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ischemia and amino acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700007/impact-of-dexmedetomidine-on-amino-acid-contents-and-the-cerebral-ultrastructure-of-rats-with-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#1
Sheng Lin, Guangli Zhou, Wei Shao, Zhijian Fu
Purpose: To investigate the effects of dexmedetomidine (DEX) on amino acid contents and the cerebral ultrastructure of rats with cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R). Methods: Thirty-six, male, Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham operation group (group C), the ischemia-reperfusion group (group I/R), and the DEX group (group D). The middle cerebral artery occlusion model was prepared by the modified Longa method. The time of ischemia was 180 min, and 120 min after reperfusion, the amount of glutamate (Glu), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain were measured, and the ultrastructure-level changes in the cerebral cortex were examined using electron microscopy...
June 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699721/comparison-of-pre-and-post-ischemic-treatment-of-telmisartan-and-nimodipine-combination-in-experimentally-induced-cerebral-ischemia
#2
(no author information available yet)
Time dependent intervention plays a crucial role in preventing neurodegeneration after ischemic insult. The intensity of excitotoxicity is greater in the secondary reperfusion phase (2-4 h) compared to the primary occlusion phase (2 h), which could be attributed to secondary elevation of excitatory amino acids (EAA) in cerebral ischemia. In the present study, we tried to assess the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan and nimodipine (TM-NM) combination on the secondary reperfusion phase. The drug treatments were made immediately after reperfusion and their effects were compared with pre-treatment...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694661/relevance-of-proteolysis-and-proteasome-activation-in-fatty-liver-graft-preservation-an-institut-georges-lopez-1-vs-university-of-wisconsin-appraisal
#3
Mohamed Amine Zaouali, Arnau Panisello-Roselló, Alexandre Lopez, Carlos Castro Benítez, Emma Folch-Puy, Agustín García-Gil, Teresa Carbonell, René Adam, Joan Roselló-Catafau
AIM: To compare liver proteolysis and proteasome activation in steatotic liver grafts conserved in University of Wisconsin (UW) and Institut Georges Lopez-1 (IGL-1) solutions. METHODS: Fatty liver grafts from male obese Zücker rats were conserved in UW and IGL-1 solutions for 24 h at 4 °Cand subjected to "ex vivo" normo-thermic perfusion (2 h; 37 °C). Liver proteolysis in tissue specimens and perfusate was measured by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681245/an-overview-on-d-amino-acids
#4
REVIEW
Giuseppe Genchi
More than half a century ago researchers thought that D-amino acids had a minor function compared to L-enantiomers in biological processes. Many evidences have shown that D-amino acids are present in high concentration in microorganisms, plants, mammals and humans and fulfil specific biological functions. In the brain of mammals, D-serine (D-Ser) acts as a co-agonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, responsible for learning, memory and behaviour. D-Ser metabolism is relevant for disorders associated with an altered function of the NMDA receptor, such as schizophrenia, ischemia, epilepsy and neurodegenerative disorders...
July 5, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645524/orientin-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rat-model-through-the-aqp-4-and-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-tnf-%C3%AE-signaling-pathway
#5
Xiaoru Wang, Fang An, Shulin Wang, Zexin An, Shuhua Wang
BACKGROUND: Orientin has been reported to have extensive pharmaceutical effects of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antithrombosis, antiapoptosis, and so on. In the present study, we tried to investigate the protective effects of orientin on cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and explored the possible mechanisms. METHODS: Middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model was established and then treated with low, middle, and high concentrations of orientin, respectively, with edaravone as a positive control...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641538/glt-1-upregulation-as-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-brain-injury
#6
Yu-Yan Hu, Li Li, Xiao-Hui Xian, Min Zhang, Xiao-Cai Sun, Shu-Qin Li, Xin Cui, Jie Qi, Wen-Bin Li
Glutamate is the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, which plays an important role in many aspects of normal brain function such as neural development, motor functions, learning and memory etc. However, excessive accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular fluid will induce excitotoxicity which is considered to be a major mechanism of cell death in brain ischemia. There is no enzyme to decompose the glutamate in extracellular fluid, so extracellular glutamate homeostasis within the central nervous system is mainly regulated by the uptake activity of excitatory amino acid transporters...
June 22, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618990/biological-roles-of-the-eclectic-chromogranin-a-derived-peptide-catestatin
#7
Teresa Pasqua, Tommaso Angelone, Angela Spena, Maria Carmela Cerra
Research on Chromogranin A (CGA) and its derived fragments convincingly demonstrated the multifunctional activity of the 21 amino acid peptide named Catestatin (CST: human CGA352-372, bovine CGA344-364, rat CGA367-387). It is mainly known as an inhibitor of the nicotinic-dependent Catecholamine (CA) release, and an anti-hypertensive peptide, but its role includes a modulation of antioxidant and immune defense, epidermal function, and adipose tissue homeostasis. CST influences the cardiocirculatory system acting both indirectly, via the autonomic nervous system, and directly by influencing the basal cardiac function, and the stretch-dependent myocardial performance...
June 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616751/roles-of-amino-acids-in-preventing-and-treating-intestinal-diseases-recent-studies-with-pig-models
#8
REVIEW
Yulan Liu, Xiuying Wang, Yongqing Hou, Yulong Yin, Yinsheng Qiu, Guoyao Wu, Chien-An Andy Hu
Animal models are needed to study and understand a human complex disease. Because of their similarities in anatomy, structure, physiology, and pathophysiology, the pig has proven its usefulness in studying human gastrointestinal diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia/reperfusion injury, diarrhea, and cancer. To understand the pathogenesis of these diseases, a number of experimental models generated in pigs are available, for example, through surgical manipulation, chemical induction, microbial infection, and genetic engineering...
June 14, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595547/beneficial-effects-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-n-mercaptopropionylglycine-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-the-heart
#9
Monika Bartekova, Miroslav Barancik, Kristina Ferenczyova, Narajan S Dhalla
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart as a consequence of myocardial infarction or cardiac surgery represents a serious clinical problem. One of the most prominent mechanisms of I/R injury is the development of oxidative stress in the heart. In this regard, I/R has been shown to enhance the production of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in the heart which lead to the imbalance between the pro-oxidants and antioxidant capacities of the endogenous radical-scavenging systems. Accordingly, increasing the antioxidant capacity of the heart by the administration of exogenous antioxidants is considered beneficial for the heart exposed to I/R...
June 8, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558063/amino-acid-metabolites-that-regulate-g-protein-signaling-during-osmotic-stress
#10
James P Shellhammer, Elizabeth Morin-Kensicki, Jacob P Matson, Guowei Yin, Daniel G Isom, Sharon L Campbell, Robert P Mohney, Henrik G Dohlman
All cells respond to osmotic stress by implementing molecular signaling events to protect the organism. Failure to properly adapt can lead to pathologies such as hypertension and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are activated in response to osmotic stress, as well as by signals acting through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). For proper adaptation, the action of these kinases must be coordinated. To identify second messengers of stress adaptation, we conducted a mass spectrometry-based global metabolomics profiling analysis, quantifying nearly 300 metabolites in the yeast S...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529483/identification-of-a-novel-allosteric-inhibitory-site-on-tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-enabling-unprecedented-selectivity-over-all-related-hydroxylases
#11
Mike Petrassi, Rob Barber, Celine Be, Sarah Beach, Brian Cox, Anne-Marie D'Souza, Nick Duggan, Martin Hussey, Roy Fox, Peter Hunt, Gabor Jarai, Takatoshi Kosaka, Paul Oakley, Viral Patel, Neil Press, David Rowlands, Clemens Scheufler, Oliver Schmidt, Honnappa Srinivas, Mary Turner, Rob Turner, John Westwick, Alison Wolfreys, Nuzhat Pathan, Simon Watson, Matthew Thomas
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has demonstrated multi-serotonin receptor dependent pathologies, characterized by increased tone (5-HT1B receptor) and complex lesions (SERT, 5-HT1B, 5-HT2B receptors) of the pulmonary vasculature together with right ventricular hypertrophy, ischemia and fibrosis (5-HT2B receptor). Selective inhibitors of individual signaling elements - SERT, 5-HT2A, 5HT2B, and combined 5-HT2A/B receptors, have all been tested clinically and failed. Thus, inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), the rate limiting step in 5-HT synthesis, has been suggested as a more broad, and thereby more effective, mode of 5-HT inhibition...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524210/sulfur-dioxide-foe-or-friend-for-life
#12
REVIEW
Xin-Bao Wang, Hong Cui, Xiaohong Liu, Jun-Bao Du
Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) is a toxic gas and air pollutant. The toxic effects of SO₂ have been extensively studied. Oxidative damage due to SO2 can occur in multiple organs. Inhaled SO₂ can also cause chromosomal aberrations, DNA damage and gene mutations in mammals. However, SO₂ can also be generated from the sulfur-containing amino acid, L-cysteine. Recent studies have shown that SO₂ has a vasorelaxant effect, and ameliorates pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. SO₂ can also reduce lung injury and myocardial injury in rats...
May 19, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504843/a-novel-synthetic-chemical-entity-upei-800-is-neuroprotective-in-vitro-and-in-an-in-vivo-rat-model-of-oxidative-stress
#13
Tarek M Saleh, Monique C Saleh, Barry J Connell, Inan Kucukkaya, Alaa S Abd-El-Aziz
In this study, we tested a novel synthetic pyrazole-containing compound, 5-amino-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbonitrile (APPC), as an antioxidant in both in vitro and in vivo models of oxidative stress. In addition, the utility of covalently combining APPC with another well-established antioxidant, lipoic acid (LA), was also tested in both models. The in vitro results demonstrated that pretreatment with APPC in a mixed neuronal-glial culture exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) followed by reoxygenation-refeeding, resulted in significant neuroprotection at concentrations between 2...
May 15, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503134/aquaporin-4-mediated-glutamate-induced-astrocyte-swelling-is-partially-mediated-through-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-activation
#14
Zhongfang Shi, Wei Zhang, Yang Lu, Yi Lu, Lixin Xu, Qing Fang, Min Wu, Mei Jia, Yujiao Wang, Liping Dong, Xu Yan, Shaohua Yang, Fang Yuan
Astrocytes are one of the most abundant cell types in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), and astrocyte swelling is the primary event associated with brain edema. Glutamate, the principal excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter in the CNS, is released at high levels after brain injury including cerebral ischemia. This leads to astrocyte swelling, which we previously demonstrated is related to metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) activation. Aquaporin 4 (AQP4), the predominant water channel in the brain, is expressed in astrocyte endfeet and plays an important role in brain edema following ischemia...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499867/glycine-nitronyl-nitroxide-conjugate-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-against-hypoxia-reoxygenation-injury-via-multiple-mechanisms-and-ameliorates-hind-limb-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-rats
#15
Xiang Gao, Yue Bi, Kui Chi, Yang Liu, Tao Yuan, Xueyan Li, Wei Bi
Oxidative stress and inflammation play important roles in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-injury. The administration of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents has been applied to prevent I/R-injury for several decades. Of the numerous compounds administrated therapeutically in anti-oxidative stress, nitronyl nitroxide has gained increasing attention due to its continuous ability to scavenge active oxygen radicals. However, its effect is not ideal in clinical therapy. In previous study, we linked the anti-inflammatory amino acid glycine to nitronyl nitroxide and developed a novel glycine-nitronyl nitroxide (GNN) conjugate, which showed a synergetic protection against renal ischemia/reperfusion injury...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487390/activation-of-the-amino-acid-response-pathway-blunts-the-effects-of-cardiac-stress
#16
Pu Qin, Pelin Arabacilar, Roberta E Bernard, Weike Bao, Alan R Olzinski, Yuanjun Guo, Hind Lal, Stephen H Eisennagel, Michael C Platchek, Wensheng Xie, Julius Del Rosario, Mohamad Nayal, Quinn Lu, Theresa Roethke, Christine G Schnackenberg, Fe Wright, Michael P Quaile, Wendy S Halsey, Ashley M Hughes, Ganesh M Sathe, George P Livi, Robert B Kirkpatrick, Xiaoyan A Qu, Deepak K Rajpal, Maria Faelth Savitski, Marcus Bantscheff, Gerard Joberty, Giovanna Bergamini, Thomas L Force, Gregory J Gatto, Erding Hu, Robert N Willette
BACKGROUND: The amino acid response (AAR) is an evolutionarily conserved protective mechanism activated by amino acid deficiency through a key kinase, general control nonderepressible 2. In addition to mobilizing amino acids, the AAR broadly affects gene and protein expression in a variety of pathways and elicits antifibrotic, autophagic, and anti-inflammatory activities. However, little is known regarding its role in cardiac stress. Our aim was to investigate the effects of halofuginone, a prolyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitor, on the AAR pathway in cardiac fibroblasts, cardiomyocytes, and in mouse models of cardiac stress and failure...
May 9, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486919/metabolic-imbalance-of-homocysteine-and-hydrogen-sulfide-in-kidney-disease
#17
O Karmin, Yaw L Siow
Homocysteine (Hcy) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are important molecules produced during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Hcy metabolism is central to the supply of methyl groups that are essential for biological function. Hcy can be either regenerated to methionine or metabolized to cysteine, a precursor for glutathione synthesis. Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) play a crucial role in metabolizing Hcy to cysteine through the transsulfuration pathway. These two enzymes are also responsible for H2S generation through desulfuration reactions...
May 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475986/cdse-zns-zns-quantum-dots-loaded-in-polymeric-micelles-as-a-ph-triggerable-targeting-fluorescence-imaging-probe-for-detecting-cerebral-ischemic-area
#18
Hong Yu Yang, Yan Fu, Moon-Sun Jang, Yi Li, Wen Ping Yin, Tae Kyu Ahn, Jung Hee Lee, Heeyeop Chae, Doo Sung Lee
High photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY), photostability CdSe@ZnS/ZnS core/multishell quantum dots (CM-QDs) were first applied for bioimaging. The solubility, stability and biocompatible of the fluorescence imaging probes were constructed by self-assembly of CM-QDs and pH-responsive methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(β-amino ester/amidoamine)-dodecylamine (mPEG-PAEA-DDA) multiblock copolymers. The resulting CM-QDs-loaded mPEG-PAEA-DDA micelles (CM-QDs-PEG-PAEA-DDA) exhibited lower cell cytotoxicity and higher fluorescence intensity than the core/shell CdSe@ZnS QDs-encapsulated mPEG-PAEA-DDA micelles (CS-QDs-PEG-PAEA-DDA)...
April 27, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456939/genetic-mutation-of-glun2b-protects-brain-cells-against-stroke-damages
#19
Na Tang, Jianhua Wu, Houze Zhu, Honglin Yan, Yu Guo, You Cai, Huanhuan Yan, Yan Shi, Shu Shu, Lei Pei, Youming Lu
Immediately following ischemia, glutamate accumulates in the extracellular space and results in extensive stimulation of its receptors including N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. A large amount of Ca(2+) influx directly through the receptor-gated ion channels which leads to Ca(2+) overload and triggers several downstream lethal reactions. As a result, cell dies via apoptosis or necrosis, or both. Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) physically and functionally interacts with the NMDA receptor GluN2B subunit at extra-synaptic sites and this interaction acts as a central mediator for stroke damage...
April 29, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442737/structural-and-biochemical-insights-of-cypa-and-aif-interaction
#20
Biancamaria Farina, Gianluigi Di Sorbo, Angela Chambery, Andrea Caporale, Guido Leoni, Rosita Russo, Fabiola Mascanzoni, Domenico Raimondo, Roberto Fattorusso, Menotti Ruvo, Nunzianna Doti
The Cyclophilin A (CypA)/Apoptosis Inducing Factor (AIF) complex is implicated in the DNA degradation in response to various cellular stress conditions, such as oxidative stress, cerebral hypoxia-ischemia and traumatic brain injury. The pro-apoptotic form of AIF (AIF(Δ1-121)) mainly interacts with CypA through the amino acid region 370-394. The AIF(370-394) synthetic peptide inhibits complex formation in vitro by binding to CypA and exerts neuroprotection in a model of glutamate-mediated oxidative stress. Here, the binding site of AIF(Δ1-121) and AIF(370-394) on CypA has been mapped by NMR spectroscopy and biochemical studies, and a molecular model of the complex has been proposed...
April 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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