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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926887/the-application-of-genomics-in-diabetes-barriers-to-discovery-and-implementation
#1
James S Floyd, Bruce M Psaty
The emerging availability of genomic and electronic health data in large populations is a powerful tool for research that has drawn interest in bringing precision medicine to diabetes. In this article, we discuss the potential application of genomics to the prediction, prevention, and treatment of diabetes, and we use examples from other areas of medicine to illustrate some of the challenges involved in conducting genomics research in human populations and implementing findings in practice. At this time, a major barrier to the application of genomics in diabetes care is the lack of actionable genomic findings...
November 2016: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926766/teledermatology-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-skin-cancer-a-systematic-review
#2
Anna Finnane, Kathy Dallest, Monika Janda, H Peter Soyer
Importance: As technology becomes more commonplace in dermatological practice, it is essential to continuously review the accuracy of teledermatology devices and services compared with in-person care. The last systematic review was conducted over 5 years ago. Objective: To synthesize and assess the quality of the evidence to address 3 research questions: (1) How accurate is teledermatology for skin cancer diagnosis compared with usual care (face-to-face [FTF] diagnosis)? (2) Does teledermatology save clinician and/or patient time, compared with usual care? (3) What are the enablers and barriers to adoption of teledermatology in clinical practice for the diagnosis of skin cancer? Evidence Review: The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database...
December 7, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926624/improving-the-use-of-evidence-based-practice-and-research-utilization-through-the-identification-of-barriers-to-implementation-in-a-critical-access-hospital
#3
Dawn Carol Stavor, Judith Zedreck-Gonzalez, Rosemary L Hoffmann
OBJECTIVE: This study explored the relationship between perceived barriers to research use and the implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP) among rural hospital nurses. BACKGROUND: The Institute of Medicine recommends that 90% of clinical decisions be evidence based by 2020. METHODS: This descriptive, quality improvement study used a convenience sampling of registered nurses (RNs). Participants completed multiple questionnaires. RESULTS: Overall the attitude toward EBP was positive...
January 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925894/prevention-of-herpes-zoster-and-its-complications-from-clinical-evidence-to-real-life-experience
#4
Giovanni Gabutti, Paolo Bonanni, Michele Conversano, Guido Fanelli, Elisabetta Franco, Donato Greco, Giancarlo Icardi, Marzia Lazzari, Alessandro Rossi, Silvestro Scotti, Antonio Volpi
Herpes zoster (HZ) is an acute viral illness characterized by a vesicular rash with unilateral distribution, which can also result in severe complications such as post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN), ophthalmic zoster, stroke or other neurological complications. The estimate incidence in Europe ranges between 2.0 and 4.6 cases per 1,000 person-years, with a sharp increase in >50 year-old subjects. Currently, treatment options for HZ are only partially effective in limiting the acute phase, while the management of complications is complex and often unsatisfactory...
December 7, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925577/the-role-of-ultrasound-compared-to-biopsy-of-temporal-arteries-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-giant-cell-arteritis-tabul-a-diagnostic-accuracy-and-cost-effectiveness-study
#5
Raashid Luqmani, Ellen Lee, Surjeet Singh, Mike Gillett, Wolfgang A Schmidt, Mike Bradburn, Bhaskar Dasgupta, Andreas P Diamantopoulos, Wulf Forrester-Barker, William Hamilton, Shauna Masters, Brendan McDonald, Eugene McNally, Colin Pease, Jennifer Piper, John Salmon, Allan Wailoo, Konrad Wolfe, Andrew Hutchings
BACKGROUND: Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is a relatively common form of primary systemic vasculitis, which, if left untreated, can lead to permanent sight loss. We compared ultrasound as an alternative diagnostic test with temporal artery biopsy, which may be negative in 9-61% of true cases. OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of ultrasound with biopsy in diagnosing patients with suspected GCA. DESIGN: Prospective multicentre cohort study...
November 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925451/improving-access-and-systems-of-care-for-evidence-based-childhood-obesity-treatment-conference-key-findings-and-next-steps
#6
REVIEW
Denise E Wilfley, Amanda E Staiano, Myra Altman, Jeanne Lindros, Angela Lima, Sandra G Hassink, William H Dietz, Stephen Cook
OBJECTIVE: To improve systems of care to advance implementation of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendations for childhood obesity treatment (i.e., clinicians offer/refer children with obesity to intensive, multicomponent behavioral interventions of >25 h over 6 to 12 months to improve weight status) and to expand payment for these services. METHODS: In July 2015, 43 cross-sector stakeholders attended a conference supported by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, American Academy of Pediatrics Institute for Healthy Childhood Weight, and The Obesity Society...
December 7, 2016: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925142/dg-connect-funded-projects-on-information-and-communication-technologies-ict-for-old-age-people-beyond-silos-carewell-and-smartcare
#7
W Keijser, E de Manuel-Keenoy, M d'Angelantonio, P Stafylas, P Hobson, G Apuzzo, M Hurtado, J Oates, J Bousquet, A Senn
Information and communication technologies (ICT) are promising for the long-term care of older and frequently frail people. These innovations can improve health outcomes, quality of life and efficiency of care processes, while supporting independent living. However, they may be disruptive innovations. As all European member states are facing an increasing complexity of health and social care, good practices in ICT should be identified and evaluated. Three projects funded by DG CNECT are related to Active and Healthy Ageing (AHA) and frailty: (i) BeyondSilos, dealing with independent living and integrated services, (ii) CareWell, providing integrated care coordination, patient empowerment and home support and (iii) SmartCare, proposing a common set of standard functional specifications for an ICT platform enabling the delivery of integrated care to older patients...
2016: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925132/-modern-day-slavery-as-a-public-health-issue
#8
Luís Henrique da Costa Leão
Modern-day slave labor is one of the most pernicious and persistent social problems in Brazil. In the light of the need to implement a national occupational health policy, this paper discusses slave labor as a public health concern, highlighting possibilities for broadening strategies for vigilance and comprehensive care for this specific working population. Exploratory qualitative research was carried out based on the "social construction of reality" proposed by Lenoir, Berger and Luckmann. The investigation consisted of a theoretical review of modern-day slave labor on the national and international scene within the scope of the human, social and public health sciences and an analysis of social and political practices to tackle modern-day slave labor was conducted in the State of Rio de Janeiro...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925123/-conflict-of-interest-in-the-training-and-practices-of-nutritionists-regulation-is-necessary
#9
Tatiane Nunes Pereira, Fabiana Alves do Nascimento, Daniel Henrique Bandoni
Transnational "Big Food" companies use advertising strategies to influence nutritionists, professors and students of nutrition. There are, however, conflicts of interest in this relationship. The scope of this study is to conduct a narrative review on the influence of the food industry in training in nutrition. It was revealed that industries seek to induce the recommendation, the prescription and the consumption of products by students and nutritionists through strategies such as sponsorship of scientific meetings, travel funding and the distribution of promotional gifts...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925120/factors-associated-with-the-use-of-motorcycle-helmets-in-two-colombian-cities
#10
Jorge Martín Rodríguez Hernández, Fredy Armindo Camelo Tovar, Liany Katerine Ariza Ruiz
The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence and some characteristics associated with the use of motorcycle helmets in two Colombian cities. The researcher used quantitative and qualitative techniques. The prevalence of the use of a motorcycle helmet among motorcyclists was greater in Ibague (98.1%) than in Valledupar (82.4%); among passengers in the city of Valledupar, it did not reach 2%. Men were 2.1 times more likely to wear helmets than women (IC 95:1.6-2.7). Using qualitative techniques, the factors explaining the reasons for use/non-use of helmets (being hygienic, climatic, esthetic and safety reasons) were identified for Valledupar...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925098/nursing-competencies-in-promoting-the-health-of-individuals-with-chronic-diseases
#11
Virna Ribeiro Feitosa Cestari, Raquel Sampaio Florêncio, Thereza Maria Magalhães Moreira, Vera Lúcia Mendes de Paula Pessoa, Islene Victor Barbosa, Francisca Elisângela Teixeira Lima, Ires Lopes Custódio
Objective: to identify nurse's competencies related to health promotion of individuals with chronic cardiac disease, in the light of the Galway consensus. Method: integrative literature review was conducted to search for studies published between 2010 and 2014 in the databases LILACS, BDENF, IBECS; and PubMed in February 2015. The 21 included studies were analyzed according to the eight domains of competence: Catalyzing change, Leadership, Evaluation, Planning, Implementation, Assessment, Advocacy and Partnerships...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925087/determining-impacts-and-factors-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-bundle
#12
Ana Natesia Rodrigues, Luciana Vládia E Cavalhedo Fragoso, Francisca de Melo Beserra, Islane Costa Ramos
Objective: Assessing the determining impacts and factors in ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) bundle. Method: descriptive retrospective longitudinal study, with quantitative approach, held at a public teaching hospital. Collection held between May 2014 and April 2015. Patients of the ICU with VAP participated in the research. For organizing data, the Microsoft Excel 2010 program was used. A critical analysis between the data collected and infection rates was performed...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925075/leadership-and-cooperation-25-years-of-mission-as-a-who-collaborating-center
#13
Isabel Amélia Costa Mendes, Carla Aparecida Arena Ventura, Maria Auxiliadora Trevizan, Leila Maria Marchi-Alves, Simone de Godoy, Juliana Gazzotti
Objective: analyse the evolution in the mission and vision of a World Health Organization Collaborating Centre in Nursing in Brazil in the context of the implementation of its terms of reference. Method: Historical-social documentary research with a qualitative approach. Results: During the 25 years of its activities as a Collaborating Centre, its mission to "promote and stimulate the development of nursing research in the region, with a focus on Latin America" triggered activities in the context of its terms of reference in four areas: Human Resource Formation for Research, Knowledge Production, Knowledge Dissemination, Encouragement of Exchange and Stimulus of Partnerships...
November 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924593/analysis-of-16s-rrna-gene-amplicon-sequences-using-the-qiime-software-package
#14
Blair Lawley, Gerald W Tannock
The study of microbial ecology has undergone a paradigm shift in recent years, with rapid advances in molecular and bioinformatic tools allowing researchers with wide-ranging interests and backgrounds access to community profiling methods. While these advances have undoubtedly led to exciting new understanding of many systems, the array of protocols available and the idiosyncrasies of particular approaches can lead to confusion or, at worst, erroneous interpretation of results. Here, we describe a workflow from raw 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence data, generated on an Illumina MiSeq instrument, to microbial community taxonomy profiles and basic diversity measures...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924237/an-investigation-of-health-and-safety-measures-in-a-hydroelectric-power-plant
#15
Amevi Acakpovi, Lucky Dzamikumah
BACKGROUND: Occupational risk management is known as a catalyst in generating superior returns for all stakeholders on a sustainable basis. A number of companies in Ghana implemented health and safety measures adopted from international companies to ensure the safety of their employees. However, there exist great threats to employees' safety in these companies. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the level of compliance of Occupational Health and Safety management systems and standards set by international and local legislation in power producing companies in Ghana...
December 2016: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923916/a-structured-review-of-chronic-care-model-components-supporting-transition-between-healthcare-service-delivery-types-for-older-people-with-multiple-chronic-diseases
#16
Marguerite Sendall, Laura McCosker, Kristie Crossley, Ann Bonner
OBJECTIVE: Older people with chronic diseases often have complex and interacting needs and require treatment and care from a wide range of professionals and services concurrently. This structured review will identify the components of the chronic care model (CCM) required to support healthcare that transitions seamlessly between hospital and ambulatory settings for people over 65 years of age who have two or more chronic diseases. METHOD: A structured review was conducted by searching six electronic databases combining the terms 'hospital', 'ambulatory', 'elderly', 'chronic disease' and 'integration/seamless'...
December 5, 2016: HIM Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923764/applications-of-deep-eutectic-solvents-in-biotechnology-and-bioengineering-promises-and-challenges
#17
REVIEW
Yves Paul Mbous, Maan Hayyan, Adeeb Hayyan, Won Fen Wong, Mohd Ali Hashim, Chung Yeng Looi
Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have been touted recently as potential alternatives to ionic liquids (ILs). Although they possess core characteristics that are similar to those of ILs (e.g., low volatility, non-flammability, low melting points, low vapor pressure, dipolar nature, chemical and thermal stability, high solubility, and tuneability), DESs are superior in terms of the availability of raw materials, the ease of storage and synthesis, and the low cost of their starting materials. As such, they have become the subject of intensive research in various sectors, notably the chemical, electrochemical, and biological sectors...
December 3, 2016: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923243/-evaluation-of-contextual-factors-in-psychosomatic-rehabilitation
#18
N I Bülau, F Kessemeier, F Petermann, M Bassler, A Kobelt
Objectives: Although individualized and ICF-oriented implementation of rehabilitation treatment requires knowledge of relevant contextual factors, there is a lack of operationalized documentation and measurement tools to evaluate these factors. Therefore, an ICF-oriented semi-structured interview was designed. Methods: 20 contextual factors were externally assessed whether they negatively affected mental functioning and participation of psychosomatic patients. Additionally, psychometric scales were applied...
December 2016: Die Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923013/community-mobilization-for-hiv-testing-uptake-results-from-a-community-randomized-trial-of-a-theory-based-intervention-in-rural-south-africa
#19
Sheri A Lippman, Torsten B Neilands, Catherine MacPhail, Dean Peacock, Suzanne Maman, Dumisani Rebombo, Rhian Twine, Amanda Selin, Hannah H Leslie, Kathleen Kahn, Audrey Pettifor
BACKGROUND: HIV testing uptake in South Africa is below optimal levels. Community mobilization (CM) may increase and sustain demand for HIV testing, however, little rigorous evidence exists regarding the effect of CM interventions on HIV testing and the mechanisms of action. METHODS: We implemented a theory-driven CM intervention in 11 of 22 randomly-selected villages in rural Mpumalanga Province. Cross-sectional surveys including a community mobilization measure were conducted before (n = 1181) and after (n = 1175) a 2-year intervention (2012-2014)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922848/lung-regeneration-steps-toward-clinical-implementation-and-use
#20
Elizabeth A Calle, Katherine L Leiby, MichaSam B Raredon, Laura E Niklason
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whole lung tissue engineering is a relatively new area of investigation. In a short time, however, the field has advanced quickly beyond proof of concept studies in rodents and now stands on the cusp of wide-spread scale up to large animal studies. Therefore, this technology is ever closer to being directly clinically relevant. RECENT FINDINGS: The main themes in the literature include refinement of the fundamental components of whole lung engineering and increasing effort to direct induced pluripotent stem cells and lung progenitor cells toward use in lung regeneration...
December 5, 2016: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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