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arabinogalactan protein plant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893856/spatial-distribution-of-selected-chemical-cell-wall-components-in-the-embryogenic-callus-of-brachypodium-distachyon
#1
Alexander Betekhtin, Magdalena Rojek, Anna Milewska-Hendel, Robert Gawecki, Jagna Karcz, Ewa Kurczynska, Robert Hasterok
Brachypodium distachyon L. Beauv. (Brachypodium) is a species that has become an excellent model system for gaining a better understanding of various areas of grass biology and improving plant breeding. Although there are some studies of an in vitro Brachypodium culture including somatic embryogenesis, detailed knowledge of the composition of the main cell wall components in the embryogenic callus in this species is missing. Therefore, using the immunocytochemical approach, we targeted 17 different antigens of which five were against the arabinogalactan proteins (AGP), three were against extensins, six recognised pectic epitopes and two recognised hemicelluloses...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888523/the-cotton-%C3%AE-galactosyltransferase-1-galt1-that-galactosylates-arabinogalactan-proteins-participates-in-controlling-fiber-development
#2
Li-Xia Qin, Yun Chen, Wei Zeng, Yang Li, Lu Gao, Deng-Di Li, Antony Bacic, Wen-Liang Xu, Xue-Bao Li
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly glycosylated proteins which play pivotal roles in diverse developmental processes in plants. Type II AG glycans, mostly O-linked to the hydroxyproline residues of the protein backbone, account for up to 95% w/w of the AGP, but their functions are still largely unclear. Cotton fibers are extremely elongated single-cell trichomes on the seed epidermis. However, little is known of the molecular basis governing the regulation of fiber cell development. Here, we characterized the role of a CAZy glycosyltransferase (GT) family 31 member GhGalT1 in cotton fiber development...
November 26, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884087/a-protease-peptidase-from-culture-medium-of-flammulina-velutipes-that-acts-on-arabinogalactan-protein
#3
Yoshihisa Yoshimi, Yumi Sugawara, Chiaki Hori, Kiyohiko Igarashi, Satoshi Kaneko, Yoichi Tsumuraya, Toshihisa Kotake
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are highly diverse plant proteoglycans found on the plant cell surface. AGPs have large arabinogalactan (AG) moieties attached to a core-protein rich in hydroxyproline (Hyp). The AG undergoes hydrolysis by various glycoside hydrolases, most of which have been identified, whereas the core-proteins is presumably degraded by unknown proteases/peptidases secreted from fungi and bacteria in nature. Although several enzymes hydrolyzing other Hyp-rich proteins are known, the enzymes acting on the core-proteins of AGPs remain to be identified...
November 25, 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878998/the-transition-from-somatic-to-germline-identity-shows-conserved-and-specialized-features-during-angiosperm-evolution
#4
Jorge Lora, María Herrero, Matthew R Tucker, José I Hormaza
How and why specific plant cells adopt germline identity during ovule development has proved challenging to address, and the pathways that are active in the ovules of basal/early-divergent angiosperms possessing a multilayered nucellus are still unclear. Here, we compare megasporogenesis between two early-divergent angiosperms (Annona cherimola and Persea americana) and the evolutionarily derived Arabidopsis thaliana, studying the three-dimensional spatial position of the megaspore mother cell (MMC), the compositional details of the MMC wall and the location of PIN1 expression...
November 23, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837085/kns4-upex1-a-type-ii-arabinogalactan-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-required-for-pollen-exine-development
#5
Toshiya Suzuki, Joan Oñate Narciso, Wei Zeng, Allison van de Meene, Masayuki Yasutomi, Shunsuke Takemura, Edwin R Lampugnani, Monika Susanne Doblin, Antony Bacic, Sumie Ishiguro
Pollen exine is essential for protection from the environment of the male gametes of seed-producing plants, but its assembly and composition remain poorly understood. We previously characterized Arabidopsis mutants with abnormal pollen exine structure and morphology which we named kaonashi (kns). Here we describe the identification of the causal gene of kns4 which was found to be a member of the CAZy glycosyltransferase (GT) 31 gene family, identical to UNEVEN PATTERN OF EXINE1 (UPEX1), and the biochemical characterization of the encoded protein...
November 9, 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769192/bioinformatic-identification-and-analysis-of-hydroxyproline-rich-glycoproteins-in-populus-trichocarpa
#6
Allan M Showalter, Brian D Keppler, Xiao Liu, Jens Lichtenberg, Lonnie R Welch
BACKGROUND: Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins (HRGPs) constitute a plant cell wall protein superfamily that functions in diverse aspects of growth and development. This superfamily contains three members: the highly glycosylated arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs), the moderately glycosylated extensins (EXTs), and the lightly glycosylated proline-rich proteins (PRPs). Chimeric and hybrid HRGPs, however, also exist. A bioinformatics approach is employed here to identify and classify AGPs, EXTs, PRPs, chimeric HRGPs, and hybrid HRGPs from the proteins predicted by the completed genome sequence of poplar (Populus trichocarpa)...
October 21, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736003/arabinogalactan-proteins-from-baobab-and-acacia-seeds-influence-innate-immunity-of-human-keratinocytes-in-vitro
#7
Abderrakib Zahid, Julie Despres, Magalie Benard, Eric Nguema-Ona, Jerome Leprince, David Vaudry, Christophe Rihouey, Maité Vicré-Gibouin, Azeddine Driouich, Marie-Laure Follet-Gueye
Plant derived arabinogalactan proteins (AGP) were repeatedly confirmed as immunologically as well as dermatologically active compounds. However little is currently known regarding their potential activity towards skin innate immunity. Here, we extracted and purified AGP from acacia (Acacia senegal) and baobab (Adansonia digitata) seeds to investigate their biological effects on the HaCaT keratinocyte cell line in an in vitro system. While AGP from both sources did not exhibit any cytotoxic effect, AGP from acacia seeds enhanced cell viability Moreover, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that AGP extracted from both species induced a substantial overexpression of hBD-2, TLR-5, and IL1-α genes...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632186/dramatic-secretion-of-recombinant-protein-expressed-in-tobacco-cells-with-a-designer-glycopeptide-tag-is-highly-impacted-by-medium-composition
#8
Ningning Zhang, Maureen Dolan, Di Wu, Gregory C Phillips, Jianfeng Xu
Cell growth medium composition has profound impacts on the O -glycosylation of a "designer" arabinogalactan protein-based module; full glycosylation is essential in directing efficient extracellular secretion of the tagged recombinant protein. Expression of recombinant proteins in plant cells as fusion with a de novo designed hydroxyproline (Hyp)-O-glycosylated peptide (HypGP) tag, termed HypGP engineering technology, resulted in dramatically increased secreted protein yields. This is due to the function of the HypGP tag as a molecular carrier in promoting efficient transport of conjoined proteins into culture media...
September 8, 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562432/arabinogalactan-protein-motif-containing-receptor-like-kinases-are-likely-to-play-the-negative-feedback-factor-to-maintain-proper-root-hair-length
#9
Hyung-Taeg Cho
Coordination of the events between cytoplasm and cell wall is necessary for the proper cellular activity of plants. Cell wall-associated receptor kinases are likely to play the interface for the extra-to-internal signaling process. Arabidopsis ROOT HAIR SPECIFIC 10 (RHS10), belonging to the proline-rich extensin-like receptor kinase (PERK) family, is a Ser/Thr protein kinase with arabinogalactan protein (AGP) motifs in its extracellular domain (ECD). RHS10 and other angiosperm PERK homologs are inhibitory in root hair tip growth...
September 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524986/dissecting-seed-mucilage-adherence-mediated-by-fei2-and-sos5
#10
Jonathan S Griffiths, Marie-Jeanne Crepeau, Marie-Christine Ralet, Georg J Seifert, Helen M North
The plant cell wall is held together by the interactions between four major components: cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and proteins. Mucilage is a powerful model system to study the interactions between these components as it is formed of polysaccharides that are deposited in the apoplast of seed coat epidermal cells during seed development. When seeds are hydrated, these polysaccharides expand rapidly out of the apoplastic pocket, and form an adherent halo of mucilage around the seed. In Arabidopsis, mutations in multiple genes have similar loss of mucilage adherence phenotypes including CELLULOSE SYNTHASE 5 (CESA5)/MUCILAGE-MODIFIED 3 (MUM3), MUM5/MUCI21, SALT-OVERLY SENSITIVE 5 (SOS5), and FEI2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27524487/maternal-enodls-are-required-for-pollen-tube-reception-in-arabidopsis
#11
Yingnan Hou, Xinyang Guo, Philipp Cyprys, Ying Zhang, Andrea Bleckmann, Le Cai, Qingpei Huang, Yu Luo, Hongya Gu, Thomas Dresselhaus, Juan Dong, Li-Jia Qu
During the angiosperm (flowering-plant) life cycle, double fertilization represents the hallmark between diploid and haploid generations [1]. The success of double fertilization largely depends on compatible communication between the male gametophyte (pollen tube) and the maternal tissues of the flower, culminating in precise pollen tube guidance to the female gametophyte (embryo sac) and its rupture to release sperm cells. Several important factors involved in the pollen tube reception have been identified recently [2-6], but the underlying signaling pathways are far from being understood...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516259/arabinogalactan-proteins-stimulate-somatic-embryogenesis-and-plant-propagation-of-pelargonium-sidoides
#12
Stefanie Duchow, Renate I Dahlke, Thomas Geske, Wolfgang Blaschek, Birgit Classen
Root extracts of the medicinal plant Pelargonium sidoides, native to South Africa, are used globally for the treatment of common cold and cough. Due to an increasing economic commercialization of P. sidoides remedies, wild collections of root material should be accompanied by effective methods for plant propagation like somatic embryogenesis. Based on this, the influence of arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) on somatic embryogenesis and plant propagation of P. sidoides has been investigated. High-molecular weight AGPs have been isolated from dried roots as well as from cell cultures of P...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27489583/glycosylation-of-arabinogalactan-proteins-essential-for-development-in-arabidopsis
#13
Allan M Showalter, Debarati Basu
Arabinogalactan-proteins (AGPs) are ubiquitous cell wall components present throughout the plant kingdom. They are extensively post translationally modified by conversion of proline to hydroxyproline (Hyp) and by addition of arabinogalactan (AG) polysaccharides to Hyp residues. Two small gene subfamilies within the CAZy GT31 family, referred to as Hyp-galactosyltransferases (Hyp-GALTs and HPGTs), encode enzymes that specifically add galactose to AGP protein backbones as revealed by heterologous expression of the genes coupled with an in vitro enzyme assay and by biochemical characterization of the genetic knock-out mutants...
May 2016: Communicative & Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471282/cold-acclimation-is-accompanied-by-complex-responses-of-glycosylphosphatidylinositol-gpi-anchored-proteins-in-arabidopsis
#14
Daisuke Takahashi, Yukio Kawamura, Matsuo Uemura
Cold acclimation results in changes of the plasma membrane (PM) composition. The PM is considered to contain specific lipid/protein-enriched microdomains which can be extracted as detergent-resistant plasma membrane (DRM). Previous studies in animal cells have demonstrated that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) can be targeted to microdomains and/or the apoplast. However, the functional significance of GPI-APs during cold acclimation in plants is not yet fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the responsiveness of GPI-APs to cold acclimation treatment in Arabidopsis We isolated the PM, DRM, and apoplast fractions separately and, in addition, GPI-AP-enriched fractions were prepared from the PM preparation...
September 2016: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448235/post-synthetic-defucosylation-of-agp-by-aspergillus-nidulans-%C3%AE-1-2-fucosidase-expressed-in-arabidopsis-apoplast-induces-compensatory-upregulation-of-%C3%AE-1-2-fucosyltransferases
#15
Gennady V Pogorelko, Nathan T Reem, Zachary T Young, Lauran Chambers, Olga A Zabotina
Cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. Besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. The plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. Alterations in the cell wall composition created through either changes in biosynthesis of specific constituents or their post-synthetic modifications in the apoplast compromise cell wall integrity and frequently induce plant compensatory responses as a result of these alterations...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27413888/jagger-an-agp-essential-for-persistent-synergid-degeneration-and-polytubey-block-in-arabidopsis
#16
Ana Marta Pereira, Ana Lúcia Lopes, Sílvia Coimbra
A precise control of sperm cells delivery and fusion to the egg cell and the central cell is fundamental for the accomplishment of successful double fertilization in flowering plants. This is mostly regulated by female gametophyte egg and central cells, which control the timing of synergids cell degeneration. We recently identified an arabinogalactan protein, AGP4, named JAGGER, that impairs the persistent synergid degeneration, and consequently leads to the attraction of more than one pollen tube into one embryo sac, a situation termed polytubey...
August 2, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27379116/extensin-and-arabinogalactan-protein-biosynthesis-glycosyltransferases-research-challenges-and-biosensors
#17
REVIEW
Allan M Showalter, Debarati Basu
Recent research, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana, has led to the identification and characterization of the glycosyltransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of two of the most functionally important and abundant families of plant cell wall proteins, extensins, and arabinogalactan-proteins. Extensin glycosylation involves monogalactosylation of serine residues by O-α-serine galactosyltransferase and the addition of oligoarabinosides one to five arabinose units in length to contiguous hydroxyproline residues by a set of specific arabinosyltransferase enzymes, which includes hydroxyproline O-β-arabinosyltransferases, β-1,2-arabinosyltransferases, and at least one α-1,3-arabinosyltransferase...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271688/postmeiotic-development-of-pollen-surface-layers-requires-two-arabidopsis-abcg-type-transporters
#18
Sojeong Yim, Deepa Khare, Joohyun Kang, Jae-Ung Hwang, Wanqi Liang, Enrico Martinoia, Dabing Zhang, Byungho Kang, Youngsook Lee
Two Arabidopsis ABC transporters, ABCG1 and ABCG16, are expressed in the tapetal layer, specifically after postmeiotic microspore release, and play important roles in pollen surface development. The male gametophytic cells of terrestrial plants, the pollen grains, travel far before fertilization, and thus require strong protective layers, which take the form of a pollen coat and a pollen wall. The protective surface structures are generated by the tapetum, the tissue surrounding the developing gametophytes...
September 2016: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27220955/metabolism-of-l-arabinose-in-plants
#19
Toshihisa Kotake, Yukiko Yamanashi, Chiemi Imaizumi, Yoichi Tsumuraya
L-Arabinose (L-Ara) is a plant-specific sugar accounting for 5-10 % of cell wall saccharides in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and rice (Oryza sativa). L-Ara occurs in pectic arabinan, rhamnogalacturonan II, arabinoxylan, arabinogalactan-protein (AGP), and extensin in the cell walls, as well as in glycosylated signaling peptides like CLAVATA3 and small glycoconjugates such as quercetin 3-O-arabinoside. This review focuses on recent advances towards understanding the generation of L-Ara and the metabolism of L-Ara-containing molecules in plants...
September 2016: Journal of Plant Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217558/nanospherical-arabinogalactan-proteins-are-a-key-component-of-the-high-strength-adhesive-secreted-by-english-ivy
#20
Yujian Huang, Yongzhong Wang, Li Tan, Leming Sun, Jennifer Petrosino, Mei-Zhen Cui, Feng Hao, Mingjun Zhang
Over 130 y have passed since Charles Darwin first discovered that the adventitious roots of English ivy (Hedera helix) exude a yellowish mucilage that promotes the capacity of this plant to climb vertical surfaces. Unfortunately, little progress has been made in elucidating the adhesion mechanisms underlying this high-strength adhesive. In the previous studies, spherical nanoparticles were observed in the viscous exudate. Here we show that these nanoparticles are predominantly composed of arabinogalactan proteins (AGPs), a superfamily of hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins present in the extracellular spaces of plant cells...
June 7, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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