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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780627/a-new-approach-to-predict-lymph-node-metastasis-in-solid-lung-adenocarcinoma-a-radiomics-nomogram
#1
Xinguan Yang, Xiaohuan Pan, Hui Liu, Dashan Gao, Jianxing He, Wenhua Liang, Yubao Guan
Background: Lymph node metastasis (LNM) of lung cancer is an important factor related to survival and recurrence. The association between radiomics features of lung cancer and LNM remains unclear. We developed and validated a radiomics nomogram to predict LNM in solid lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: A total of 159 eligible patients with solid lung adenocarcinoma were divided into training (n=106) and validation cohorts (n=53). Radiomics features were extracted from venous-phase CT images...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775688/gyneco-oncological-genomics-and-emerging-biomarkers-for-cancer-treatment-with-immune-checkpoint-inhibitors
#2
REVIEW
Giuseppe Curigliano
In gynecological cancers tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and upregulation of immune-related gene signatures have been associated with a better prognosis. Knowledge of tumor immunogenicity and associated gene signatures suggests that the tumor immune landscape is a key determinant to define patient prognosis and potentially to predict response to immune-checkpoint inhibitors. The aim of this review is to give an overview of immune gene signatures across gynecology histological cancer types, defining their prognostic and potential predictive role...
May 15, 2018: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770763/a-radiomics-nomogram-for-preoperative-prediction-of-microvascular-invasion-risk-in-hepatitis-b-virus-related-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Jie Peng, Jing Zhang, Qifan Zhang, Yikai Xu, Jie Zhou, Li Liu
PURPOSE: We aimed to develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for preoperative prediction of microvascular invasion (MVI) in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: A total of 304 eligible patients with HCC were randomly divided into training (n=184) and independent validation (n=120) cohorts. Portal venous and arterial phase computed tomography data of the HCCs were collected to extract radiomic features. Using the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm, the training set was processed to reduce data dimensions, feature selection, and construction of a radiomics signature...
May 2018: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700762/a-host-protein-signature-is-superior-to-other-biomarkers-for-differentiating-between-bacterial-and-viral-disease-in-patients-with-respiratory-infection-and-fever-without-source-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
Liat Ashkenazi-Hoffnung, Kfir Oved, Roy Navon, Tom Friedman, Olga Boico, Meital Paz, Gali Kronenfeld, Liat Etshtein, Asi Cohen, Tanya M Gottlieb, Eran Eden, Irina Chistyakov, Isaac Srugo, Adi Klein, Shai Ashkenazi, Oded Scheuerman
Bacterial and viral infections often present with similar symptoms. Etiologic misdiagnosis can alter the trajectory of patient care, including antibiotic overuse. A host-protein signature comprising tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), interferon gamma-induced protein-10 (IP-10), and C-reactive protein (CRP) was validated recently for differentiating bacterial from viral disease. However, a focused head-to-head comparison of its diagnostic performance against other biomarker candidates for this indication was lacking in patients with respiratory infection and fever without source...
April 26, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29645086/erlotinib-plus-either-pazopanib-or-placebo-in-patients-with-previously-treated-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-phase-2-trial-with-correlated-serum-proteomic-signatures
#5
David R Spigel, Howard A Burris, F Anthony Greco, Kent C Shih, Victor G Gian, Andrew J Lipman, Davey B Daniel, David M Waterhouse, Lindsey Finney, John V Heymach, John D Hainsworth
BACKGROUND: This study compared the efficacy and safety of treatment with erlotinib plus pazopanib versus erlotinib plus placebo in patients with previously treated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: Patients with progressive-stage IV NSCLC after either 1 or 2 previous chemotherapy regimens were randomized to receive erlotinib (150 mg by mouth daily) with either pazopanib (600 mg by mouth daily) or placebo. During treatment, patients were evaluated every 8 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity...
April 12, 2018: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625265/network-based-meta-analysis-in-the-identification-of-biomarkers-for-papillary-thyroid-cancer
#6
Hengqiang Zhao, Hehe Li
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has been increasing across the world with incomplete understanding of its pathogenesis. We aimed to investigate gene alterations and biomarkers contributing to PTC development. A total of five eligible microarray datasets including 94 PTC and 81 normal thyroid samples were included to identify gene expression signatures. Using integrative meta-analysis of expression data (INMEX) program, we identified a total of 2699 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (1333 overexpressed and 1366 underexpressed genes) in PTC relative to normal thyroid samples...
April 3, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616330/colorectal-cancer-in-the-young
#7
REVIEW
Swati G Patel, Dennis J Ahnen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Colorectal cancer incidence has been rapidly rising in those under the age of 50 over the last 20 years. This paper will review the epidemiology, clinicopathologic, molecular features, proposed risk factors, and prevention/treatment approach for early onset CRC (EOCRC) patients. RECENT FINDINGS: EOCRC appears to have a different spectrum of clinical, pathologic, and molecular presentation compared to CRC diagnosed in older individuals. EOCRCs are disproportionately located in the distal colon; these patients tend to present with symptoms, and there is a longer interval between symptoms and diagnosis...
March 28, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588602/upregulated-long-non-coding-rnas-demonstrate-promising-efficacy-for-breast-cancer-detection-a-meta-analysis
#8
Guozheng Yu, Wei Zhang, Linyan Zhu, Lin Xia
Purpose: Focusing on the latest literature, dysregulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been extensively explored in breast cancer (BC) research. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to synthesize the evidence on the diagnostic performance of abnormally expressed lncRNAs for BC. Materials and methods: Relevant studies were searched in multiple electronic databases. The Quality Assessment of Diagnosis Accuracy Studies II criteria were applied to assess the quality of included studies...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558499/metrics-of-early-childhood-growth-in-recent-epidemiological-research-a-scoping-review
#9
Michael Leung, Nandita Perumal, Elnathan Mesfin, Aditi Krishna, Seungmi Yang, William Johnson, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at ≥ 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29528048/using-biomarkers-to-predict-tb-treatment-duration-predict-tb-a-prospective-randomized-noninferiority-treatment-shortening-clinical-trial
#10
Ray Y Chen, Laura E Via, Lori E Dodd, Gerhard Walzl, Stephanus T Malherbe, André G Loxton, Rodney Dawson, Robert J Wilkinson, Friedrich Thienemann, Michele Tameris, Mark Hatherill, Andreas H Diacon, Xin Liu, Jin Xing, Xiaowei Jin, Zhenya Ma, Shouguo Pan, Guolong Zhang, Qian Gao, Qi Jiang, Hong Zhu, Lili Liang, Hongfei Duan, Taeksun Song, David Alland, Michael Tartakovsky, Alex Rosenthal, Christopher Whalen, Michael Duvenhage, Ying Cai, Lisa C Goldfeder, Kriti Arora, Bronwyn Smith, Jill Winter, Clifton E Barry Iii
Background : By the early 1980s, tuberculosis treatment was shortened from 24 to 6 months, maintaining relapse rates of 1-2%. Subsequent trials attempting shorter durations have failed, with 4-month arms consistently having relapse rates of 15-20%. One trial shortened treatment only among those without baseline cavity on chest x-ray and whose month 2 sputum culture converted to negative. The 4-month arm relapse rate decreased to 7% but was still significantly worse than the 6-month arm (1.6%, P<0.01).  We hypothesize that PET/CT characteristics at baseline, PET/CT changes at one month, and markers of residual bacterial load will identify patients with tuberculosis who can be cured with 4 months (16 weeks) of standard treatment...
November 6, 2017: Gates open research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29511883/validation-of-a-10-gene-molecular-signature-for-predicting-biochemical-recurrence-and-clinical-metastasis-in-localized-prostate-cancer
#11
Hatem Abou-Ouf, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Mandeep Takhar, Nicholas Erho, Bryan Donnelly, Elai Davicioni, R Jeffrey Karnes, Tarek A Bismar
PURPOSE: To validate a previously characterized 10-gene signature in prostate cancer with implication to distinguish aggressive and indolent disease within low and intermediate patients' risk groups. METHODS: A case-control study design used to select 545 patients from the Mayo clinic tumor registry who underwent radical prostatectomy. A training set from this cohort (n = 359) was used to build a 10-gene model, based on high-dimensional discriminant analysis (HDDA10) to predict several endpoints of clinical patients' outcome...
May 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506884/radiomic-biomarkers-to-refine-risk-models-for-distant-metastasis-in-hpv-related-oropharyngeal-carcinoma
#12
Jennifer Yin Yee Kwan, Jie Su, Shao Hui Huang, Laleh S Ghoraie, Wei Xu, Biu Chan, Kenneth W Yip, Meredith Giuliani, Andrew Bayley, John Kim, Andrew J Hope, Jolie Ringash, John Cho, Andrea McNiven, Aaron Hansen, David Goldstein, John R de Almeida, Hugo J Aerts, John N Waldron, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Brian O'Sullivan, Scott V Bratman, Fei-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Distant metastasis (DM) is the main cause of death for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs); yet, there are few reliable predictors of DM in this disease. The role of quantitative imaging (ie, radiomic) analysis was examined to determine whether there are primary tumor features discernible on imaging studies that are associated with a higher risk of DM developing. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation therapy planning computed tomography scans were retrieved for all nonmetastatic p16-positive OPC patients treated with radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy at a single institution between 2005 and 2010...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468275/-the-innate-immune-system-in-oropharyngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-immune-modulation-by-hpv
#13
REVIEW
S Wagner, H Böckmann, S Gattenlöhner, J P Klussmann, C Wittekindt
Based on clinical and experimental data, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recognized as a distinct entity of head and neck cancers. However, outside of clinical trials, HPV status currently has no impact on treatment. The natural replication cycle of HPV takes place in epithelial cells, and is thus spatially separated from cytotoxic immune cells in the epidermis. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, LC), however, are frequent in this upper dermal layer...
April 2018: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454742/tumor-target-amplification-implications-for-nano-drug-delivery-systems
#14
REVIEW
Khaled Seidi, Heidi A Neubauer, Richard Moriggl, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Tahereh Javaheri
Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411286/athletes-with-channelopathy-may-be-eligible-to-play
#15
REVIEW
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, A A M Wilde
The European and Bethesda recommendations roughly state that any athlete with channelopathy is not eligible to participate in sports on a presumed risk of potentially life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. However, eligibility decision-making on a presumed risk of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation is debatable. Channelopathies are primary electrical cardiac disorders and are usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Some of the channelopathies are potentially fatal in relation to exercise and predispose to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation...
March 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346507/activity-and-safety-of-afatinib-in-a-window-pre-operative-eortc-study-in-patients-with-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-head-and-neck-scchn
#16
J P Machiels, P Bossi, J Menis, M Lia, C Fortpied, Y Liu, R Lhommel, M Lemort, S Schmitz, S Canevari, L De Cecco, M Guzzo, R Bianchi, P Quattrone, F Crippa, T Duprez, Y Lalami, M Quiriny, N de Saint Aubain, P M Clement, R Coropciuc, E Hauben, L F Licitra
Background: To investigate the activity and safety of afatinib in the pre-operative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: This study was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase II window of opportunity trial. Treatment-naïve SCCHN patients selected for primary curative surgery were randomized (5:1 ratio) to receive afatinib during 14 days (day -15 until day -1) before surgery (day 0) or no treatment. Tumor biopsies, 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at diagnosis and just before surgery...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330203/personalized-rna-medicine-for-pancreatic-cancer
#17
Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles, Liangliang Hao, Ling Huang, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Pedro P Lopez-Casas, Emilia Pulver, Jong Cheol Jeong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Manuel Hidalgo, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Frank J Slack
Purpose: Since drug responses vary between patients, it is crucial to develop pre-clinical or co-clinical strategies that forecast patient response. In this study, we tested whether RNA-based therapeutics were suitable for personalized medicine by using patient-derived-organoid (PDO) and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) models. Experimental Design: We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of PDX samples to determine the status of miRNA deregulation in individual pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189767/blood-based-protein-signatures-for-early-detection-of-colorectal-cancer-a-systematic-review
#18
Megha Bhardwaj, Anton Gies, Simone Werner, Petra Schrotz-King, Hermann Brenner
OBJECTIVES: Blood-based proteins might be an attractive option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but individually they are unlikely to achieve the diagnostic performance required for population based screening. We aimed at summarizing current evidence of diagnostic performance of signatures based on multiple proteins for early detection of CRC. METHODS: A systematic literature review adhering to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guidelines was performed...
November 30, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164972/molecular-subtyping-of-breast-cancer-improves-identification-of-both-high-and-low-risk-patients
#19
Maria Rossing, Olga Østrup, Wiktor W Majewski, Savvas Kinalis, Maj-Britt Jensen, Ann Knoop, Niels Kroman, Maj-Lis Talman, Thomas V O Hansen, Bent Ejlertsen, Finn C Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis enables classification of breast tumors into molecular subtypes that correlate with prognosis and effect of therapy. We evaluated the clinical benefits of molecular subtyping compared to our current diagnostic practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 524 tumors from women with primary breast cancer (n = 508). Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and compared to conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedures...
January 2018: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116900/safety-and-antitumor-activity-of-the-anti-programmed-death-1-antibody-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-advanced-esophageal-carcinoma
#20
Toshihiko Doi, Sarina A Piha-Paul, Shadia I Jalal, Sanatan Saraf, Jared Lunceford, Minori Koshiji, Jaafar Bennouna
Purpose The anti-programmed death-1 antibody pembrolizumab was evaluated in KEYNOTE-028, a multicohort, phase IB study of patients with programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-positive advanced solid tumors. Results from the esophageal carcinoma cohort are reported herein. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction in whom standard therapy failed and who had PD-L1-positive tumors received pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 2 years or until confirmed disease progression or intolerable toxicity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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