited iron (Fe) availability maize, a Strategy II plant, improves Fe acquisition through the release of phytosiderophores (PS) into the rhizosphere and the subsequent uptake of Fe-PS complexes into root cells. Occurrence of Strategy-I-like components and interactions with phosphorous (P) nutrition has been hypothesized based on molecular and physiological studies in grasses. RESULTS: In this report transcriptomic analysis (NimbleGen microarray) of Fe deficiency response revealed that maize roots modulated the expression levels of 724 genes (508 up- and 216 down-regulated, respectively)...
February 13, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174082/%C3%AE-propeller-phytases-diversity-catalytic-attributes-current-developments-and-potential-biotechnological-applications
#3
REVIEW
Vinod Kumar, Ajar Nath Yadav, Priyanka Verma, Punesh Sangwan, Abhishake Saxena, Krishan Kumar, Bijender Singh
Phytases are phosphatases which stepwise remove phosphates from phytic acid or its salts. β-Propeller phytase (BPPhy) belongs to a special class of microbial phytases that is regarded as most diverse, isolated and characterized from different microbes, mainly from Bacillus spp. BPPhy class is unique for its Ca(2+)-dependent catalytic activity, strict substrate specificity, active at neutral to alkaline pH and high thermostability. Numerous sequence and structure based studies have revealed unique attributes and catalytic properties of this class, as compared to other classes of phytases...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164123/novel-approach-to-classify-plants-based-on-metabolite-content-similarity
#4
Kang Liu, Azian Azamimi Abdullah, Ming Huang, Takaaki Nishioka, Md Altaf-Ul-Amin, Shigehiko Kanaya
Secondary metabolites are bioactive substances with diverse chemical structures. Depending on the ecological environment within which they are living, higher plants use different combinations of secondary metabolites for adaptation (e.g., defense against attacks by herbivores or pathogenic microbes). This suggests that the similarity in metabolite content is applicable to assess phylogenic similarity of higher plants. However, such a chemical taxonomic approach has limitations of incomplete metabolomics data...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146102/dna%C3%A2-microarray-based%C3%A2-screening%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-characterization%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-traditional%C3%A2-chinese%C3%A2-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Ryoiti Kiyama
The application of DNA microarray assay (DMA) has entered a new era owing to recent innovations in omics technologies. This review summarizes recent applications of DMA-based gene expression profiling by focusing on the screening and characterizationof traditional Chinese medicine. First, herbs, mushrooms, and dietary plants analyzed by DMA along with their effective components and their biological/physiological effects are summarized and discussed by examining their comprehensive list and a list of representative effective chemicals...
January 30, 2017: Microarrays
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143400/the-carotenoid-biosynthetic-and-catabolic-genes-in-wheat-and-their-association-with-yellow-pigments
#6
Pasqualina Colasuonno, Maria Luisa Lozito, Ilaria Marcotuli, Domenica Nigro, Angelica Giancaspro, Giacomo Mangini, Pasquale De Vita, Anna Maria Mastrangelo, Nicola Pecchioni, Kelly Houston, Rosanna Simeone, Agata Gadaleta, Antonio Blanco
BACKGROUND: In plants carotenoids play an important role in the photosynthetic process and photo-oxidative protection, and are the substrate for the synthesis of abscisic acid and strigolactones. In addition to their protective role as antioxidants and precursors of vitamin A, in wheat carotenoids are important as they influence the colour (whiteness vs. yellowness) of the grain. Understanding the genetic basis of grain yellow pigments, and identifying associated markers provide the basis for improving wheat quality by molecular breeding...
January 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140320/alignment-of-healthy-dietary-patterns-and-environmental-sustainability-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Miriam E Nelson, Michael W Hamm, Frank B Hu, Steven A Abrams, Timothy S Griffin
To support food security for current and future generations, there is a need to understand the relation between sustainable diets and the health of a population. In recent years, a number of studies have investigated and compared different dietary patterns to better understand which foods and eating patterns have less of an environmental impact while meeting nutritional needs and promoting health. This systematic review (SR) of population-level dietary patterns and food sustainability extends and updates the SR that was conducted by the 2015 US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, an expert committee commissioned by the federal government to inform dietary guidance as it relates to the committee's original conclusions...
November 2016: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139696/rewiring-carotenoid-biosynthesis-in-plants-using-a-viral-vector
#8
Eszter Majer, Briardo Llorente, Manuel Rodríguez-Concepción, José-Antonio Daròs
Plants can be engineered to sustainably produce compounds of nutritional, industrial or pharmaceutical relevance. This is, however, a challenging task as extensive regulation of biosynthetic pathways often hampers major metabolic changes. Here we describe the use of a viral vector derived from Tobacco etch virus to express a whole heterologous metabolic pathway that produces the health-promoting carotenoid lycopene in tobacco tissues. The pathway consisted in three enzymes from the soil bacteria Pantoea ananatis...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114755/comparative-proteomic-and-nutritional-composition-analysis-of-independent-transgenic-pigeon-pea-seeds-harboring-cry1acf-and-cry2aa-genes-and-their-nontransgenic-counterparts
#9
Pragya Mishra, Shweta Singh, Maniraj Rathinam, Muralimohan Nandiganti, Nikhil Ram Kumar, Arulprakash Thangaraj, Vinutha Thimmegowda, Veda Krishnan, Vagish Mishra, Neha Jain, Vandna Rai, Debasis Pattanayak, Rohini Sreevathsa
Safety assessment of genetically modified plants is an important aspect prior to deregulation. Demonstration of substantial equivalence of the transgenics compared to their nontransgenic counterparts can be performed using different techniques at various molecular levels. The present study is a first-ever comprehensive evaluation of pigeon pea transgenics harboring two independent cry genes, cry2Aa and cry1AcF. The absence of unintended effects in the transgenic seed components was demonstrated by proteome and nutritional composition profiling...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112767/nutritional-status-and-habitual-dietary-intake-are-associated-with-frail-skin-conditions-in-community-dwelling-older-people
#10
S Iizaka, S Nagata, H Sanada
OBJECTIVE: Prevention of frail skin is important in older people because frail skin is associated with a risk of injury in this population. In this study, we investigated the association of nutritional status and habitual dietary intake with skin conditions in community-dwelling older people. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Three community settings in Japan from autumn to winter. PARTICIPANTS: Older people aged ≥65 years without care-need certification (n=118)...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112064/nutrition-infection-and-stunting-the-roles-of-deficiencies-of-individual-nutrients-and-foods-and-of-inflammation-as-determinants-of-reduced-linear-growth-of-children
#11
D Joe Millward
The regulation of linear growth by nutritional and inflammatory influences is examined in terms of growth-plate endochondral ossification, in order to better understand stunted growth in children. Linear growth is controlled by complex genetic, physiological, and nutrient-sensitive endocrine/paracrine/autocrine mediated molecular signalling mechanisms, possibly including sleep adequacy through its influence on growth hormone secretion. Inflammation, which accompanies most infections and environmental enteric dysfunction, inhibits endochondral ossification through the action of mediators including proinflammatory cytokines, the activin A-follistatin system, glucocorticoids and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21)...
January 23, 2017: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112058/a-n-3-pufa-depletion-applied-to-rainbow-trout-fry-oncorhynchus-mykiss-does-not-modulate-its-subsequent-lipid-bioconversion-capacity
#12
Julie Mellery, Jonathan Brel, Junio Dort, Florian Geay, Patrick Kestemont, David S Francis, Yvan Larondelle, Xavier Rollin
Nutritional strategies are currently developed to produce farmed fish rich in n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) whilst replacing fish oil by plant-derived oils in aquafeeds. The optimisation of such strategies requires a thorough understanding of fish lipid metabolism and its nutritional modulation. The present study evaluated the fatty acid bioconversion capacity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry previously depleted in n-3 PUFA through a 60-d pre-experimental feeding period with a sunflower oil-based diet (SO) followed by a 36-d experimental period during which fish were fed either a linseed oil-based diet (LO) (this treatment being called SO/LO) or a fish oil-based diet (FO) (this treatment being called SO/FO)...
January 23, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106512/endoglucanase-and-xylanase-production-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture-glycosyl-hydrolases-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture
#13
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099773/comparison-of-green-and-albino-individuals-of-the-partially-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-epipactis-helleborine-on-molecular-identities-of-mycorrhizal-fungi-nutritional-modes-and-gene-expression-in-mycorrhizal-roots
#14
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahide Yamato, Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kazuya Takahashi, Yoshiko Ida, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070322/carotenoid-profiling-of-the-leaves-of-selected-african-eggplant-accessions-subjected-to-drought-stress
#15
Elias K Mibei, Jane Ambuko, James J Giovannoni, Arnold N Onyango, Willis O Owino
African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070319/development-of-a-nutrient-dense-complementary-food-using-amaranth-sorghum-grains
#16
Judith Kanensi Okoth, Sophie Atieno Ochola, Nicholas K Gikonyo, Anselimo Makokha
Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056757/phytochemical-therapies-in-vascular-functioning-a-molecular-approach
#17
Hasan Gencoglu, Cemal Orhan, Kazim Sahin
There has been an increasing interest in the usage of natural products for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to be negatively correlated with the risk of CVDs. These foods provide a diversity of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and fibers which play critical roles in the sustainability of optimal cardiovascular health. Plant-based foods or a nutritional cure are gradually being integrated into medical practice for CVD management partly due to the supporting experimental studies, clinical trials and epidemiological studies...
January 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050732/nutrient-supply-and-simulated-herbivory-differentially-alter-the-metabolite-pools-and-the-efficacy-of-the-glucosinolate-based-defense-system-in-brassica-species
#18
Makhdora Almuziny, Charlotte Decker, Dong Wang, Patrick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028560/pathophysiology-prevention-treatment-and-outcomes-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#19
REVIEW
Noora H Al-Shahwani, David L Sigalet
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) remains a serious problem in the treatment of infants with nutritional problems and short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A review of the recent literature from 2010 to 2016, concentrating on articles related to the pathophysiology of IFALD and to outcomes of novel nutritional and pharmacological therapies for neonatal cholestasis in the post-surgical neonate. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of IFALD relates to an increase sensitivity of the neonatal liver to cholestasis in the non-fed state; prolonged cholestasis almost inevitably results in liver damage which will progress from fibrosis to cirrhosis...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999978/the-linin-promoter-is-highly-effective-in-enhancing-punicic-acid-production-in-arabidopsis
#20
Ziliang Song, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Randall J Weselake
Enhanced levels of punicic acid were produced in the seed oil of Arabidopsis over-expressing pomegranate FATTY ACID CONJUGASE driven by heterologous promoters, among which the linin promoter was the most efficient. Fatty acids with conjugated double bonds play a special role in determining both the nutritional and industrial uses of plant oils. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ), a conjugated fatty acid naturally enriched in the pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds, has gained increasing attention from the biotechnology community toward its production in metabolically engineered oilseed crops because of its significant health benefits...
March 2017: Plant Cell Reports
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