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Fracture risk

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786884/bone-morbidity-and-recovery-in-children-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-results-of-a-six-year-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Leanne M Ward, Jinhui Ma, Bianca Lang, Josephine Ho, Nathalie Alos, Mary Ann Matzinger, Nazih Shenouda, Brian Lentle, Jacob L Jaremko, Beverly Wilson, David Stephure, Robert Stein, Anne Marie Sbrocchi, Celia Rodd, Victor Lewis, Sara Israels, Ronald M Grant, Conrad V Fernandez, David B Dix, Elizabeth A Cummings, Robert Couch, Elizabeth Cairney, Ronald Barr, Sharon Abish, Stephanie A Atkinson, John Hay, Frank Rauch, David Moher, Kerry Siminoski, Jacqueline Halton
Osteoporotic fractures are a significant cause of morbidity in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Our objective was to determine the incidence and predictors of fractures and recovery from osteoporosis in pediatric ALL over 6 years following glucocorticoid initiation. Vertebral fractures (VF) and vertebral body reshaping were assessed on annual spine radiographs, low-trauma non-VF were recorded at regular intervals and spine bone mineral density (BMD) was captured every 6 months for 4 years and then annually...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786820/determination-of-trace-element-levels-in-patients-with-burst-fractures
#2
Shahab Ahmed Salih Gezh, Abdurrahman Aycan, Halit Demir, Cemal Bozlına
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to determine trace element levels (Zn, Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Cd, Co, and Pb) in patients with burst fractures in Van Province, Turkey. METHODS: The study included a total of 44 participants with no additional pathologies, including 22 patients with burst fractures aged over 18 years who were admitted to the neurosurgery departments at two hospitals between June 15, 2015 and January 20, 2016 and 22 healthy volunteers. Serum samples were obtained from all participants to measure the serum levels of trace and heavy elements, including Mn, Cd, Cu, Pb, Fe, Co and Zn, using atomic absorbance spectrophotometry...
May 2018: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786747/microrna-137-dysregulation-predisposes-to-osteoporotic-fracture-by-impeding-alp-activity-and-expression-via-suppression-of-leucine-rich-repeat-containing-g-protein-coupled-receptor-4-expression
#3
Xiangjun Liu, Xiaohui Xu
Osteoporosis is defined as a loss of bone mass and deterioration of its architecture resulting in bone weakness, which becomes prone to fracture. The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanism by which miR-137 can reduce the risk of fracture in patients with osteoporosis. An online miRNA database and a luciferase reporter assay system were used to confirm that leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) was the target of miR-137. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis were used to study miR-137 mRNA, the expression of LGR4 mRNA and protein among different groups or cells transfected with a scrambled miRNA control, miR-137 mimic, LGR4 siRNA and miR-137 inhibitor...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786644/impact-of-bone-fracture-on-ischemic-stroke-recovery
#4
REVIEW
Meng Wei, Haiyian Lyu, Kang Huo, Hua Su
Stroke is one of the most devastating complications of bone fracture, occurring in up to 4% of patients after surgical repair for hip fracture. Bone fracture and ischemic stroke have many common risk factors. The impact of bone fracture on stroke recovery has not drawn much attention in the research field. Bone fracture could occur in stroke patients at different times during the recovery phase, which steepens the trajectory of cognitive decline, greatly affects the quality of life, and causes a heavy burden on healthcare resources...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785160/observational-study-of-the-bisphosphonate-related-osteonecrosis-of-jaws
#5
Andreea Elena Lungu, Madalina Anca Lazar, Andrada Tonea, Horatiu Rotaru, Rares Calin Roman, Mindra Eugenia Badea
Introduction: The bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw was first referred to in 2003. Bisphosphonates action is focused on the osteoclasts. The drastic inhibition of the osteoclastic function is harmful for the jaws which are the only bones of the human skeleton in relative contact with the external environment. The adverse effects of the bisphosphonate-related therapy include the pathology for which they are prescribed, the atypical fractures in pathological bone. Method: The aim of this research was to analyze the risk factors and the treatment methods in case of osteonecrosis of the jaws...
2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784590/prognostic-factors-and-predictive-model-for-in-hospital-mortality-following-hip-fractures-in-the-elderly
#6
J Sanz-Reig, J Salvador Marín, J Ferrández Martínez, D Orozco Beltrán, J F Martínez López, J A Quesada Rico
PURPOSE: The incidence of hip fractures is increasing within the aging population. Our objective was to identify and quantify the risk factors and develop a predictive model for the in-hospital mortality among hip fracture patients older than 65 years. METHODS: This is a prospective study conducted on 331 hip fracture patients older than 65 years admitted to our hospital from 2011 to 2014. Patients' demographics, prehospitalization residential status, prefracture comorbidity data, anti-aggregant and anticoagulant medication, preoperative hemoglobin value, type of fractures, type of treatments, time to surgery, and complications were recorded...
April 25, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784284/routine-surveillance-imaging-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-may-not-be-necessary
#7
Smruti K Patel, Yair M Gozal, Bryan M Krueger, James C Bayley, Suzanne Moody, Norberto Andaluz, Richard A Falcone, Karin S Bierbrauer
BACKGROUND: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) comprises the majority of pediatric traumatic brain injury. Children with mTBI even with traumatic intracranial hemorrhage (tICH) rarely experience a clinically significant neurologic decline (CSND). The utility of routine surveillance imaging in the pediatric population also remains controversial, especially owing to concerns about the risks of radiation exposure at a young age. This study aims to identify demographic or injury-related characteristics that may facilitate recognition of children at risk of progression with mTBI...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784241/fracture-probability-assessed-using-frax-%C3%A2-in-elderly-women-with-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#8
Takafumi Nakada, Masaaki Teranishi, Yukio Ueda, Michihiko Sone
OBJECTIVE: Patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) can have vitamin D deficiency, which is a cause of abnormal bone turnover. Several studies have established a relationship between osteoporosis and BPPV. The World Health Organization Fracture Risk Assessment Tool, widely known as FRAX® (http://www.shef.ac.uk/FRAX), is a computer-based algorithm for assessing fracture risk. No direct comparison has been made between the FRAX scores of patients with BPPV and controls...
May 18, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783868/low-bone-mineral-density-in-ambulatory-persons-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#9
Cindy T R Mus-Peters, Bionka M A Huisstede, Suzie Noten, Minou W M G C Hitters, Wilma M A van der Slot, Rita J G van den Berg-Emons
PURPOSE: Non-ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy are prone to low bone mineral density. In ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy, bone mineral density deficits are expected to be small or absent, but a consensus conclusion is lacking. In this systematic review bone mineral density in ambulatory persons with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Function Classification Scales I-III) was studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Web of Science were searched. According to international guidelines, low bone mineral density was defined as Z-score ≤ -2...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783641/premature-spinal-bone-loss-in-women-living-with-hiv-is-associated-with-shorter-leukocyte-telomere-length
#10
Shirin Kalyan, Neora Pick, Alice Mai, Melanie C M Murray, Kristen Kidson, Jackson Chu, Arianne Y K Albert, Hélène C F Côté, Evelyn J Maan, Azita Goshtasebi, Deborah M Money, Jerilynn C Prior
With advances in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), people living with HIV are now surviving to experience aging. Evidence suggests that individuals living with HIV are at greater risk for low bone mineral density (BMD), osteoporosis, and fractures. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of bone health in women living with HIV (WLWH) is important for treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to explore new biological factors linked to low BMD in WLWH. Standardized BMD measures of WLWH were compared to reference values from an unselected population of women from the same geographical region of the same age range...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782940/defining-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-lineages-in-the-bone-marrow
#11
J L Pierce, D L Begun, J J Westendorf, M E McGee-Lawrence
Bone is a complex endocrine organ that facilitates structural support, protection to vital organs, sites for hematopoiesis, and calcium homeostasis. The bone marrow microenvironment is a heterogeneous niche consisting of multipotent musculoskeletal and hematopoietic progenitors and their derivative terminal cell types. Amongst these progenitors, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BMSCs) may differentiate into osteogenic, adipogenic, myogenic, and chondrogenic lineages to support musculoskeletal development as well as tissue homeostasis, regeneration and repair during adulthood...
May 18, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782635/effect-of-home-based-rehabilitation-for-hip-fracture-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#12
Desheng Wu, Xiulan Zhu, Shaowei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Home-based rehabilitation following hip fracture may be beneficial; however, the evidence is controversial. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of home-based rehabilitation in patients with hip fracture. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the effect of home-based rehabilitation for patients with hip fracture were included...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781945/appropriateness-of-pediatric-orthopaedic-transfers-to-a-level-1-hospital
#13
Jaclyn McKenna, David Novikov, Amanda Pawlak, Jihye Park, Jie Yang, Hariharan Iyer, James Barsi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare a cohort of transferred pediatric orthopaedic patients with orthopaedic patients who primarily presented to a Level 1 pediatric emergency department to identify risk factors for transfer. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: This study was performed at a level one trauma center in New York. PATIENTS: The cohort consisted of patients under age 18 who presented to one level 1 pediatric trauma center between January 1, 2013 - December 31, 2013 with an orthopaedic fracture diagnosis code (ICD-9 805...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781910/superior-baseplate-inclination-is-associated-with-instability-after-reverse-total-shoulder-arthroplasty
#14
Robert Z Tashjian, Brook I Martin, Cassandra A Ricketts, Heath B Henninger, Erin K Granger, Peter N Chalmers
BACKGROUND: Instability is the most common complication after reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA). In the native glenohumeral joint, in addition to full dislocations, more subtle forms of instability exist. However, the incidence of more subtle forms of instability, the factors associated with instability, and the effect of instability on validated outcome scores after rTSA remain poorly understood. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) After rTSA, what is the risk of instability, including more subtle forms of subjective instability? (2) What are the factors associated with instability? (3) Are more subtle forms of instability associated with lower American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) functional outcome scores than those patients without instability? METHODS: A total of 168 rTSAs were performed during the study period...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781820/management-of-pediatric-femoral-neck-fracture
#15
Joseph T Patterson, Jennifer Tangtiphaiboontana, Nirav K Pandya
In the pediatric population, femoral neck fracture is a relatively uncommon injury with a high complication rate, despite appropriate diagnosis and management. The anatomy and blood supply of the proximal femur in the skeletally immature patient differs from that in the adult patient. Generally, these fractures result from high-energy trauma and are categorized using the Delbet classification system. This system both guides management and aids the clinician in determining the risk of osteonecrosis after these fractures...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781787/evaluating-the-duration-of-prophylactic-post-operative-antibiotic-agents-after-open-reduction-internal-fixation-for-closed-fractures
#16
Brett D Crist, Lasun O Oladeji, Gregory J Della Rocca, David A Volgas, James P Stannard, David D Greenberg
BACKGROUND: The importance of timely pre-operative antibiotic agents for effective surgical prophylaxis has been established but the optimal duration of antimicrobial coverage post-operatively has not yet been defined clearly. The purpose of this study was to determine if prophylactic post- operative cefazolin for 23 hours decreases the risk of surgical site infection (SSI) after open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) of closed extremity fractures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: After Institutional Reviews Board approval, patients undergoing ORIF of closed extremity fractures who had a planned post-operative stay of at least 23 hours were randomly assigned to either receive 23 hours of cefazolin or a placebo...
May 21, 2018: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780837/foot-kinematics-differ-between-runners-with-and-without-a-history-of-navicular-stress-fractures
#17
James Becker, Stanley James, Louis Osternig, Li-Shan Chou
Background: A navicular stress fracture (NSF) is a common and high-risk injury in distance runners. It is not clear whether there are differences in foot structure and function between runners who have and those who have not sustained an NSF. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study compared foot structure, range of motion, and biomechanics between runners with a history of unilateral NSFs and runners who had never sustained this injury. The hypothesis was that runners with a history of NSFs will have less dorsiflexion and subtalar range of motion in a clinical examination and greater rearfoot eversion and higher eversion velocity while running than either the noninvolved feet or healthy controls...
April 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780142/diabetes-mellitus-induced-bone-fragility
#18
Ippei Kanazawa, Toshitsugu Sugimoto
Accumulating evidence has shown that the risk of osteoporotic fractures is increased in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, DM-induced bone fragility has been recently recognized as a diabetic complication. Because the fracture risk is independent of the reduction in bone mineral density, deterioration of the bone quality may be the main cause of bone fragility. Although its mechanism remains poorly understood, accumulated collagen cross-links of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and dysfunctions of osteoblast and osteocyte may be involved...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779585/translational-studies-provide-insights-for-the-etiology-and-treatment-of-cortical-bone-osteoporosis
#19
REVIEW
Robert Brommage, Claes Ohlsson
Increasing attention is being focused on the important contributions of cortical bone to bone strength, fractures and osteoporosis therapies. Recent progress in human genome wide association studies in combination with high-throughput mouse gene knockout phenotyping efforts of multiple genes and advanced conditional gene inactivation in mouse models have successfully identified genes with crucial roles in cortical bone homeostasis. Particular attention in this review is given to genes, such as WNT16, POSTN and SFRP4, that differentially affect cortical and trabecular bone architecture...
June 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779141/socioeconomic-factors-and-individual-lifestyles-influencing-the-incidence-of-patella-fractures-a-national-population-based-survey-in-china
#20
Yanbin Zhu, Song Liu, Wei Chen, Lin Wang, Xiaolin Zhang, Yingze Zhang
BACKGROUND: We aimed to do a national survey on the population-based incidence of patella fractures and related risk factors fracture in China. METHODS: All the data on patella fractures were available from the China National Fracture Survey (CNFS) between January and May in 2015. And in the CNFS, all eligible household members were selected from 24 urban cities and 24 rural counties of eight provinces of China, with stratified random sampling and the probability proportional to size method used...
May 19, 2018: International Orthopaedics
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