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arabinogalactan protein plant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667761/plant-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-at-the-plasma-membrane-cell-wall-nexus
#1
REVIEW
Trevor H Yeats, Antony Bacic, Kim L Johnson
Approximately 1% of plant proteins are predicted to be post-translationally modified with a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor that tethers the polypeptide to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While the synthesis and structure of GPI anchors is largely conserved across eukaryotes, the repertoire of functional domains present in the GPI-anchored proteome has diverged substantially. In plants, this includes a large fraction of the GPI-anchored proteome being further modified with plant-specific arabinogalactan (AG) O-glycans...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Integrative Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510511/organ-and-tissue-specific-localisation-of-selected-cell-wall-epitopes-in-the-zygotic-embryo-of-brachypodium-distachyon
#2
Alexander Betekhtin, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Joanna Lusinska, Lukasz Chajec, Ewa Kurczynska, Robert Hasterok
The plant cell wall shows a great diversity regarding its chemical composition, which may vary significantly even during different developmental stages. In this study, we analysed the distribution of several cell wall epitopes in embryos of Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium). We also described the variations in the nucleus shape and the number of nucleoli that occurred in some embryo cells. The use of transmission electron microscopy, and histological and immunolocalisation techniques permitted the distribution of selected arabinogalactan proteins, extensins, pectins, and hemicelluloses on the embryo surface, internal cell compartments, and in the context of the cell wall ultrastructure to be demonstrated...
March 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482161/direct-imaging-of-how-lanthanides-break-the-normal-evolution-of-plants
#3
Qing Yang, Lihong Wang, Jingfang He, Zhenbiao Yang, Xiaohua Huang
After rare earth elements [REE(III)] are anchored outside of the plasma membrane, REE(III) break plant evolution to initiate leaf cell endocytosis, which finally affects plant growth. However, the molecule for anchoring REE(III) in the acidic environment outside of the plasma membrane is not clear, which is crucial for exploring the mechanism of REE(III) breaking plant evolution. Here, lanthanum(III) [La(III)] and terbium(III) [Tb(III)] were respectively served as a representative of REE(III) without and with f electrons, and Arabidopsis was served as a representative of plants, cellular and molecular basis for arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) anchoring REE(III) outside of the plasma membrane was investigated...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470639/arabinogalactan-proteins-and-their-sugar-chains-functions-in-plant-reproduction-research-methods-and-biosynthesis
#4
REVIEW
Shihao Su, Tetsuya Higashiyama
The arabinogalactan protein (AGP) family is one of the most complex protein families and is ubiquitous in the plant kingdom. Moreover, it has been demonstrated to play various roles during plant reproduction. A typical AGP contains a hydroxyproline-rich core protein with high heterogeneity and varying numbers of polysaccharide side chains. However, the functions of the polysaccharide components (i.e. AG sugar chains) remain largely unknown due to the general difficulties associated with studying sugar chains in glycobiology...
March 2018: Plant Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454308/the-unique-evolutionary-pattern-of-the-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-superfamily-in-chinese-white-pear-pyrus-bretschneideri
#5
Huijun Jiao, Xing Liu, Shuguang Sun, Peng Wang, Xin Qiao, Jiaming Li, Chao Tang, Juyou Wu, Shaoling Zhang, Shutian Tao
BACKGROUND: The hydroxyproline-rich glycoprotein (HRGP) superfamily, comprising three families (arabinogalactan-proteins, AGPs; extensins, EXTs; proline-rich proteins, PRPs), is a class of proline-rich proteins that exhibit high diversity and are involved in many aspects of plant biology. RESULTS: In this study, 838 HRGPs were identified from Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) by searching for biased amino acid composition and conserved motifs. 405 HRGPs were derived from whole genome duplication (WGD) events which is suggested to be the major force of driving HRGPs expansion and the recent WGD event shared by apple and pear generated most duplicated HRGPs in pear...
February 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406091/abnormal-swelling-of-the-peritrophic-membrane-in-eri-silkworm-gut-caused-by-mlx56-family-defense-proteins-with-chitin-binding-and-extensin-domains
#6
Kotaro Konno, Sachiko Shimura, Chihiro Ueno, Toru Arakawa, Masatoshi Nakamura
MLX56 family defense proteins, MLX56 and its close homolog LA-b, are chitin-binding defense proteins found in mulberry latex that show strong growth-inhibitions against caterpillars when fed at concentrations as low as 0.01%. MLX56 family proteins contain a unique structure with an extensin domain surrounded by two hevein-like chitin-binding domains, but their defensive modes of action remain unclear. Here, we analyzed the effects of MLX56 family proteins on the peritrophic membrane (PM), a thin and soft membrane consisting of chitin that lines the midgut lumen of insects...
March 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385650/the-distinct-functions-of-two-classical-arabinogalactan-proteins-bcmf8-and-bcmf18-during-pollen-wall-development-in-brassica-campestris
#7
Sue Lin, Xiaoyan Yue, Yingjing Miao, Youjian Yu, Heng Dong, Li Huang, Jiashu Cao
Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are extensively glycosylated hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins ubiquitous in all plant tissues and cells. AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, the only two functionally known pollen-specific classical AGP encoding genes in Arabidopsis, are reported to have redundant functions in microspore development. BcMF18 and BcMF8 isolated from Brassica campestris are the orthologues of AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, respectively. In contrast to the functional redundancy of AtAGP6 and AtAGP11, single-gene disruption of BcMF8 led to deformed pollen grains with abnormal intine development and ectopic aperture formation in B...
January 31, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383450/genome-wide-identification-classification-and-expression-of-phytocyanins-in-populus-trichocarpa
#8
Shuangshuang Luo, Wenfang Hu, Yue Wang, Bin Liu, Hanwei Yan, Yan Xiang
74 phytocyanin genes were identified in the Populus trichocarpa genome. Phylogenetic analysis grouped the PC proteins into four subfamilies (UCs, PLCs, SCs, and ENODLs). Closely related PC proteins share similar motifs, implying similar functions. Expression profiles of PtPC genes were analyzed in response to drought and salt-stress. Phytocyanins (PCs) are blue copper proteins associated with electron carrier activity that have a large influence on plant growth and resistance. The majority of PCs are chimeric arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs)...
January 30, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259880/gene-expression-of-an-arabinogalactan-lysine-rich-protein-ca-agp18-during-vegetative-and-reproductive-development-of-bell-pepper-capsicum-annuum-l
#9
Mercedes Verdugo-Perales, Rosabel Velez-de la Rocha, Josefina León-Félix, Tomas Osuna-Enciso, José B Heredia, Juan A Osuna-Castro, Maria A Islas-Osuna, J Adriana Sañudo-Barajas
Lysine-rich (Lys-rich) proteins encoded by AGP17 , AGP18 , and AGP19 genes are cell wall-associated glycopeptides related to sexual reproduction in flowering plants. This subclass belongs to classical arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) widely studied in model plants like Arabidopsis . In this study, we identified the CaAGP18 cDNA from bell pepper ( Capsicum annuum L.), as well as its expression pattern during vegetative and reproductive development. The deduced amino acid sequence revealed a Lys-rich AGP18 protein of 238 amino acids residues in length with an estimated molecular mass of 22...
January 2018: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223065/arabinogalactan-proteins-immunolocalization-in-the-developing-ovary-of-a-facultative-apomict-fragaria-x-ananassa-duch
#10
Agata Leszczuk, Ewa Szczuka
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arabinogalactan proteins are present in the extracellular matrix and their occurrence is developmentally regulated. The studies were carried out to localise arabinogalactan proteins in ovary cells of Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (strawberry) during megasporogenesis, megagametogenesis, and formation of the embryo. METHODS: The research included studies of ovary histochemistry and immunofluorescence labelling of AGP epitopes was performed with antibodies JIM13, JIM15 and MAC207...
February 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121496/properties-of-two-fungal-endo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanases-and-their-synergistic-action-with-an-exo-%C3%AE-1-3-galactanase-in-degrading-arabinogalactan-proteins
#11
Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Kaori Yaguchi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are plant proteoglycans, which are widely encountered in the plant kingdom, usually localized on the cell surface. The carbohydrate moieties of AGPs consist of β-1,3-galactan main chains and β-1,6-galactan side chains, to which other auxiliary sugars are attached. To date, FvEn3GAL isolated from Flammulina velutipes is the sole β-1,3-galactanase acting on β-1,3-galactan in an endo-manner. Here we cloned two homologous genes, designated Af3G and NcEn3GAL, possibly encoding endo-β-1,3-galactanase from Aspergillus flavus and Neurospora crassa, respectively...
October 25, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120180/synthesis-and-application-of-branched-type-ii-arabinogalactans
#12
Mathias C F Andersen, Irene Boos, Colin Ruprecht, William G T Willats, Fabian Pfrengle, Mads H Clausen
The synthesis of linear and (1 → 6)-branched β-(1 → 3)-d-galactans, structures found in plant arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), is described. The synthetic strategy relies on iterative couplings of monosaccharide and disaccharide thioglycoside donors, followed by a late-stage glycosylation of heptagalactan backbone acceptors to introduce branching. A key finding from the synthetic study was the need to match protective groups in order to tune reactivity and ensure selectivity during the assembly. Carbohydrate microarrays were generated to enable the detailed epitope mapping of two monoclonal antibodies known to recognize AGPs: JIM16 and JIM133...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034465/gene-expression-trade-offs-between-defence-and-growth-in-english-elm-induced-by-ophiostoma-novo-ulmi
#13
Pedro Perdiguero, Juan Sobrino-Plata, Martin Venturas, Juan Antonio Martín, Luis Gil, Carmen Collada
Wilt diseases caused by vascular pathogens include some of the most damaging stresses affecting trees. Dutch elm disease (DED), caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi, destroyed most of North American and European elm populations in the 20th century. The highly susceptible English elm, also known as Atinian clone, suffered the highest mortality rates during the last pandemic event, probably due to its lack of genetic diversity. To study the DED pathosystem, we inoculated English elm ramets with O. novo-ulmi and evaluated xylem anatomy, molecular response, and disease symptoms...
January 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027584/the-ceratopteris-fern-developing-motile-gamete-walls-contain-diverse-polysaccharides-but-not-pectin
#14
Renee A Lopez, Karen S Renzaglia
Unlike most plant cell walls, the five consecutive walls laid down during spermatogenesis in the model fern Ceratopteris contain sparse cellulose, lack pectin and are enriched with callose and hemicelluloses. Seed-free plants like bryophytes and pteridophytes produce swimming male gametes for sexual reproduction. During spermatogenesis, unique walls are formed that are essential to the appropriate development and maturation of the motile gametes. Other than the detection of callose and general wall polysaccharides in scattered groups, little is known about the sequence of wall formation and the composition of these walls during sperm cell differentiation in plants that produce swimming sperm...
February 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016904/arabinogalactan-proteins-accumulate-in-the-cell-walls-of-searching-hyphae-of-the-stem-parasitic-plants-cuscuta-campestris-and-cuscuta-japonica
#15
Akitaka Hozumi, Subhankar Bera, Daiki Fujiwara, Takeshi Obayashi, Ryusuke Yokoyama, Kazuhiko Nishitani, Koh Aoki
Stem parasitic plants (Cuscuta spp.) develop a specialized organ called a haustorium to penetrate their hosts' stem tissues. To reach the vascular tissues of the host plant, the haustorium needs to overcome the physical barrier of the cell wall, and the parasite-host interaction via the cell wall is a critical process. However, the cell wall components responsible for the establishment of parasitic connections have not yet been identified. In this study, we investigated the spatial distribution patterns of cell wall components at a parasitic interface using parasite-host complexes of Cuscuta campestris-Arabidopsis thaliana and Cuscuta japonica-Glycine max...
November 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981776/heterologous-expression-and-characterization-of-an-arabidopsis-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosidase-and-%C3%AE-d-galactosidases-acting-on-%C3%AE-l-arabinopyranosyl-residues
#16
Chiemi Imaizumi, Harumi Tomatsu, Kiminari Kitazawa, Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Seiji Shibano, Kaoru Kikuchi, Masatoshi Yamaguchi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake, Björn Usadel
The major plant sugar l-arabinose (l-Ara) has two different ring forms, l-arabinofuranose (l-Araf) and l-arabinopyranose (l-Arap). Although l-Ara mainly appears in the form of α-l-Araf residues in cell wall components, such as pectic α-1,3:1,5-arabinan, arabinoxylan, and arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), lesser amounts of it can also be found as β-l-Arap residues of AGPs. Even though AGPs are known to be rapidly metabolized, the enzymes acting on the β-l-Arap residues remain to be identified. In the present study, four enzymes, which we call β-l-ARAPASE (APSE) and α-GALACTOSIDASE 1 (AGAL1), AGAL2, and AGAL3, are identified as those enzymes that are likely to be responsible for the hydrolysis of the β-l-Arap residues in Arabidopsis thaliana...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954403/textile-hemp-vs-salinity-insights-from-a-targeted-gene-expression-analysis
#17
Gea Guerriero, Marc Behr, Jean-Francois Hausman, Sylvain Legay
Soil salinity is a serious threat to agriculture, because it compromises biomass production and plant productivity, by negatively affecting the vegetative growth and development of plants. Fiber crops like textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) are important natural resources that provide, sustainably, both cellulosic and woody fibers for industry. In this work, the response to salinity (200 mM NaCl) of a fiber variety of hemp (Santhica 27) was studied using quantitative real-time PCR. The responses of plantlets aged 15 days were analyzed by microscopy and by measuring the changes in expression of cell wall-related genes, as well as in the general response to exogenous constraints...
September 26, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936655/immunolocalization-of-agps-and-pectins-in-quercus-suber-gametophytic-structures
#18
Mário Luís da Costa, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Maria Isabel Amorim, Sílvia Coimbra
The arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins, ubiquitous in plants that have been linked to numerous aspects of sexual reproduction in several plant species, including the monoecious tree species Quercus suber. AGPs are found in cell membranes and cell walls of all types of tissues, including reproductive cells and organs. Pectins are cell wall components that also have been shown to change in composition and quantity during the maturations of the male and female gametophyte in cork oak...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931375/identification-of-fasciclin-like-arabinogalactan-proteins-in-textile-hemp-cannabis-sativa-l-in-silico-analyses-and-gene-expression-patterns-in-different-tissues
#19
Gea Guerriero, Lauralie Mangeot-Peter, Sylvain Legay, Marc Behr, Stanley Lutts, Khawar Sohail Siddiqui, Jean-Francois Hausman
BACKGROUND: The fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins (FLAs) belong to the arabinogalactan protein (AGP) superfamily and are known to play different physiological roles in plants. This class of proteins was shown to participate in plant growth, development, defense against abiotic stresses and, notably, cell wall biosynthesis. Although some studies are available on the characterization of FLA genes from different species, both woody and herbaceous, no detailed information is available on the FLA family of textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L...
September 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859611/transcript-profiling-of-genes-expressed-during-fibre-development-in-diploid-cotton-gossypium-arboreum-l
#20
Atul S Hande, Ishwarappa S Katageri, Mangesh P Jadhav, Sateesh Adiger, Savita Gamanagatti, Kethireddy Venkata Padmalatha, Gurusamy Dhandapani, Mogilicherla Kanakachari, Polumetla Ananda Kumar, Vanga Siva Reddy
BACKGROUND: Cotton fibre is a single cell and it is one of the best platforms for unraveling the genes express during various stages of fibre development. There are reports devoted to comparative transcriptome study on fiber cell initiation and elongation in tetraploid cultivated cotton. However, in the present investigation, comparative transcriptome study was made in diploid cultivated cotton using isogenic fuzzy-lintless (Fl) and normal fuzzy linted (FL) lines belong to Gossypium arboreum, diploid species at two stages, 0 and 10 dpa (days post anthesis), using Affymetrix cotton GeneChip genome array...
August 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
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