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Implementation research

Oren Schwartz, Itzik Malka, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz, Tarif Bader
Introduction: Integration of females in combat units poses a unique challenge for army commanders around the world. The purpose of this study is to provide a detailed up-to-date situation report regarding overuse injuries among combat female warriors in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to enable evidence-based decision-making, prevention policy, and further research of this highly significant military public health issue. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted including 2,519 females recruited to combat duties during the year of 2013...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Oren Schwartz, Boris Kanevsky, M A J Sergey Kutikov, Cara H Olsen, Israel Dudkiewicz
Introduction: Attrition from training is associated with substantial financial and personnel loss. There is a plethora of medical literature and research of attrition rates related to initial/phase 1 training (basic combat training); however, the analysis of second phase training (commanders training, consisting of schools that qualify junior commanders and officers for infantry and non-infantry combat units) is limited. The purpose of this study is to perform a comprehensive survey regarding to medical attrition from commanders training in the IDF (Israeli Defense Forces) in order to present the commanders of the IDF a detailed situation report that will serve as an evidence-based platform for future policy planning and implementation...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Brian Shiner, Christine Leonard Westgate, Vanessa Simiola, Richard Thompson, Paula P Schnurr, Joan M Cook
Objective: Available studies on implementation of evidence-based psychotherapy (EBP) for patients attending Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) residential post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) programs rely on therapist self-report of EBP delivery. Patient-level data on receipt of EBP are needed both to corroborate therapist self-report and to understand patient factors that predict receipt of EBPs for PTSD. Materials and Methods: We identified 159 therapists from 38 VA residential PTSD programs who responded to a survey about EBP implementation during the 2015 fiscal year (FY15)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Ulviye Günay, Gülsen Kılınç
BACKGROUND: Nursing education contains both theoretical and practical training processes. Clinical training is the basis of nursing education. The quality of clinical training is closely related to the quality of the clinical learning environment. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the transfer of theoretical knowledge into clinical practice by nursing students and the difficulties they experience during this process. METHODS: A qualitative research design was used in the study...
March 1, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Christine Prouty, Shima Mohebbi, Qiong Zhang
Given the increasing vulnerability of communities to the negative impacts of untreated wastewater, resource recovery (RR) systems provide a paradigm shift away from a traditional approach of waste separation and treatment towards a productive recovery of water, energy and nutrients. The aim of this research is to understand the relationships between factors that influence the adoption and sustainability of wastewater-based RR systems to inform technology implementation strategies. The study presents a theory-informed, community-influenced system dynamics (SD) model to provide decision-makers with an adaptable tool that simulates system-level responses to the strategies that are developed for the coastal town of Placencia, Belize...
March 7, 2018: Water Research
Hannah R Wardill, Ysabella Z A Van Sebille, Matthew A Ciorba, Joanne M Bowen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Strong preclinical data support prophylactic probiotics as an effective preventive strategy for diarrhoea secondary to anticancer therapies. To determine the composite evidence that this approach translates to the clinic, we performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic probiotics for the prevention of cancer therapy induced diarrhoea. RECENT FINDINGS: A three-step search strategy was used to identify relevant studies (1 June 2000-1 June 2017) investigating probiotic intervention for diarrhoea secondary to any cancer therapy (cytotoxic, targeted and immunotherapies)...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
Lois D Hedman, Lori Quinn, Kathleen Gill-Body, David A Brown, Myla Quiben, Nora Riley, Patricia L Scheets
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The APTA recently established a vision for physical therapists to transform society by optimizing movement to promote health and wellness, mitigate impairments, and prevent disability. An important element of this vision entails the integration of the movement system into the profession, and necessitates the development of movement system diagnoses by physical therapists. At this point in time, the profession as a whole has not agreed upon diagnostic classifications or guidelines to assist in developing movement system diagnoses that will consistently capture an individual's movement problems...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
Srabanti Ghosh, Laurence Ramos, Hynd Remita
Materials are the key roadblocks for the commercialization of energy conversion devices in fuel cells and solar cells. Significant research has focused on tuning the intrinsic properties of materials at the nanometer scale. The soft template mediated controlled fabrication of advanced nanostructured materials is attracting considerable interest due to the promising applications of these materials in catalysis and electrocatalysis. Swollen hexagonal lyotropic liquid crystals (SLCs) consist of oil-swollen surfactant-stabilized 1D, 2D or 3D nanometric assemblies regularly arranged in an aqueous solvent...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Lisa Wirihana, Anthony Welch, Moira Williamson, Martin Christensen, Shannon Bakon, Judy Craft
BACKGROUND: Phenomenology is a useful methodological approach in qualitative nursing research. It enables researchers to put aside their perceptions of a phenomenon and give meaning to a participant's experiences. Exploring the experiences of others enables previously unavailable insights to be discovered. AIM: To delineate the implementation of Colaizzi's ( 1978 ) method of data analysis in descriptive phenomenological nursing research. DISCUSSION: The use of Colaizzi's method of data analysis enabled new knowledge to be revealed and provided insights into the experiences of nurse academics teaching on satellite campuses...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Pavani Rangachari
In 1999, the Institute of Medicine reported that 98,000 people die each year due to medical errors. In the following years, the focus on hospital quality was intensified nationally, with policymakers providing evidence-based practice guidelines for improving health care quality. However, these innovations (evidence-based guidelines) that were being produced at policy levels were not translating to clinical practice at the hospital organizational level easily, and stark variations continued to persist, in the quality of health care...
2018: Innov Entrep Health
Zhen Li, Xinmei Zhou, Jing Cao, Zheng Li, Xia Wan, Jiaqian Li, Jing Jiao, Ge Liu, Ying Liu, Fangfang Li, Baoyun Song, Jingfen Jin, Liu Yilan, Xianxiu Wen, Shouzhen Cheng, Xinjuan Wu
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To gain insight into nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding major immobility complications (pressure ulcers, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis and urinary tract infections) and explore the correlation of nurses' knowledge and attitudes with the incidence of these complications. BACKGROUND: Immobility complications have adverse consequences, and effective management requires appropriate knowledge, attitudes and skills. Evidence about nurses' knowledge and attitudes regarding immobility complications is lacking...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
Natália Duarte, Susan L Hughes, Constança Paúl
Fit & Strong! is a physical activity/behavior change evidence-based intervention for persons with osteoarthritis (OA) that was developed and tested in USA. This article describes the development of a new culturally adapted Portuguese version of Fit & Strong!, reviews the methods used, and describes the new features of the Portuguese program. Six steps were implemented for the cultural adaptation: training the Portuguese research team, materials translation, needs assessment which includes literature review, focus group with older adults with lower extremity joint pain, interviews with experts about Fit & Strong! format and content, program instructor training, and pilot study and program implementation...
March 13, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
N M Kriznik, A L Kinmonth, T Ling, M P Kelly
Background: A strong focus on individual choice and behaviour informs interventions designed to reduce health inequalities in the UK. We review evidence for wider mechanisms from a range of disciplines, demonstrate that they are not yet impacting on programmes, and argue for their systematic inclusion in policy and research. Methods: We identified potential mechanisms relevant to health inequalities and their amelioration from different disciplines and analysed six policy documents published between 1976 and 2010 using Bacchi's 'What's the problem represented to be?' framework for policy analysis...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Brandy Stoffel, Christine Sorkness, Carol Pech
In 2014, the Request for Applications from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) for continued funding of a multi-site clinical and mechanistic research network, Inner City Asthma Consortium (ICAC), called for "efficient IRB review and approval for multi-center studies" and "IRB approval within 30 days from submission". These requirements were precursors to the NIH policy of single IRB review for multi-site studies. Here we share our challenges, implementation processes, results, and recommendations, using a single, independent IRB...
December 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Chanel Zhan, Nicole Stadnick, David Sommerfeld, Scott Roesch, Gregory A Aarons, Debbie Innes-Gomberg, Lillian Bando, Anna S Lau
Evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation requires substantial resources in workforce training; yet, failure to achieve long-term sustainment can result in poor return on investment. There is limited research on EBP sustainment in mental health services long after implementation. This study examined therapists' continued vs. discontinued practice delivery based on administrative claims for reimbursement for six EBPs [Cognitive Behavioral Interventions for Trauma in Schools (CBITS), Child-Parent Psychotherapy, Managing and Adapting Practices (MAP), Seeking Safety (SS), Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavior Therapy (TF-CBT), and Positive Parenting Program] adopted in a system-driven implementation effort in public mental health services for children...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Oscar Illescas, Juan C Gomez-Verjan, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Tzipe Govezensky, Miriam Rodriguez-Sosa
Human macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a cytokine that plays a role in several metabolic and inflammatory processes. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -173 G/C (rs755622) on MIF gene has been associated with numerous diseases, such as arthritis and cancer. However, most of the reports concerning the association of MIF with these and other pathologies are inconsistent and remain quite controversial. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis from 96 case-control studies on -173 G/C MIF SNP and stratified the data according to the subjects geographic localization or the disease pathophysiology, in order to determine a more meaningful significance to this SNP...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Rupert R A Bourne, Jost B Jonas, Alain M Bron, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Aditi Das, Seth R Flaxman, David S Friedman, Jill E Keeffe, John H Kempen, Janet Leasher, Hans Limburg, Kovin Naidoo, Konrad Pesudovs, Tunde Peto, Jinan Saadine, Alexander J Silvester, Nina Tahhan, Hugh R Taylor, Rohit Varma, Tien Y Wong, Serge Resnikoff
BACKGROUND: Within a surveillance of the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in high-income regions and Central/Eastern Europe, we update figures through 2015 and forecast expected values in 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness, moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI), mild vision impairment and presbyopia was estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015, and 2020. RESULTS: Age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages decreased from 1990 to 2015 from 0...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Ebele M Umeukeje, Marcus G Wild, Saugar Maripuri, Teresa Davidson, Margaret Rutherford, Khaled Abdel-Kader, Julia Lewis, Consuelo H Wilkins, Kerri Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Incidence of ESKD is three times higher in black Americans than in whites, and CKD prevalence continues to rise among black Americans. Community-based kidney disease screening may increase early identification and awareness of black Americans at risk, but it is challenging to implement. This study aimed to identify participants' perspectives of community kidney disease screening. The Health Belief Model provides a theoretic framework for conceptualization of these perspectives and optimization of community kidney disease screening activities...
March 15, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Kenneth A Miles, Stefan A Voo, Ashley M Groves
Initial clinical research comparing the diagnostic performance of Positron Emission Tomography (PET)/ Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and PET/ Computed Tomography (PET/CT) has largely shown equivalent diagnostic capabilities for these modalities in oncology. These uncertainties about the magnitude of diagnostic benefit are compounded by the considerable health economic challenges associated with clinical implementation. Therefore, there is a need to identify ways to extend the use of this technology beyond simple diagnosis so that PET/MRI can add sufficient clinical value beyond PET/CT or MRI alone, and become a cost-effective imaging modality in clinical practice...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
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