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Michael Leung, Nandita Perumal, Elnathan Mesfin, Aditi Krishna, Seungmi Yang, William Johnson, Diego G Bassani, Daniel E Roth
Metrics to quantify child growth vary across studies of the developmental origins of health and disease. We conducted a scoping review of child growth studies in which length/height, weight or body mass index (BMI) was measured at ≥ 2 time points. From a 10% random sample of eligible studies published between Jan 2010-Jun 2016, and all eligible studies from Oct 2015-June 2016, we classified growth metrics based on author-assigned labels (e.g., 'weight gain') and a 'content signature', a numeric code that summarized the metric's conceptual and statistical properties...
2018: PloS One
Ray Y Chen, Laura E Via, Lori E Dodd, Gerhard Walzl, Stephanus T Malherbe, André G Loxton, Rodney Dawson, Robert J Wilkinson, Friedrich Thienemann, Michele Tameris, Mark Hatherill, Andreas H Diacon, Xin Liu, Jin Xing, Xiaowei Jin, Zhenya Ma, Shouguo Pan, Guolong Zhang, Qian Gao, Qi Jiang, Hong Zhu, Lili Liang, Hongfei Duan, Taeksun Song, David Alland, Michael Tartakovsky, Alex Rosenthal, Christopher Whalen, Michael Duvenhage, Ying Cai, Lisa C Goldfeder, Kriti Arora, Bronwyn Smith, Jill Winter, Clifton E Barry Iii
Background : By the early 1980s, tuberculosis treatment was shortened from 24 to 6 months, maintaining relapse rates of 1-2%. Subsequent trials attempting shorter durations have failed, with 4-month arms consistently having relapse rates of 15-20%. One trial shortened treatment only among those without baseline cavity on chest x-ray and whose month 2 sputum culture converted to negative. The 4-month arm relapse rate decreased to 7% but was still significantly worse than the 6-month arm (1.6%, P<0.01).  We hypothesize that PET/CT characteristics at baseline, PET/CT changes at one month, and markers of residual bacterial load will identify patients with tuberculosis who can be cured with 4 months (16 weeks) of standard treatment...
November 6, 2017: Gates Open Res
Hatem Abou-Ouf, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Mandeep Takhar, Nicholas Erho, Bryan Donnelly, Elai Davicioni, R Jeffrey Karnes, Tarek A Bismar
PURPOSE: To validate a previously characterized 10-gene signature in prostate cancer with implication to distinguish aggressive and indolent disease within low and intermediate patients' risk groups. METHODS: A case-control study design used to select 545 patients from the Mayo clinic tumor registry who underwent radical prostatectomy. A training set from this cohort (n = 359) was used to build a 10-gene model, based on high-dimensional discriminant analysis (HDDA10) to predict several endpoints of clinical patients' outcome...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Jennifer Yin Yee Kwan, Jie Su, Shao Hui Huang, Laleh S Ghoraie, Wei Xu, Biu Chan, Kenneth W Yip, Meredith Giuliani, Andrew Bayley, John Kim, Andrew J Hope, Jolie Ringash, John Cho, Andrea McNiven, Aaron Hansen, David Goldstein, John R de Almeida, Hugo J Aerts, John N Waldron, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Brian O'Sullivan, Scott V Bratman, Fei-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Distant metastasis (DM) is the main cause of death for patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs); yet, there are few reliable predictors of DM in this disease. The role of quantitative imaging (ie, radiomic) analysis was examined to determine whether there are primary tumor features discernible on imaging studies that are associated with a higher risk of DM developing. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Radiation therapy planning computed tomography scans were retrieved for all nonmetastatic p16-positive OPC patients treated with radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy at a single institution between 2005 and 2010...
February 1, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
S Wagner, H Böckmann, S Gattenlöhner, J P Klussmann, C Wittekindt
Based on clinical and experimental data, oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCC) associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) have been recognized as a distinct entity of head and neck cancers. However, outside of clinical trials, HPV status currently has no impact on treatment. The natural replication cycle of HPV takes place in epithelial cells, and is thus spatially separated from cytotoxic immune cells in the epidermis. Dendritic cells (Langerhans cells, LC), however, are frequent in this upper dermal layer...
February 15, 2018: HNO
Khaled Seidi, Heidi A Neubauer, Richard Moriggl, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Tahereh Javaheri
Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
N M Panhuyzen-Goedkoop, A A M Wilde
The European and Bethesda recommendations roughly state that any athlete with channelopathy is not eligible to participate in sports on a presumed risk of potentially life-threatening ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. However, eligibility decision-making on a presumed risk of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation is debatable. Channelopathies are primary electrical cardiac disorders and are usually transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. Some of the channelopathies are potentially fatal in relation to exercise and predispose to life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias including ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation...
February 6, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
J P Machiels, P Bossi, J Menis, M Lia, C Fortpied, Y Liu, R Lhommel, M Lemort, S Schmitz, S Canevari, L De Cecco, M Guzzo, R Bianchi, P Quattrone, F Crippa, T Duprez, Y Lalami, M Quiriny, N de Saint Aubain, P M Clement, R Coropciuc, E Hauben, L F Licitra
Background: To investigate the activity and safety of afatinib in the pre-operative treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN). Patients and methods: This study was an open-label, randomized, multicenter, phase II window of opportunity trial. Treatment-naïve SCCHN patients selected for primary curative surgery were randomized (5:1 ratio) to receive afatinib during 14 days (day -15 until day -1) before surgery (day 0) or no treatment. Tumor biopsies, 2-[fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed at diagnosis and just before surgery...
January 15, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Maud-Emmanuelle Gilles, Liangliang Hao, Ling Huang, Rajesha Rupaimoole, Pedro P Lopez-Casas, Emilia Pulver, Jong Cheol Jeong, Senthil K Muthuswamy, Manuel Hidalgo, Sangeeta N Bhatia, Frank J Slack
PURPOSE: Since drug responses vary between patients, it is crucial to develop pre-clinical or co-clinical strategies that forecast patient response. In this study, we tested whether RNA-based therapeutics were suitable for personalized medicine by using patient-derived-organoid (PDO) and patient-derived-xenograft (PDX) models.  Experimental Design: We performed microRNA (miRNA) profiling of PDX samples to determine the status of miRNA deregulation in individual pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients...
January 12, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Megha Bhardwaj, Anton Gies, Simone Werner, Petra Schrotz-King, Hermann Brenner
OBJECTIVES: Blood-based proteins might be an attractive option for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC), but individually they are unlikely to achieve the diagnostic performance required for population based screening. We aimed at summarizing current evidence of diagnostic performance of signatures based on multiple proteins for early detection of CRC. METHODS: A systematic literature review adhering to the PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analysis) guidelines was performed...
November 30, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Maria Rossing, Olga Østrup, Wiktor W Majewski, Savvas Kinalis, Maj-Britt Jensen, Ann Knoop, Niels Kroman, Maj-Lis Talman, Thomas V O Hansen, Bent Ejlertsen, Finn C Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Transcriptome analysis enables classification of breast tumors into molecular subtypes that correlate with prognosis and effect of therapy. We evaluated the clinical benefits of molecular subtyping compared to our current diagnostic practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Molecular subtyping was performed on a consecutive and unselected series of 524 tumors from women with primary breast cancer (n = 508). Tumors were classified by the 256 gene expression signature (CIT) and compared to conventional immunohistochemistry (IHC) procedures...
November 22, 2017: Acta Oncologica
Toshihiko Doi, Sarina A Piha-Paul, Shadia I Jalal, Sanatan Saraf, Jared Lunceford, Minori Koshiji, Jaafar Bennouna
Purpose The anti-programmed death-1 antibody pembrolizumab was evaluated in KEYNOTE-028, a multicohort, phase IB study of patients with programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1)-positive advanced solid tumors. Results from the esophageal carcinoma cohort are reported herein. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction in whom standard therapy failed and who had PD-L1-positive tumors received pembrolizumab 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks for up to 2 years or until confirmed disease progression or intolerable toxicity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Viktor A Adalsteinsson, Gavin Ha, Samuel S Freeman, Atish D Choudhury, Daniel G Stover, Heather A Parsons, Gregory Gydush, Sarah C Reed, Denisse Rotem, Justin Rhoades, Denis Loginov, Dimitri Livitz, Daniel Rosebrock, Ignaty Leshchiner, Jaegil Kim, Chip Stewart, Mara Rosenberg, Joshua M Francis, Cheng-Zhong Zhang, Ofir Cohen, Coyin Oh, Huiming Ding, Paz Polak, Max Lloyd, Sairah Mahmud, Karla Helvie, Margaret S Merrill, Rebecca A Santiago, Edward P O'Connor, Seong H Jeong, Rachel Leeson, Rachel M Barry, Joseph F Kramkowski, Zhenwei Zhang, Laura Polacek, Jens G Lohr, Molly Schleicher, Emily Lipscomb, Andrea Saltzman, Nelly M Oliver, Lori Marini, Adrienne G Waks, Lauren C Harshman, Sara M Tolaney, Eliezer M Van Allen, Eric P Winer, Nancy U Lin, Mari Nakabayashi, Mary-Ellen Taplin, Cory M Johannessen, Levi A Garraway, Todd R Golub, Jesse S Boehm, Nikhil Wagle, Gad Getz, J Christopher Love, Matthew Meyerson
Whole-exome sequencing of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) could enable comprehensive profiling of tumors from blood but the genome-wide concordance between cfDNA and tumor biopsies is uncertain. Here we report ichorCNA, software that quantifies tumor content in cfDNA from 0.1× coverage whole-genome sequencing data without prior knowledge of tumor mutations. We apply ichorCNA to 1439 blood samples from 520 patients with metastatic prostate or breast cancers. In the earliest tested sample for each patient, 34% of patients have ≥10% tumor-derived cfDNA, sufficient for standard coverage whole-exome sequencing...
November 6, 2017: Nature Communications
Patrick Wald, X Shawn Liu, Cory Pettit, Mary Dillhoff, Andrei Manilchuk, Carl Schmidt, Evan Wuthrick, Wei Chen, Terence M Williams
BACKGROUND: Clinical and pathologic markers of prognosis and patterns of failure help guide clinicians in selecting patients for adjuvant therapy after surgical resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Recent studies have reported the prognostic utility of microRNA profiling in numerous malignancies. Here, we review and summarize the current literature regarding associations between microRNA expression and overall survival in PDAC patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a systematic search in the PubMed database to identify all primary research studies reporting prognostic associations between tumor and/or serum microRNA expression and overall survival in PDAC patients...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
Hongyun Yang, Yanyan Han, Lele Wu, Chaojun Wu
BACKGROUND: The long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are significantly altered in an expanding list of malignant neoplasms, suggesting that they might be popularized as potential biomarkers for cancer detection. This study sought to validate the diagnostic efficacy of lncRNA expression signature(s) as potential biomarker(s) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) diagnosis. METHODS: We conducted the online databases search for all eligible studies. A quantitative meta-analysis was performed using Stata 12...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
Shaoxu Wu, Junjiong Zheng, Yong Li, Hao Yu, Siya Shi, Weibin Xie, Hao Liu, Yangfan Su, Jian Huang, Tianxin Lin
Purpose: To develop and validate a radiomics nomogram for the preoperative prediction of lymph node (LN) metastasis in bladder cancer.Experimental Design: A total of 118 eligible bladder cancer patients were divided into a training set (n = 80) and a validation set (n = 38). Radiomics features were extracted from arterial-phase CT images of each patient. A radiomics signature was then constructed with the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator algorithm in the training set. Combined with independent risk factors, a radiomics nomogram was built with a multivariate logistic regression model...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Manisha Bhutani, Qing Zhang, Reed Friend, Peter M Voorhees, Lawrence J Druhan, Bart Barlogie, Pieter Sonneveld, Gareth J Morgan, James T Symanowski, Belinda R Avalos, Edward A Copelan, Saad Z Usmani
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory derivatives (IMiDs), along with proteasome inhibitors, are key components of treatment regimens for multiple myeloma. Nonetheless, outcomes vary among treated individuals. Drug-specific gene-expression profile (GEP) signatures that aid the prediction of favourable and unfavourable outcomes can provide patients with the most effective therapy for their individual disease. We aimed to develop and validate a gene expression signature to suggest which patients would benefit most from IMiD-based therapies...
September 2017: Lancet Haematology
Usman Iqbal, Tzu-Hao Chang, Phung-Anh Nguyen, Shabbir Syed-Abdul, Hsuan-Chia Yang, Chih-Wei Huang, Suleman Atique, Wei-Chung Yang, Max Moldovan, Wen-Shan Jian, Min-Huei Hsu, Yun Yen, Yu-Chuan Jack Li
The aim of this study was to investigate whether long-term use of Benzodiazepines (BZDs) is associated with breast cancer risk through the combination of population-based observational and gene expression profiling evidence. We conducted a population-based case-control study by using 1998 to 2009year Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database and investigated the association between BZDs use and breast cancer risk. We selected subjects age of >20years old and six eligible controls matched for age, sex and the index date (i...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
(no author information available yet)
We are revising the Medicare hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) for operating and capital-related costs of acute care hospitals to implement changes arising from our continuing experience with these systems for FY 2018. Some of these changes implement certain statutory provisions contained in the Pathway for Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) Reform Act of 2013, the Improving Medicare Post-Acute Care Transformation Act of 2014, the Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015, the 21st Century Cures Act, and other legislation...
August 14, 2017: Federal Register
Ashley Smith, Marina López-Solà, Katie McMahon, Ashley Pedler, Michele Sterling
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review is to systematically review the evidence relating to findings generated by multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) following structural or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine if this analysis is able to: a) Discriminate between individuals with musculoskeletal pain and healthy controls, b) Predict pain perception in healthy individuals stimulated with a noxious stimulus compared to those stimulated with a non-noxious stimulus...
June 15, 2017: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
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