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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332272/comparative-study-of-selenium-and-selenium-nanoparticles-with-reference-to-acute-toxicity-biochemical-attributes-and-histopathological-response-in-fish
#1
Neeraj Kumar, Kishore Kumar Krishnani, Narendra Pratap Singh
Recent studies have demonstrated that selenium (Se) and selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) exhibited toxicity at a higher concentration. The lethal concentration of Se and Se-NPs was estimated as 5.29 and 3.97 mg/L at 96 h in Pangasius hypophthalmus. However, the effect of different definite concentration of Se (4.5, 5.0, 5.5, and 6.0 mg/L) and Se-NPs (2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mg/L) was decided for acute experiment. Selenium and Se-NPs alter the biochemical attributes such as anti-oxidative status [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities], neurotransmitter enzyme, cellular metabolic enzymes, stress marker, and histopathology of P...
January 13, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332256/dopamine-dependent-social-information-processing-in-non-human-primates
#2
Young-A Lee, Sarah Lionnet, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli...
January 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331845/effect-of-levetiracetam-on-extracellular-amino-acid-levels-in-the-dorsal-hippocampus-of-rats-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#3
Pichardo Macías Luz Adriana, Ramírez Mendiola Blanca Alcira, Contreras García Itzel Jatziri, Zamudio Hernández Sergio Roberto, Chávez Pacheco Juan Luis, Sánchez Huerta Karla Berenice, Mendoza Torreblanca Julieta Griselda
Levetiracetam (LEV) is an anticonvulsant drug with a unique mechanism of action that is not completely understood. However, its activity profile may involve effects on excitatory and/or inhibitory neurotransmission since the primary target of LEV, synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is ubiquitously expressed in all types of synaptic vesicles. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to explore the effect of LEV (300 mg/kg/day for one week, administered via osmotic mini-pumps) on neurotransmitter release and its probable selective effect on extracellular gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu), aspartate (Asp), glutamine (Gln), taurine (Tau) and glycine (Gly) concentrations (using in vivo microdialysis under basal and high-K+ conditions) in the dorsal hippocampus (DH), a region that undergoes major synaptic changes during epilepsy...
January 5, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331791/magnesium-sulfate-reduces-formalin-induced-orofacial-pain-in-rats-with-normal-magnesium-serum-levels
#4
Dragana P Srebro, Sonja M Vučković, Ivan S Dožić, Branko S Dožić, Katarina R Savić Vujović, Aleksandar P Milovanović, Branislav V Karadžić, Milica Š Prostran
BACKGROUND: In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were injected with 1...
August 31, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331598/commentary-on-motor-system-dysfunction-in-the-schizophrenia-diathesis-neural-systems-to-neurotransmitters
#5
EDITORIAL
D Hirjak, P N van Harten, R C Wolf
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331576/normative-distribution-of-substance-p-and-its-tachykinin-neurokinin-1-receptor-in-the-medullary-serotonergic-network-of-the-human-infant-during-postnatal-development
#6
Fiona M Bright, Roger W Byard, Robert Vink, David S Paterson
Substance P (SP) and its tachykinin NK1 receptor (NK1R) function within key medullary nuclei to regulate cardiorespiratory and autonomic control. We examined the normative distribution of SP and NK1R in the serotonergic (5-Hydroxytryptamine, [5-HT]) network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development, to provide a baseline to facilitate future analysis of the SP/NK1R system and its interaction with 5-HT within pediatric brainstem disorders in early life. [125I] labelled Bolton Hunter SP (BH-SP) tissue receptor autoradiography (n = 15), single label immunohistochemistry (IHC) and double label immunofluorescence (IF) (n = 10) were used to characterize the normative distribution profile of SP and NK1R in the 5-HT network of the human infant medulla during postnatal development...
January 10, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331498/identification-of-neural-transcription-factors-required-for-the-differentiation-of-three-neuronal-subtypes-in-the-sea-urchin-embryo
#7
Leslie A Slota, David R McClay
Correct patterning of the nervous system is essential for an organism's survival and complex behavior. Embryologists have used the sea urchin as a model for decades, but our understanding of sea urchin nervous system patterning is incomplete. Previous histochemical studies identified multiple neurotransmitters in the pluteus larvae of several sea urchin species. However, little is known about how, where and when neural subtypes are differentially specified during development. Here, we examine the molecular mechanisms of neuronal subtype specification in 3 distinct neural subtypes in the Lytechinus variegatus larva...
January 10, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331172/blood-phenylalanine-reduction-corrects-cns-dopamine-and-serotonin-deficiencies-and-partially-improves-behavioral-performance-in-adult-phenylketonuric-mice
#8
Shelley R Winn, Tanja Scherer, Beat Thöny, Ming Ying, Aurora Martinez, Sydney Weber, Jacob Raber, Cary O Harding
Central nervous system (CNS) deficiencies of the monoamine neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin have been implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric dysfunction in human phenylketonuria (PKU). In this study, we confirmed the occurrence of brain dopamine and serotonin deficiencies in association with severe behavioral alterations and cognitive impairments in hyperphenylalaninemic C57BL/6-Pahenu2/enu2 mice, a model of human PKU. Phenylalanine-reducing treatments, including either dietary phenylalanine restriction or liver-directed gene therapy, initiated during adulthood were associated with increased brain monoamine content along with improvements in nesting behavior but without a change in the severe cognitive deficits exhibited by these mice...
January 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330149/voluntary-exercise-and-depression-like-behavior-in-rodents-are-we-running-in-the-right-direction
#9
Joram D Mul
Acute or chronic exposure to stress can increase the risk to develop major depressive disorder, a severe, recurrent and common psychiatric condition. Depression places an enormous social and financial burden on modern society. Although many depressed patients are treated with antidepressants, their efficacy is only modest, underscoring the necessity to develop clinically-effective pharmaceutical or behavioral treatments. Exercise training produces beneficial effects on stress-related mental disorders, indicative of clinical potential...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330091/cdc42ep4-a-perisynaptic-scaffold-protein-in-bergmann-glia-is-required-for-glutamatergic-tripartite-synapse-configuration
#10
Natsumi Ageta-Ishihara, Kohtarou Konno, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Makoto Kinoshita
Configuration of tripartite synapses, comprising the pre-, post-, and peri-synaptic components (axon terminal or bouton, dendritic spine, and astroglial terminal process), is a critical determinant of neurotransmitter kinetics and hence synaptic transmission. However, little is known about molecular basis for the regulation of tripartite synapse morphology. Previous studies showed that CDC42EP4, an effector protein of a cell morphogenesis regulator CDC42, is expressed exclusively in Bergmann glia in the cerebellar cortex, that it forms tight complex with the septin heterooligomer, and that it interacts indirectly with the glutamate transporter GLAST and MYH10/nonmuscle myosin ΙΙB...
January 9, 2018: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330067/protein-complexes-as-psychiatric-and-neurological-drug-targets
#11
REVIEW
Akihiko S Kato, Jeffrey M Witkin
The need for improved medications for psychiatric and neurological disorders is clear. Difficulties in finding such drugs demands that all strategic means be utilized for their invention. The discovery of forebrain specific AMPA receptor antagonists, which selectively block the specific combinations of principal and auxiliary subunits present in forebrain regions but spare targets in the cerebellum, was recently disclosed. This discovery raised the possibility that other auxiliary protein systems could be utilized to help identify new medicines...
January 9, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329909/the-signaling-role-for-chloride-in-the-bidirectional-communication-between-neurons-and-astrocytes
#12
REVIEW
Corinne S Wilson, Alexander A Mongin
It is well known that the electrical signaling in neuronal networks is modulated by chloride (Cl-) fluxes via the inhibitory GABAA and glycine receptors. Here, we discuss the putative contribution of Cl- fluxes and intracellular Cl- to other forms of information transfer in the CNS, namely the bidirectional communication between neurons and astrocytes. The manuscript (i) summarizes the generic functions of Cl- in cellular physiology, (ii) recaps molecular identities and properties of Cl- transporters and channels in neurons and astrocytes, and (iii) analyzes emerging studies implicating Cl- in the modulation of neuroglial communication...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329743/gaba-and-glutamate-in-children-with-tourette-syndrome-a-1h-mr-spectroscopy-study-at-7t
#13
E Mark Mahone, Nicolaas A Puts, Richard A E Edden, Matthew Ryan, Harvey S Singer
Tourette syndrome (TS) is characterized by presence of chronic, fluctuating motor and phonic tics. The underlying neurobiological basis for these movements is hypothesized to involve cortical-striatal-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) pathways. Two major neurotransmitters within these circuits are γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glutamate. Seventy-five participants (32 with TS, 43 controls) ages 5-12 years completed 1H MRS at 7T. GABA and glutamate were measured in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), premotor cortex (PMC), and striatum, and metabolites quantified using LCModel...
January 3, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329285/a-direct-interaction-of-cholesterol-with-the-dopamine-transporter-prevents-its-out-to-inward-transition
#14
Talia Zeppelin, Lucy Kate Ladefoged, Steffen Sinning, Xavier Periole, Birgit Schiøtt
Monoamine transporters (MATs) carry out neurotransmitter reuptake from the synaptic cleft, a key step in neurotransmission, which is targeted in the treatment of neurological disorders. Cholesterol (CHOL), a major component of the synaptic plasma membrane, has been shown to exhibit a modulatory effect on MATs. Recent crystal structures of the dopamine transporter (DAT) revealed the presence of two conserved CHOL-like molecules, suggesting a functional protein-CHOL direct interaction. Here, we present extensive atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of DAT in an outward-facing conformation...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328415/role-of-catalpol-in-ameliorating-the-pathogenesis-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-increasing-the-level-of-noradrenaline-in-the-locus-coeruleus
#15
Qian Li, Tao Yang, An-Chen Guo, Yong-Ping Fan
The endogenous neurotransmitter, noradrenaline, exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in vivo and in vitro. Reduced noradrenaline levels results in increased inflammation and neuronal damage. The primary source of noradrenaline in the central nervous system is tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)‑positive neurons, located in the locus coeruleus (LC). TH is the rate‑limiting enzyme for noradrenaline synthesis; therefore, regulation of TH protein expression and intrinsic enzyme activity represents the central means for controlling the synthesis of noradrenaline...
January 5, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326489/ondansetron-ameliorates-depression-associated-with-obesity-in-high-fat-diet-fed-experimental-mice-an-investigation-based-on-the-behavioral-biochemical-and-molecular-approach
#16
Yeshwant Kurhe, Radhakrishnan Mahesh
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is an important risk factor for depression as more than half of the obese population is susceptible for depression at double rate. Our earlier studies reported the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, ondansetron (OND) in depression associated obesity using behavioral tasks. The present research work is aimed to evaluate the effect of OND on depression associated with obesity with special emphasis on biochemical and molecular mechanisms such as hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), hippocampal histological examination and immunohistochemical expression of p53 proteins...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326174/muscle-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-may-mediate-trans-synaptic-signaling-at-the-mouse-neuromuscular-junction
#17
Xueyong Wang, J Michael McIntosh, Mark M Rich
Block of neurotransmitter receptors at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) has been shown to trigger upregulation of the number of synaptic vesicles released (quantal content, QC), a response termed homeostatic synaptic plasticity. The mechanism underlying this plasticity is not known. Here, we used selective toxins to demonstrate that block of α1-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the neuromuscular junction of male and female mice, triggers the upregulation of QC. Reduction of current flow through nAChRs, induced by drugs with antagonist activity, demonstrated that reduction in synaptic current per se does not trigger upregulation of QC...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326069/positive-correlation-between-rat-brain-glutamate-concentrations-and-mitochondrial-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-activity
#18
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Anastasia Graf, Lidia Trofimova, Alexander Ksenofontov, Ludmila Baratova, Victoria Bunik
Glutamate is a key metabolite and major excitatory neurotransmitter, degraded through transformation to 2-oxoglutarate which is further catabolized by 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase complex (OGDHC). Both the glutamate excitotoxicity and impaired OGDHC activity are hallmarks of neurodegeneration. This work quantifies a relationship between the brain OGDHC activity and glutamate levels, assessing its diagnostic value to characterize (patho)physiology. A moderate to strong positive correlation of the two parameters determined under varied physiological settings (brain regions, seasons, gender, pregnancy, rat line), is revealed...
January 8, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326032/the-anxiolytic-effect-of-juniperus-virginiana-l-essential-oil-and-determination-of-its-active-constituents
#19
Kai Zhang, Lei Yao
Essential oil from Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedarwood essential oil, CWO) has been used to relax mind and enhance comfort for medical purposes. Few reports showed its effect on anxiety behaviors in animal models. The present study investigated the anxiolytic effect of CWO using two anxiety tests in mice, then determined the major active constituents, examined the change of neurotransmitters after intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration. Analysis using GC/MS revealed that the CWO contained (-)-α-cedrene (28...
January 8, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324852/real-life-helping-behaviours-in-north-america-a-genome-wide-association-approach
#20
Georg Primes, Martin Fieder
In humans, prosocial behaviour is essential for social functioning. Twin studies suggest this distinct human trait to be partly hardwired. In the last decade research on the genetics of prosocial behaviour focused on neurotransmitters and neuropeptides, such as oxytocin, dopamine, and their respective pathways. Recent trends towards large scale medical studies targeting the genetic basis of complex diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia pave the way for new directions also in behavioural genetics...
2018: PloS One
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