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arabinogalactan protein plant

Abderrakib Zahid, Julie Despres, Magalie Benard, Eric Nguema-Ona, Jerome Leprince, David Vaudry, Christophe Rihouey, Maité Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye
Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However little is currently known regarding their potential activity towards skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Ningning Zhang, Maureen Dolan, Di Wu, Gregory C Phillips, Jianfeng Xu
Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media...
September 8, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Hyung-Taeg Cho
Coordination of the events between cytoplasm and cell wall is necessary for the proper cellular activity of plants. Cell wall-associated receptor kinases are likely to play the interface for the extra-to-internal signaling process. Arabidopsis ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10), belonging to the proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinase (PERK) family, is a Ser/Thr protein kinase with arabinogalactan protein (AGP) motifs in its extracellular domain (ECD). RHS10 and other angiosperm PERK homologs are inhibitory in root hair tip growth...
September 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jonathan S Griffiths, Marie-Jeanne Crepeau, Marie-Christine Ralet, Georg J Seifert, Helen M North
The plant cell wall is held together by the interactions between four major components: cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and proteins. Mucilage is a powerful model system to study the interactions between these components as it is formed of polysaccharides that are deposited in the apoplast of seed coat epidermal cells during seed development. When seeds are hydrated, these polysaccharides expand rapidly out of the apoplastic pocket, and form an adherent halo of mucilage around the seed. In Arabidopsis, mutations in multiple genes have similar loss of mucilage adherence phenotypes including CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 5 (CESA5)/MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 3 (MUM3), MUM5/MUCI21, SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE 5 (SOS5), and FEI2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yingnan Hou, Xinyang Guo, Philipp Cyprys, Ying Zhang, Andrea Bleckmann, Le Cai, Qingpei Huang, Yu Luo, Hongya Gu, Thomas Dresselhaus, Juan Dong, Li-Jia Qu
During the angiosperm (flowering-plant) life cycle, double fertilization represents the hallmark between diploid and haploid generations [1]. The success of double fertilization largely depends on compatible communication between the male gametophyte (pollen tube) and the maternal tissues of the flower, culminating in precise pollen tube guidance to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) and its rupture to release sperm cells. Several important factors involved in the pollen tube reception have been identified recently [2-6], but the underlying signaling pathways are far from being understood...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Stefanie Duchow, Renate I Dahlke, Thomas Geske, Wolfgang Blaschek, Birgit Classen
Root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides, native to South Africa, are used globally for the treatment of common cold and cough. Due to an increasing economic commercialization of P. sidoides remedies, wild collections of root material should be accompanied by effective methods for plant propagation like somatic embryogenesis. Based on this, the influence of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of P. sidoides has been investigated. High-molecular weight AGPs have been isolated from dried roots as well as from cell cultures of P...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
Allan M Showalter, Debarati Basu
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous cell wall components present throughout the plant kingdom. They are extensively post translationally modified by conversion of proline to hydroxyproline (Hyp) and by addition of arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides to Hyp residues. Two small gene subfamilies within the CAZy GT31 family, referred to as Hyp-galactosyltransferases (Hyp-GALTs and HPGTs), encode enzymes that specifically add galactose to AGP protein backbones as revealed by heterologous expression of the genes coupled with an in vitro enzyme assay and by biochemical characterization of the genetic knock-out mutants...
May 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
Daisuke Takahashi, Yukio Kawamura, Matsuo Uemura
Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
Gennady V Pogorelko, Nathan T Reem, Zachary T Young, Lauran Chambers, Olga A Zabotina
Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations...
2016: PloS One
Ana Marta Pereira, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Sílvia Coimbra
A precise control of sperm cells delivery and fusion to the egg cell and the central cell is fundamental for the accomplishment of successful double fertilization in flowering plants. This is mostly regulated by female gametophyte egg and central cells, which control the timing of synergids cell degeneration. We recently identified an arabinogalactan protein, AGP4, named JAGGER, that impairs the persistent synergid degeneration, and consequently leads to the attraction of more than one pollen tube into one embryo sac, a situation termed polytubey...
August 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Allan M Showalter, Debarati Basu
Recent research, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana, has led to the identification and characterization of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of two of the most functionally important and abundant families of plant cell wall proteins, extensins, and arabinogalactan-proteins. Extensin glycosylation involves monogalactosylation of serine residues by O-α-serine galactosyltransferase and the addition of oligoarabinosides one to five arabinose units in length to contiguous hydroxyproline residues by a set of specific arabinosyltransferase enzymes, which includes hydroxyproline O-β-arabinosyltransferases, β-1,2-arabinosyltransferases, and at least one α-1,3-arabinosyltransferase...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sojeong Yim, Deepa Khare, Joohyun Kang, Jae-Ung Hwang, Wanqi Liang, Enrico Martinoia, Dabing Zhang, Byungho Kang, Youngsook Lee
Two Arabidopsis ABC transporters, ABCG1 and ABCG16, are expressed in the tapetal layer, specifically after postmeiotic microspore release, and play important roles in pollen surface development. The male gametophytic cells of terrestrial plants, the pollen grains, travel far before fertilization, and thus require strong protective layers, which take the form of a pollen coat and a pollen wall. The protective surface structures are generated by the tapetum, the tissue surrounding the developing gametophytes...
September 2016: Plant Cell Reports
Toshihisa Kotake, Yukiko Yamanashi, Chiemi Imaizumi, Yoichi Tsumuraya
L-Arabinose (L-Ara) is a plant-specific sugar accounting for 5-10 % of cell wall saccharides in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). L-Ara occurs in pectic arabinan, rhamnogalacturonan II, arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan-protein (AGP), and extensin in the cell walls, as well as in glycosylated signaling peptides like CLAVATA3 and small glycoconjugates such as quercetin 3-O-arabinoside. This review focuses on recent advances towards understanding the generation of L-Ara and the metabolism of L-Ara-containing molecules in plants...
September 2016: Journal of Plant Research
Yujian Huang, Yongzhong Wang, Li Tan, Leming Sun, Jennifer Petrosino, Mei-Zhen Cui, Feng Hao, Mingjun Zhang
Over 130 y have passed since Charles Darwin first discovered that the adventitious roots of English ivy (Hedera helix) exude a yellowish mucilage that promotes the capacity of this plant to climb vertical surfaces. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in elucidating the adhesion mechanisms underlying this high-strength adhesive. In the previous studies, spherical nanoparticles were observed in the viscous exudate. Here we show that these nanoparticles are predominantly composed of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), a superfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins present in the extracellular spaces of plant cells...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Elizabeth A Berry, Mai L Tran, Christos S Dimos, Michael J Budziszek, Tess R Scavuzzo-Duggan, Alison W Roberts
In contrast to homeohydric vascular plants, mosses employ a poikilohydric strategy for surviving in the dry aerial environment. A detailed understanding of the structure, composition, and development of moss cell walls can contribute to our understanding of not only the evolution of overall cell wall complexity, but also the differences that have evolved in response to selection for different survival strategies. The model moss species Physcomitrella patens has a predominantly haploid lifecycle consisting of protonemal filaments that regenerate from protoplasts and enlarge by tip growth, and leafy gametophores composed of cells that enlarge by diffuse growth and differentiate into several different types...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Paul A Howles, Leigh K Gebbie, David A Collings, Arvind Varsani, Ronan C Broad, Stephen Ohms, Rosemary J Birch, Ann H Cork, Tony Arioli, Richard E Williamson
The putative RNA helicase encoded by the Arabidopsis gene At1g32490 is a homolog of the yeast splicing RNA helicases Prp2 and Prp22. We isolated a temperature-sensitive allele (rsw12) of the gene in a screen for root radial swelling mutants. Plants containing this allele grown at the restrictive temperature showed weak radial swelling, were stunted with reduced root elongation, and contained reduced levels of cellulose. The role of the protein was further explored by microarray analysis. By using both fold change cutoffs and a weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA) to investigate coexpression of genes, we found that the radial swelling phenotype was not linked to genes usually associated with primary cell wall biosynthesis...
May 2016: Plant Molecular Biology
Ana Lúcia Lopes, Mário Luís Costa, Rómulo Sobral, Maria Manuela Costa, Maria Isabel Amorim, Sílvia Coimbra
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Quercus suber L. (cork oak) is one of the most important monoecious tree species in semi-arid regions of Southern Europe, with a high ecological value and economic potential. However, as a result of its long reproductive cycle, complex reproductive biology and recalcitrant seeds, conventional breeding is demanding. In its complex reproductive biology, little is known about the most important changes that occur during female gametogenesis. Arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs) and pectins are the main components of plant cell walls and have been reported to perform common functions in cell differentiation and organogenesis of reproductive plant structures...
May 2016: Annals of Botany
Kefeng Fang, Weiwei Zhang, Yu Xing, Qing Zhang, Liu Yang, Qingqin Cao, Ling Qin
Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Kefeng Fang, Sai Gao, Weiwei Zhang, Yu Xing, Qingqin Cao, Ling Qin
A key role of boron in plants is to cross-link the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II (RG-II) through borate diester linkages. Phenylboronic acid (PBA) can form the same reversible ester bonds but cannot cross-link two molecules, so can be used as an antagonist to study the function of boron. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of PBA on apple (Malus domestica) pollen tube growth and the underlying regulatory mechanism. We observed that PBA caused an inhibition of pollen germination, tube growth and led to pollen tube morphological abnormalities...
2016: PloS One
Ana Marta Pereira, Margarida Sofia Nobre, Sara Cristina Pinto, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Mário Luís Costa, Simona Masiero, Sílvia Coimbra
Successful double fertilization and subsequent seed development in flowering plants requires the delivery of two sperm cells, transported by a pollen tube, into the embryo sac of an ovule. The embryo sac cells tightly control synergid cell death, and as a result the polyspermy block. Arabinogalactan proteins are highly glycosylated proteins thought to be involved in several steps of the reproductive process. We show that JAGGER, Arabinogalactan Protein 4, is an important molecule necessary to prevent the growth of multiple pollen tubes into one embryo sac in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 4, 2016: Molecular Plant
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