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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545117/on-tests-of-treatment-covariate-interactions-an-illustration-of-appropriate-power-and-sample-size-calculations
#1
Gwowen Shieh
The appraisals of treatment-covariate interaction have theoretical and substantial implications in all scientific fields. Methodologically, the detection of interaction between categorical treatment levels and continuous covariate variables is analogous to the homogeneity of regression slopes test in the context of ANCOVA. A fundamental assumption of ANCOVA is that the regression slopes associating the response variable with the covariate variable are presumed constant across treatment groups. The validity of homogeneous regression slopes accordingly is the most essential concern in traditional ANCOVA and inevitably determines the practical usefulness of research findings...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545103/combined-effects-of-cotyledon-excision-and-nursery-fertilization-on-root-growth-nutrient-status-and-outplanting-performance-of-quercus-variabilis-container-seedlings
#2
Wenhui Shi, Mark Bloomberg, Guolei Li, Shuchai Su, Liming Jia
Artificial excision of the distal part of acorns in order to promote germination is well researched in oak seedling cultivation studies. However, studies of combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on container seedlings are lacking, especially for seedling root growth and outplanting performance. This study aimed to explore the main effects of cotyledon excision on Quercus variabilis seedling emergence characteristics and demonstrated the combined effects of cotyledon excision and nursery fertilization on seedling quality to improve Quercus variabilis seedling outplanting performance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545038/assessing-the-facilitators-and-barriers-of-interdisciplinary-team-working-in-primary-care-using-normalisation-process-theory-an-integrative-review
#3
Pauline O'Reilly, Siew Hwa Lee, Madeleine O'Sullivan, Walter Cullen, Catriona Kennedy, Anne MacFarlane
BACKGROUND: Interdisciplinary team working is of paramount importance in the reform of primary care in order to provide cost-effective and comprehensive care. However, international research shows that it is not routine practice in many healthcare jurisdictions. It is imperative to understand levers and barriers to the implementation process. This review examines interdisciplinary team working in practice, in primary care, from the perspective of service providers and analyses 1 barriers and facilitators to implementation of interdisciplinary teams in primary care and 2 the main research gaps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544911/arianna-a-research-environment-for-neuroimaging-studies-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Alessandra Retico, Silvia Arezzini, Paolo Bosco, Sara Calderoni, Alberto Ciampa, Simone Coscetti, Stefano Cuomo, Luca De Santis, Dario Fabiani, Maria Evelina Fantacci, Alessia Giuliano, Enrico Mazzoni, Pietro Mercatali, Giovanni Miscali, Massimiliano Pardini, Margherita Prosperi, Francesco Romano, Elena Tamburini, Michela Tosetti, Filippo Muratori
The complexity and heterogeneity of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) require the implementation of dedicated analysis techniques to obtain the maximum from the interrelationship among many variables that describe affected individuals, spanning from clinical phenotypic characterization and genetic profile to structural and functional brain images. The ARIANNA project has developed a collaborative interdisciplinary research environment that is easily accessible to the community of researchers working on ASD (https://arianna...
May 17, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544890/hybrid-neuro-heuristic-methodology-for-simulation-and-control-of-dynamic-systems-over-time-interval
#5
Marcin Woźniak, Dawid Połap
Simulation and positioning are very important aspects of computer aided engineering. To process these two, we can apply traditional methods or intelligent techniques. The difference between them is in the way they process information. In the first case, to simulate an object in a particular state of action, we need to perform an entire process to read values of parameters. It is not very convenient for objects for which simulation takes a long time, i.e. when mathematical calculations are complicated. In the second case, an intelligent solution can efficiently help on devoted way of simulation, which enables us to simulate the object only in a situation that is necessary for a development process...
May 5, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544628/production-of-microbial-biosurfactants-status-quo-of-rhamnolipid-and-surfactin-towards-large-scale-production
#6
Marius Henkel, Mareen Geissler, Fabiola Weggenmann, Rudolf Hausmann
Surfactants are an important class of industrial chemicals. Nowadays oleochemical surfactants such as alkyl polyglycosides (APGs) become increasingly important. This trend towards the utilization of renewable resources continues and consumers increasingly demand for environmentally friendly products. Consequently, research in microbial surfactants has drastically increased in the last years. While for mannosylerythritol lipids and sophorolipids established industrial processes exist, an implementation of other microbially derived surfactants has not yet been achieved...
May 23, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544058/beyond-differences-in-means-robust-graphical-methods-to-compare-two-groups-in-neuroscience
#7
Guillaume A Rousselet, Cyril R Pernet, Rand R Wilcox
If many changes are necessary to improve the quality of neuroscience research, one relatively simple step could have great pay-offs: to promote the adoption of detailed graphical methods, combined with robust inferential statistics. Here we illustrate how such methods can lead to a much more detailed understanding of group differences than bar graphs and t-tests on means. To complement the neuroscientist's toolbox, we present two powerful tools that can help us understand how groups of observations differ: the shift function and the difference asymmetry function...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543738/crispr-editing-in-biological-and-biomedical-investigation
#8
Xing-Da Ju, Jing Xu, Zhong Sheng Sun
The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat)-Cas (CRISPR--associated protein) system, a prokaryotic RNA-based adaptive immune system against viral infection, is emerging as a powerful genome editing tool in broad research areas. To further improve and expand its functionality, various CRISPR delivery strategies have been tested and optimized, and key CRISPR system components such as Cas protein have been engineered with different purposes. Benefiting from more in-depth understanding and further development of CRISPR, versatile CRISPR-based platforms for genome editing have been rapidly developed to advance investigations in biology and biomedicine...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543353/effect-of-pathologic-revision-and-ki67-and-erg-immunohistochemistry-on-predicting-radical-prostatectomy-outcome-in-men-initially-on-active-surveillance
#9
Leonard P Bokhorst, Monique J Roobol, Chris H Bangma, Geert J van Leenders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if pathologic biopsy reevaluation and implementation of immunohistochemical biomarkers could improve prediction of radical prostatectomy outcome in men initially on active surveillance. METHODS: Biopsy specimens from diagnosis until switching to radical prostatectomy in men initially on active surveillance in the Dutch part of the Prostate cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study were collected and revised by a single pathologist...
May 24, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543228/scenario-evaluator-for-electrical-resistivity-survey-pre-modeling-tool
#10
Neil Terry, Frederick D Day-Lewis, Judith L Robinson, Lee D Slater, Keith Halford, Andrew Binley, John W Lane, Dale Werkema
Geophysical tools have much to offer users in environmental, water resource, and geotechnical fields; however, techniques such as electrical resistivity imaging (ERI) are often oversold and/or overinterpreted due to a lack of understanding of the limitations of the techniques, such as the appropriate depth intervals or resolution of the methods. The relationship between ERI data and resistivity is nonlinear; therefore, these limitations depend on site conditions and survey design and are best assessed through forward and inverse modeling exercises prior to field investigations...
May 23, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543135/bone-mineral-density-testing-and-bisphosphonate-and-oestrogen-prescribing-associated-with-depot-medroxyprogesterone-acetate-utilization-the-impact-of%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-boxed-warning
#11
E Eworuke, V Popat, D G Moeny
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) prevents follicular maturation and ovulation, resulting in oestrogen deficiency. Oestrogen deficiency is particularly concerning as it is associated with decreases in bone mineral density (BMD) or bone mass. Widespread use of concurrent oestrogen or bisphosphonates with DMPA has been observed in a previous single-centre US study. The authors also reported that more than half of obstetrician-gynaecologists ordered BMD testing solely due to DMPA...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542709/maternal-deaths-in-the-nordic-countries
#12
Siri Vangen, Birgit Bødker, Liv Ellingsen, Sissel Saltvedt, Mika Gissler, Reynir T Geirsson, Lill T Nyfløt
INTRODUCTION: Despite the seriousness of the event, maternal deaths are substantially underreported. There is often a missed opportunity to learn from such tragedies. The aim of the study was to identify maternal deaths in the five Nordic countries, to classify causes of death based on internationally acknowledged criteria, and to identify areas that would benefit from further teaching, training or research to possibly reduce the number of maternal deaths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We present data for the years 2005-2013...
May 23, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542525/women-s-role-in-sanitation-decision-making-in-rural-coastal-odisha-india
#13
Parimita Routray, Belen Torondel, Thomas Clasen, Wolf-Peter Schmidt
BACKGROUND: While women and girls face special risks from lack of access to sanitation facilities, their ability to participate and influence household-level sanitation is not well understood. This paper examines the association between women's decision-making autonomy and latrine construction in rural areas of Odisha, India. METHODS: We conducted a mixed-method study among rural households in Puri district. This included a cross sectional survey among 475 randomly selected households...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542379/disease-related-gene-module-detection-based-on-a-multi-label-propagation-clustering-algorithm
#14
Xue Jiang, Han Zhang, Xiongwen Quan, Zhandong Liu, Yanbin Yin
Detecting disease-related gene modules by analyzing gene expression data is of great significance. It is helpful for exploratory analysis of the interaction mechanisms of genes under complex disease phenotypes. The multi-label propagation algorithm (MLPA) has been widely used in module detection for its fast and easy implementation. The accuracy of MLPA greatly depends on the connections between nodes, and most existing research focuses on measuring the similarity between nodes. However, MLPA does not perform well with loose connections between disease-related genes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542356/the-use-of-preferred-social-stimuli-as-rewards-for-rhesus-macaques-in-behavioural-neuroscience
#15
Helen Gray, Bradley Pearce, Alexander Thiele, Candy Rowe
Macaques are often motivated to perform in neuroscientific experiments by implementing fluid restriction protocols. Daily access to water is controlled and the monkeys are rewarded with droplets of fluid for performing correct trials in the laboratory. Although these protocols are widely used and highly effective, it is important from a 3Rs perspective to investigate refinements that may help to lessen the severity of the fluid restriction applied. We assessed the use of social stimuli (images of conspecifics) as rewards for four rhesus macaques performing simple cognitive tasks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542330/quality-of-meta-analysis-in-nursing-fields-an-exploration-based-on-the-jbi-guidelines
#16
Yuying Hou, Jinhui Tian, Jun Zhang, Rongrong Yun, Zhigang Zhang, Kee-Hsin Chen, Caiyun Zhang, Bo Wang
BACKGROUND: Meta-analysis is often regarded as one of the best sources of evidence for clinical nurses due to its rigorous design and scientific reflection of the true results of nursing interventions. The quality of a meta-analysis is critical to the work of clinical decision-makers. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use the JBI guidelines to summarize the quality of RCT-based meta-analyses of reports published in domestic nursing professional journals, with a view to standardizing the research process and reporting methods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542308/lipid-content-and-fatty-acid-composition-of-porosira-glacialis-and-attheya-longicornis-in-response-to-carbon-dioxide-co2-aeration
#17
E Y Artamonova, T Vasskog, H C Eilertsen
In the current study two novel psychrophilic diatoms Porosira glacialis and Attheya longicornis were tested for suitability to CO2 mitigation coupled with production of the physiologically requisite omega- 3 fatty acids. This study is in line with the worldwide conducted research aimed at applying biorefinery concept to heavy polluting industries. Since the production of algal high value compounds, i.e. essential fatty acids, relies on utilization of residual CO2 emissions coming from industry, the costs of such production maybe substantially reduced...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541932/environmental-impact-assessment-of-a-package-type-ifas-reactor-during-construction-and-operational-phases-a-life-cycle-approach
#18
Nitin Kumar Singh, Rana Pratap Singh, Absar Ahmad Kazmi
In the present study, a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used to analyse the environmental impacts associated with the construction and operational phases of an integrated fixed-film activated sludge (IFAS) reactor treating municipal wastewater. This study was conducted within the boundaries of a research project that aimed to investigate the implementation related challenges of a package type IFAS reactor from an environmental perspective. Along with the LCA results of the construction phase, a comparison of the LCA results of seven operational phases is also presented in this study...
May 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541751/a-novel-experimental-model-of-colorectal-endometriosis
#19
Anastasia Prodromidou, Vasilios Pergialiotis, Kitty Pavlakis, Laskarina Maria Korou, Maximos Frountzas, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Georgios Vaos, Despina N Perrea
PURPOSE: Endometriosis is a disease that affects 6-10% of the female population, mainly women of reproductive age, and causes a variety of cyclic symptoms. Deep infiltrating endometriosis and in particular bowel involvement presents a challenge for modern surgery. To date, there are no experimental animal models in this field, demonstrating experimental induction of endometriosis directly attached to surface of the colon imitating human colorectal endometriosis; hence, the implementation of novel pharmaceutical and surgical strategies for the management of colorectal endometriosis is mainly limited to clinical studies...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541679/biomagnetic-monitoring-of-atmospheric-pollution-a-review-of-magnetic-signatures-from-biological-sensors
#20
Jelle Hofman, Barbara A Maher, Adrian R Muxworthy, Karen Wuyts, Ana Castanheiro, Roeland Samson
Biomagnetic monitoring of atmospheric pollution is a growing application in the field of environmental magnetism. Particulate matter (PM) in atmospheric pollution contains readily-measurable concentrations of magnetic minerals. Biological surfaces, exposed to atmospheric pollution, accumulate magnetic particles over time, providing a record of location-specific, time-integrated air quality information. This review summarizes current knowledge of biological material ('sensors') used for biomagnetic monitoring purposes...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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