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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527083/shared-mechanisms-of-epilepsy-migraine-and-affective-disorders
#1
Davide Zarcone, Simona Corbetta
Since the nineteenth century several clinical features have been observed in common between migraine and epilepsy (such as episodic attacks, triggering factors, presence of aura, frequent familiarity), but only in recent years researchers have really engaged in finding a common pathogenic mechanism. From studies of disease incidence, we understand how either migraine among patients with epilepsy or epilepsy among migraine patients are more frequent than in the general population. This association may result from a direct causality, by the same environmental risk factors and/or by a common genetic susceptibility...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526435/the-bidirectional-gut-brain-microbiota-axis-as-a-potential-nexus-between-traumatic-brain-injury-inflammation-and-disease
#2
Mark H Sundman, Nan-Kuei Chen, Vignesh Subbian, Ying-Hui Chou
As head injuries and their sequelae have become an increasingly salient matter of public health, experts in the field have made great progress elucidating the biological processes occurring within the brain at the moment of injury and throughout the recovery thereafter. Given the extraordinary rate at which our collective knowledge of neurotrauma has grown, new insights may be revealed by examining the existing literature across disciplines with a new perspective. This article will aim to expand the scope of this rapidly evolving field of research beyond the confines of the central nervous system (CNS)...
May 16, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526411/jnj10181457-a-histamine-h3-receptor-inverse-agonist-regulates-in-vivo-microglial-functions-and-improves-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice
#3
Tomomitsu Iida, Takeo Yoshikawa, Anikó Kárpáti, Takuro Matsuzawa, Haruna Kitano, Asuka Mogi, Ryuichi Harada, Fumito Naganuma, Tadaho Nakamura, Kazuhiko Yanai
Brain histamine acts as a neurotransmitter and regulates various physiological functions, such as learning and memory, sleep-wake cycles, and appetite regulation. We have recently shown that histamine H3 receptor (H3R) is expressed in primary mouse microglia and has a strong influence on critical functions in microglia, including chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and cytokine secretion in vitro. However, the importance of H3R in microglial activity in vivo remains unknown. Here, we examined the effects of JNJ10181457 (JNJ), a selective and potent H3R inverse agonist, on microglial functions ex vivo and in vivo...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526351/docosahexaenoyl-serotonin-emerges-as-most-potent-inhibitor-of-il-17-and-ccl-20-released-by-blood-mononuclear-cells-from-a-series-of-n-acyl-serotonins-identified-in-human-intestinal-tissue
#4
Ya Wang, Michiel G J Balvers, Henk F J Hendriks, Tessa Wilpshaar, Tjarda van Heek, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
Fatty acid amides (FAAs), conjugates of fatty acids with ethanolamine, mono-amine neurotransmitters or amino acids are a class of molecules that display diverse functional roles in different cells and tissues. Recently we reported that one of the serotonin-fatty acid conjugates, docosahexaenoyl serotonin (DHA-5-HT), previously found in gut tissue of mouse and pig, attenuates the IL-23-IL-17 signaling axis in LPS-stimulated mice macrophages. However, its presence and effects in humans remained to be elucidated...
May 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526038/phosphorylation-of-tau-at-y18-but-not-tau-fyn-binding-is-required-for-tau-to-modulate-nmda-receptor-dependent-excitotoxicity-in-primary-neuronal-culture
#5
Takashi Miyamoto, Liana Stein, Reuben Thomas, Biljana Djukic, Praveen Taneja, Joseph Knox, Keith Vossel, Lennart Mucke
BACKGROUND: Hyperexcitability of neuronal networks can lead to excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which in turn can cause neuronal damage by overactivating NMDA-type glutamate receptors and related signaling pathways. This process (excitotoxicity) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions, ranging from childhood epilepsies to stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing neuronal levels of the microtubule-associated protein tau counteracts network hyperexcitability of diverse causes, but whether this strategy can also diminish downstream excitotoxicity is less clear...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525332/distribution-and-immunohistochemical-characteristics-of-cocaine-and-amphetamineregulated-transcript-positive-nerve-elements-in-the-pelvic-ganglia-of-the-female-pig
#6
A Zacharko-Siembida, M Matysek, R Szalak, A Radlińska, K Obszańska, M B Arciszewski
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptides are widely expressed not only in the brain but also in numerous endocrine/neuroendocrine cells as well as in neurons of the peripheral nervous system. The present study investigated the distribution patterns of CART-like immunoreactivity in the pelvic plexus (PP) of the female pig. The co-expression of CART with principal neurotransmitter markers: choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), serotonin (5-HT) or biologically active neuropeptides: pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), substance P (SP), calbindin was analyzed using double immunohistochemical stainings...
March 28, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524074/neurotrauma-the-crosstalk-between-neurotrophins-and-inflammation-in-the-acutely-injured-brain
#7
REVIEW
Lindolfo da Silva Meirelles, Daniel Simon, Andrea Regner
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among young individuals worldwide. Understanding the pathophysiology of neurotrauma is crucial for the development of more effective therapeutic strategies. After the trauma occurs, immediate neurologic damage is produced by the traumatic forces; this primary injury triggers a secondary wave of biochemical cascades together with metabolic and cellular changes, called secondary neural injury. In the scenario of the acutely injured brain, the ongoing secondary injury results in ischemia and edema culminating in an uncontrollable increase in intracranial pressure...
May 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524071/flexible-low-cost-sensor-based-on-electrolyte-gated-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistor-for-organo-phosphate-detection
#8
Vijay Deep Bhatt, Saumya Joshi, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524009/a-novel-polymorphism-in-the-oxytocin-receptor-encoding-gene-oxtr-affects-milk-fatty-acid-composition-in-italian-mediterranean-river-buffalo
#9
Gianfranco Cosenza, Nicolò P P Macciotta, Anna Nudda, Angelo Coletta, Luigi Ramunno, Alfredo Pauciullo
The oxytocin receptor, also known as OXTR, is a protein which functions as receptor for the hormone and neurotransmitter oxytocin and the complex oxytocin-oxytocin receptor plays an important role in the uterus during calving. A characterisation of the river buffalo OXTR gene, amino acid sequences and phylogenetic analysis is presented. The DNA regions of the OXTR gene spanning exons 1, 2 and 3 of ten Mediterranean river buffalo DNA samples were analysed and 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms were found. We focused on the g...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523574/medical-management-of-pain-in-chronic-pancreatitis
#10
REVIEW
Vikesh K Singh, Asbjørn M Drewes
The medical management of pain in chronic pancreatitis continues to pose significant challenges for clinicians caring for these patients. There are increasing data, suggesting that pain in chronic pancreatitis is largely due to peripheral and central sensitization that evolves, over time, as a result of nociceptive afferent associated with chronic inflammation and fibrosis of the pancreas. In many instances, patients rapidly progress to requiring opioid analgesics for the adequate treatment of pain despite the unequivocal risks associated with the long-term use of these drugs...
May 18, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522414/therapeutic-potential-of-agmatine-for-cns-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Vivian B Neis, Priscila B Rosa, Gislaine Olescowicz, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is a neuromodulator that regulates multiple neurotransmitters and signaling pathways. Several studies have focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective effects of this molecule, which seems to be mediated by a reduction in oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, and proapoptotic signaling. Since these events are implicated in acute and chronic excitotoxicity-related disorders (ischemia, epilepsy, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, neurodegenerative, and psychiatric disorders) as well as in nociception, agmatine has been proposed as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders...
May 15, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522408/multipotency-and-therapeutic-potential-of-ng2-cells
#12
REVIEW
Martin Valny, Pavel Honsa, Jan Kriska, Miroslava Anderova
NG2 cells represent one of the most proliferative glial cell populations in the intact mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They are well-known for their ability to renew themselves or to generate new oligodendrocytes during development as well as in adulthood, therefore also being termed oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Following CNS injuries, such as demyelination, trauma or ischemia, the proliferative capacity of NG2 cells rapidly increases and moreover, their differentiation potential broadens, as documented by numerous reports also describing their differentiation into astrocytes or even neurons...
May 15, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522119/neural-changes-in-alzheimer-s-disease-from-circuit-to-molecule-perspective-of-optogenetics
#13
REVIEW
Qinghu Yang, Da Song, Hong Qing
Alzheimer's disease (AD), as a crucial neurodegenerative disorder, affects neural activities at many levels. Synaptic plasticity and neural circuits are most susceptible in AD, but the detailed mechanism is unclear. Optogenetic tools provide unprecedented spatio-temporal specificity to stimulate specific neural circuits or synaptic molecules to reveal the precise function of normal brain and mechanism of deficits in AD models. Furthermore, using optogenetics to stimulate neurons can rescue learning and memory loss caused by AD...
May 15, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522103/urinary-biomarkers-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-patients-with-down-syndrome
#14
Ibrahim Elsharkawi, David Gozal, Eric A Macklin, Lauren Voelz, Gil Weintraub, Brian G Skotko
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to compare urinary biomarkers in patients with Down syndrome (DS) with and without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) to those of age- and sex-matched neurotypically developing healthy controls (HC). We further investigated whether we could predict OSA in patients with DS using these biomarkers. METHODS: Urine samples were collected from 58 patients with DS the night before or the morning after their scheduled overnight polysomnogram or both, of whom 47 could be age- and sex-matched to a sample of 43 HC...
June 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521971/comparison-of-early-sequential-hypothermia-and-delayed-hypothermia-on-neurological-function-after-resuscitation-in-a-swine-model
#15
Wei Yuan, Jun-Yuan Wu, Yong-Zhen Zhao, Jie Li, Jie-Bin Li, Zhen-Hua Li, Chun-Sheng Li
BACKGROUND: We utilized a porcine cardiac arrest model to compare early sequential hypothermia (ESH) with delayed hypothermia (DH) and no hypothermia (NH) to investigate the different effects on cerebral function after resuscitation. METHODS: After return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), resuscitated 24 pigs divided into three groups. The ESH group implemented early sequential hypothermia immediately, and the DH group implemented delayed hypothermia at 1 h after ROSC...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521906/spinal-cord-regeneration-by-modulating-bone-marrow-with-neurotransmitters-and-citicholine-analysis-at-micromolecular-level
#16
Cheramadathukudiyil Skaria Paulose, Ponnezhathu Sebastian John, Romeo Chinthu, Puthenveetil Raju Akhilraj, Thoppil Raveendran Anju
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord injury results in disruption of brain-spinal cord fibre connectivity, leading to progressive tissue damage at the site of injury and resultant paralysis of varying degrees. The current study investigated the role of autologous bone marrow modulated with neurotransmitters and neurotransmitter stimulating agent, Citicholine, in spinal cord of spinal cord injured rats. METHODS: Radioreceptor assay using [3H] ligand was carried out to quantify muscarinic receptor...
April 2017: Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521702/role-of-ectonucleotidases-in-the-synapse-formation-during-brain-development-physiological-and-pathological-implications
#17
Ivana Grković, Dunja Drakulić, Jelena Martinović, Nataša Mitrović
Extracellular adenine nucleotides and nucleosides, such as ATP and adenosine, are among the most recently identified and least investigated diffusible signaling factors that contribute to the structural and functional remodeling of the brain, both during embryonic and postnatal development. Their levels in the extracellular milieu are tightly controlled by various ectonucleotidases: ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP), alkaline phosphatases (AP), ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase (eN)...
May 18, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518111/using-enzyme-based-biosensors-to-measure-tonic-and-phasic-glutamate-in-alzheimer-s-mouse-models
#18
Holly C Hunsberger, Sharay E Setti, Ryan T Heslin, Jorge E Quintero, Greg A Gerhardt, Miranda N Reed
Neurotransmitter disruption is often a key component of diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), playing a role in the pathology underlying Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, depression, and anxiety. Traditionally, microdialysis has been the most common (lauded) technique to examine neurotransmitter changes that occur in these disorders. But because microdialysis has the ability to measure slow 1-20 minute changes across large areas of tissue, it has the disadvantage of invasiveness, potentially destroying intrinsic connections within the brain and a slow sampling capability...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28518090/flash-and-freeze-a-novel-technique-to-capture-membrane-dynamics-with-electron-microscopy
#19
Shuo Li, Sumana Raychaudhuri, Shigeki Watanabe
Cells constantly change their membrane architecture and protein distribution, but it is extremely difficult to visualize these events at a temporal and spatial resolution on the order of ms and nm, respectively. We have developed a time-resolved electron microscopy technique, "flash-and-freeze," that induces cellular events with optogenetics and visualizes the resulting membrane dynamics by freezing cells at defined time points after stimulation. To demonstrate this technique, we expressed channelrhodopsin, a light-sensitive cation channel, in mouse hippocampal neurons...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516232/-cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-german-version-insights-gained-from-1-h-and-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#20
REVIEW
S V Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a considerable problem for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. Whilst most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
May 17, 2017: Der Radiologe
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