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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106512/endoglucanase-and-xylanase-production-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture-glycosyl-hydrolases-by-bacillus-sp-ar03-in-co-culture
#1
Johan S Hero, José H Pisa, Nora I Perotti, Cintia M Romero, María A Martínez
The behaviour of three isolates retrieved from different cellulolytic consortia, Bacillus sp. AR03, Paenibacillus sp. AR247 and Achromobacter sp. AR476-2, were examined individually and as co-cultures in order evaluate their ability to produce extracellular cellulases and xylanases. Utilizing a peptone-based medium supplemented with carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), an increase estimated of 1.30 and 1.50 times was obtained by the co-culture containing the strains AR03 and AR247, with respect to enzyme titles registered by their individual cultivation...
January 20, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099773/comparison-of-green-and-albino-individuals-of-the-partially-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-epipactis-helleborine-on-molecular-identities-of-mycorrhizal-fungi-nutritional-modes-and-gene-expression-in-mycorrhizal-roots
#2
Kenji Suetsugu, Masahide Yamato, Chihiro Miura, Katsushi Yamaguchi, Kazuya Takahashi, Yoshiko Ida, Shuji Shigenobu, Hironori Kaminaka
Some green orchids obtain carbon from their mycorrhizal fungi, as well as from photosynthesis. These partially mycoheterotrophic orchids sometimes produce fully achlorophyllous, leaf-bearing (albino) variants. Comparing green and albino individuals of these orchids will help to uncover the molecular mechanisms associated with mycoheterotrophy. We compared green and albino Epipactis helleborine by molecular barcoding of mycorrhizal fungi, nutrient sources based on (15) N and (13) C abundances, and gene expression in their mycorrhizae by RNA-seq and cDNA de novo assembly...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070322/carotenoid-profiling-of-the-leaves-of-selected-african-eggplant-accessions-subjected-to-drought-stress
#3
Elias K Mibei, Jane Ambuko, James J Giovannoni, Arnold N Onyango, Willis O Owino
African eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum and S. macrocarpon) are among the most economically important and valuable vegetable and fruit crops. They are a major source of biologically active nutritional substances and metabolites which are essential for plant growth, development, stress adaptation and defense. Among these metabolites are the carotenoids which act as accessory pigments for photosynthesis and precursor to plant hormones. Though African eggplants are known to be resistant to various abiotic stresses, the effect of these stresses on secondary metabolites has not been well defined...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070319/development-of-a-nutrient-dense-complementary-food-using-amaranth-sorghum-grains
#4
Judith Kanensi Okoth, Sophie Atieno Ochola, Nicholas K Gikonyo, Anselimo Makokha
Thin porridge from cereals and starchy tubers is a common complementary food in Sub Saharan Africa. It may be high in antinutrients, low in energy, and nutrient density hence inadequate in providing infants' high energy and nutrients requirements per unit body weight. Consequently, undernourishment levels among children under 5 years are high. Therefore, there is need to avail nutrient-dense complementary foods especially for children in low-resource settings. The study was aimed at developing a nutrient-dense complementary food from amaranth and sorghum grains...
January 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056757/phytochemical-therapies-in-vascular-functioning-a-molecular-approach
#5
Hasan Gencoglu, Cemal Orhan, Kazim Sahin
There has been an increasing interest in the usage of natural products for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD). Regular consumption of fruits, vegetables and whole grains has been shown to be negatively correlated with the risk of CVDs. These foods provide a diversity of nutrients and different bioactive compounds including phytochemicals, vitamins, minerals and fibers which play critical roles in the sustainability of optimal cardiovascular health. Plant-based foods or a nutritional cure are gradually being integrated into medical practice for CVD management partly due to the supporting experimental studies, clinical trials and epidemiological studies...
January 5, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050732/nutrient-supply-and-simulated-herbivory-differentially-alter-the-metabolite-pools-and-the-efficacy-of-the-glucosinolate-based-defense-system-in-brassica-species
#6
Makhdora Almuziny, Charlotte Decker, Dong Wang, Patrick Gerard, Nishanth Tharayil
Environmental stress hinders growth of plants and commonly results in the accumulation of carbon-based defense compounds. However, the dynamics of nitrogen (N)-containing defense compounds are less predictable under environmental stress. The impact of nutrient deficiency on plant defenses that require the metabolic conversion of a less toxic compound to a more potent toxin is even more poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) deficiency and simulated herbivory on the concentration of metabolites including glucosinolates (GSLs), on the conversion of GSLs to more toxic isothiocyanates (ITCs), and on the activity of myrosinase (MYR) in leaves of Brassica juncea and Brassica nigra...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028560/pathophysiology-prevention-treatment-and-outcomes-of-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease
#7
REVIEW
Noora H Al-Shahwani, David L Sigalet
BACKGROUND: Intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD) remains a serious problem in the treatment of infants with nutritional problems and short bowel syndrome. METHODS: A review of the recent literature from 2010 to 2016, concentrating on articles related to the pathophysiology of IFALD and to outcomes of novel nutritional and pharmacological therapies for neonatal cholestasis in the post-surgical neonate. RESULTS: The pathophysiology of IFALD relates to an increase sensitivity of the neonatal liver to cholestasis in the non-fed state; prolonged cholestasis almost inevitably results in liver damage which will progress from fibrosis to cirrhosis...
December 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999978/the-linin-promoter-is-highly-effective-in-enhancing-punicic-acid-production-in-arabidopsis
#8
Ziliang Song, Elzbieta Mietkiewska, Randall J Weselake
Enhanced levels of punicic acid were produced in the seed oil of Arabidopsis over-expressing pomegranate FATTY ACID CONJUGASE driven by heterologous promoters, among which the linin promoter was the most efficient. Fatty acids with conjugated double bonds play a special role in determining both the nutritional and industrial uses of plant oils. Punicic acid (18:3Δ(9cis,11trans,13cis) ), a conjugated fatty acid naturally enriched in the pomegranate (Punica granatum) seeds, has gained increasing attention from the biotechnology community toward its production in metabolically engineered oilseed crops because of its significant health benefits...
December 20, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999938/characterization-of-cinnamoyl-esterases-from-different-lactobacilli-and-bifidobacteria
#9
Caroline Fritsch, André Jänsch, Matthias A Ehrmann, Simone Toelstede, Rudi F Vogel
A high variety of plants that are used for food production contain esterified hydroxycinnamic acids. As their free forms display several benefits, like an enhanced absorption in human intestinal tract, anti-oxidative and anti-carcinogenic effects, an improved protein solubility and reduced discoloration, the microbial ability to cleave the ester bond is highly desired. In order to examine potential fermentation strains for this purpose, six different lactic acid bacteria and one bifidobacterial strain were screened for their ability to degrade esterified hydroxycinnamic acids because these strains are commonly used for fermentation of plant-based foods...
February 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999818/expression-purification-and-characterization-of-a-sucrose-nonfermenting-1-related-protein-kinases-2-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-in-e-coli-based-cell-free-system
#10
Xu Zhang, Shuangxi Zhang, Jun Wang, Jing Zi, Jianhui Wang, Shaolin Chen, Yi Wan
The plant-specific sucrose nonfermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family is considered an important regulator of plant responses to abiotic stresses such as drought, cold, salinity, and nutrition deficiency. However, little information is available on how SnRK2s regulate sulfur deprivation responses in Arabidopsis. Large-scale production of SnRK2 kinases in vitro can help to elucidate the biochemical properties and physiological functions of this protein family. However, heterogenous expression of SnRK2s usually leads to inactive proteins...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995378/curcumin-a-compound-from-natural-sources-a-true-scientific-challenge-a-review
#11
Zorka Stanić
Curcumin, a plant-derived polyphenolic compound, naturally present in turmeric (Curcuma longa), has been the subject of intensive investigations on account of its various activities. The implementation of safe, beneficial and highly functional compounds from natural sources in human nutrition/prevention/therapy requires some modifications in order to achieve their multi-functionality, improve their bioavailability and delivery strategies, with the main aim to enhance their effectiveness. The low aqueous solubility of curcumin, its rapid metabolism and elimination from the body, and consequently, poor bioavailability, constitute major obstacles to its application...
December 19, 2016: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990779/current-issues-involved-with-the-identification-and-nutritional-value-of-wood-grubs-consumed-by-australian-aborigines
#12
REVIEW
Alan Yen, Conrad Bilney, Michael Shackleton, Susan Lawler
The so called witchetty grub is a publicised food source for Australian Aborigines. Despite heavy use, the identities and number of species consumed is still not known because of the lack of identified voucher specimens. Taxonomy based on adults makes identification of larval forms difficult. Dwelling in the root, trunks and stems of woody plants, grubs are a reliable and highly valued food source that may be in decline. Much information on edible insects may already be lost in parts of Australia heavily settled by Europeans...
December 19, 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982757/relationship-between-plant-food-fruits-vegetables-and-kimchi-consumption-and-the-prevalence-of-rhinitis-among-korean-adults-based-on-the-2011-and-2012-korea-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-data
#13
Yong-Suk Kwon, Yoo-Kyung Park, Hye-Ja Chang, Se-Young Ju
The aim of the current study was to analyze the relationship between plant food (fruits, vegetables, and kimchi) and the prevalence of rhinitis among Korean adults using data from the 2011 and 2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 7494 subjects aged from 19 to 64 years participated in a rhinitis morbidity survey, health behavior interview, and 24-h dietary recall test. Individuals with energy intakes less than 500 kcal or more than 5000 kcal were excluded. The results showed that kimchi intake was inversely associated with the prevalence of rhinitis...
December 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974140/an-update-on-risk-communication-in-the-arctic
#14
Eva-Maria Krümmel, Andrew Gilman
BACKGROUND: Arctic residents can be exposed to a wide range of contaminants through consumption of traditional (country) foods (i.e. food from wild animals and plants that are hunted, caught or collected locally in the Arctic). Yet these foods provide excellent nutrition, promote social cohesion, meet some spiritual needs for connectedness to the land and water, reinforce cultural ties, are economically important and promote overall good health for many. The risk and benefit balance associated with the consumption of traditional Arctic foods is complicated to communicate and has been referred to as the "Arctic Dilemma"...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973602/a-new-chytridiomycete-fungus-intermixed-with-crustacean-resting-eggs-in-a-407-million-year-old-continental-freshwater-environment
#15
Christine Strullu-Derrien, Tomasz Goral, Joyce E Longcore, Jørgen Olesen, Paul Kenrick, Gregory D Edgecombe
The 407-million-year-old Rhynie Chert (Scotland) contains the most intact fossilised remains of an early land-based ecosystem including plants, arthropods, fungi and other microorganisms. Although most studies have focused on the terrestrial component, fossilised freshwater environments provide critical insights into fungal-algal interactions and the earliest continental branchiopod crustaceans. Here we report interactions between an enigmatic organism and an exquisitely preserved fungus. The fungal reproductive structures are intermixed with exceptionally well-preserved globular spiny structures interpreted as branchiopod resting eggs...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965690/root-to-shoot-hormonal-communication-in-contrasting-rootstocks-suggests-an-important-role-for-the-ethylene-precursor-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic-acid-in-mediating-plant-growth-under-low-potassium-nutrition-in-tomato
#16
Cristina Martínez-Andújar, Alfonso Albacete, Ascensión Martínez-Pérez, José Manuel Pérez-Pérez, María José Asins, Francisco Pérez-Alfocea
Selection and breeding of rootstocks that can tolerate low K supply may increase crop productivity in low fertility soils and reduce fertilizer application. However, the underlying physiological traits are still largely unknown. In this study, 16 contrasting recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between domestic and wild tomato species (Solanum lycopersicum × Solanum pimpinellifolium) have been used to analyse traits related to the rootstock-mediated induction of low (L, low shoot fresh weight) or high (H, high shoot fresh weight) vigor to a commercial F1 hybrid grown under control (6 mM, c) and low-K (1 mM, k)...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941699/nutrimetabolomics-an-update-on-analytical-approaches-to-investigate-the-role-of-plant-based-foods-and-their-bioactive-compounds-in-non-communicable-chronic-diseases
#17
REVIEW
Oscar Daniel Rangel-Huerta, Angel Gil
Metabolomics is the study of low-weight molecules present in biological samples such as biofluids, tissue/cellular extracts, and culture media. Metabolomics research is increasing, and at the moment, it has several applications in the food science and nutrition fields. In the present review, we provide an update about the most frequently used methodologies and metabolomic platforms in these areas. Also, we discuss different metabolomic strategies regarding the discovery of new bioactive compounds (BACs) in plant-based foods...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939720/effects-of-mediterranean-diet-in-patients-with-recurring-colds-and-frequent-complications
#18
F M Calatayud, B Calatayud, J G Gallego, C González-Martín, L F Alguacile
INTRODUCTION: In recent years, traditional diets enriched with fresh plant-based foods have been gradually abandoned, increasing the consumption of animal foods and highly processed food. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of a nutritional intervention with a Traditional Mediterranean Diet in patients with recurring colds (RC) and frequent inflammatory complications (IC). METHODS: Prospective before-after comparison study of 63 girls and 65 boys aged 1-5 years were included over a year in the nutritional programme "Learning to eat from the Mediterranean"...
December 7, 2016: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938858/rhizospheric-soil-and-root-endogenous-fungal-diversity-and-composition-in-response-to-continuous-panax-notoginseng-cropping-practices
#19
Yong Tan, Yinshan Cui, Haoyu Li, Anxiu Kuang, Xiaoran Li, Yunlin Wei, Xiuling Ji
Rhizosphere and endophytic fungal communities are considered critically important for plant health and soil fertility. In response to continuous cropping, Panax notoginseng becomes vulnerable to attack by fungal pathogens. In the present study, culture-independent Illumina MiSeq was used to investigate the rhizospheric and root endophytic fungi in response to continuous Panax notoginseng cropping practices. The results demonstrated that fungal diversity is increased inside the roots and in rhizospheric. Ascomycota, Zygomycota, Basidiomycota and Chytridiomycota were the dominant phyla detected during the continuous cropping of Panax notoginseng...
January 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936282/metabolomic-data-suggest-regulation-of-black-howler-monkey-alouatta-pigra-diet-composition-at-the-molecular-level
#20
Katherine R Amato, Alexander Ulanov, Kou-San Ju, Paul A Garber
In addition to macronutrients, foods consist of a complex set of chemical compounds that can influence dietary selectivity and consumer physiology. Metabolomics allow us to describe this complexity by quantifying all small molecules, or metabolites, in a food item. In this study we use GC-MS based metabolomics to describe the metabolite profiles of foods consumed by one population of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period. Our data indicate that each food exhibited a distinct metabolite profile, and the average weekly intake of metabolites such as neochlorogenic acid and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was correlated with the consumption of certain plant parts...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
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