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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290048/carnosine-modulates-nitric-oxide-in-stimulated-murine-raw-264-7-macrophages
#1
Giuseppe Caruso, Claudia G Fresta, Francisco Martinez-Becerra, Lopalco Antonio, Ryan T Johnson, Richard P S de Campos, Joseph M Siegel, Manjula B Wijesinghe, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Susan M Lunte
Excess nitric oxide (NO) production occurs in several pathological states, including neurodegeneration, ischemia, and inflammation, and is generally accompanied by increased oxidative/nitrosative stress. Carnosine [β-alanine-histidine (β-Ala-His)] has been reported to decrease oxidative/nitrosative stress-associated cell damage by reducing the amount of NO produced. In this study, we evaluated the effect of carnosine on NO production by murine RAW 264.7 macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharides + interferon-γ...
March 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272706/gc-ms-based-metabolomic-analysis-of-alleviated-renal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-by-remote-ischemic-preconditioning
#2
S Shen, J-F Wang, J-Q Wu, J-X Zhou, S-D Meng, J Ma, C -L Zhu, G-G Deng, D Liu
OBJECTIVE: Dysfunctional metabolisms have contributed towards ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the role of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) in I/R injury is not well known. The present study showed alleviated I/R injury in kidneys treated with RIP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized GC/MS-based metabolomics to characterize the variation of metabolomes. RESULTS: Metabolic category using differential metabolites showed the lower percentage of amino acids in I/R group in comparison to RIP+I/R group, confirming the importance of amino acid metabolism in RIP-treated rat kidney...
February 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250763/molecular-chaperones-and-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#3
REVIEW
Cong Hua, Wei-Na Ju, Hang Jin, Xin Sun, Gang Zhao
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a disease that occurs when the brain is subjected to hypoxia, resulting in neuronal death and neurological deficits, with a poor prognosis. The mechanisms underlying hypoxic-ischemic brain injury include excitatory amino acid release, cellular proteolysis, reactive oxygen species generation, nitric oxide synthesis, and inflammation. The molecular and cellular changes in HIE include protein misfolding, aggregation, and destruction of organelles. The apoptotic pathways activated by ischemia and hypoxia include the mitochondrial pathway, the extrinsic Fas receptor pathway, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced pathway...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210876/effect-of-hyperhomocysteinemia-on-redox-balance-and-redox-defence-enzymes-in-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-or-after-ischemic-preconditioning-in-rats
#4
Martin Petráš, Anna Drgová, Mária Kovalská, Zuzana Tatarková, Barbara Tóthová, Oľga Križanová, Ján Lehotský
Increased level of homocysteine (hHcy) in plasma is an accompanying phenomenon of many diseases, including a brain stroke. This study determines whether hyperhomocysteinemia (which is a risk factor of brain ischemia) itself or in combination with ischemic preconditioning affects the ischemia-induced neurodegenerative changes, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipoperoxidation, protein oxidation, and activity of antioxidant enzymes in the rat brain cortex. The hHcy was induced by subcutaneous administration of homocysteine (0...
February 16, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178567/defective-branched-chain-amino-acid-catabolism-disrupts-glucose-metabolism-and-sensitizes-the-heart-to-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#5
Tao Li, Zhen Zhang, Stephen C Kolwicz, Lauren Abell, Nathan D Roe, Maengjo Kim, Bo Zhou, Yang Cao, Julia Ritterhoff, Haiwei Gu, Daniel Raftery, Haipeng Sun, Rong Tian
Elevated levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have recently been implicated in the development of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. In a mouse model of impaired BCAA catabolism (knockout [KO]), we found that chronic accumulation of BCAAs suppressed glucose metabolism and sensitized the heart to ischemic injury. High levels of BCAAs selectively disrupted mitochondrial pyruvate utilization through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) activity...
February 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164762/regulation-of-ion-channels-cellular-carriers-and-na-k-atpase-by-janus-kinase-3
#6
Mentor Sopjani, Shpëtim Thaçi, Berat Krasniqi, Miranda Selmonaj, Mark Rinnerthaler, Miribane Dërmaku-Sopjani
Janus kinase-3 (JAK3), a tyrosine kinase, is expressed in a variety of tissues, including the brain, and is involved in the signaling of cytokine receptors. JAK3 participates in numerous functions, among other the cell survival and proliferation, neuroprotection, apoptosis, as well as cellular response to hypoxia and ischemia-reperfusion. This kinase further contributes in the signaling of hematopoietic cell cytokine receptors, dendritic cells activation, maturation, and immune suppression as well as to cell volume regulation...
February 3, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106291/ocular-effects-of-sulfur-mustard-and-therapeutic-approaches-a-review
#7
Yunes Panahi, Seyyed Mahdi Rajaee, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong blistering, highly reactive, lipophilic chemical war agent that causes injury in different organs including the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The Eyes are especially susceptible to the consequences of SM poisoning because of the aqueous and mucosal nature of conjunctiva and cornea. DNA alkylation and depletion of glutathione, are the most important mechanisms of SM action in the eye injuries. Acute clinical symptoms are including decrease in visual acuity, dryness, photophobia, blepharospasm, conjunctivitis and complaints of foreign body sensation and soreness that gradually progress to severe ocular pain...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992175/label-free-electrochemical-biosensor-for-monitoring-of-chloride-ion-in-an-animal-model-of-alzhemier-s-disease
#8
Hui Dong, Limin Zhang, Wei Liu, Yang Tian
The potential damage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in brain function has attracted extensive attention. As the most common anion, Cl(-) has been indicated to play significant roles in brain diseases, particularly in the pathological process of AD. In this work, a label-free selective and accurate electrochemical biosensor was first developed for real-time monitoring of Cl(-) levels in a mouse brain model of AD and rat brain upon global cerebral ischemia. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were designed and synthesized as selective recognition element for Cl(-), while 5'-MB-GGCGCGATTTT-SH-3' (SH-DNA-MB, MB = methylene blue) was selected as an inner reference molecule for a built-in correction to avoid the effects from the complicated brain...
December 19, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991798/comfortably-numb-and-back-plasma-metabolomics-reveals-biochemical-adaptations-in-the-hibernating-13-lined-ground-squirrel
#9
Angelo D'Alessandro, Travis Nemkov, Lori K Bogren, Sandra L Martin, Kirk C Hansen
Hibernation is an evolutionary adaptation that affords some mammals the ability to exploit the cold to achieve extreme metabolic depression (torpor) while avoiding ischemia/reperfusion or hemorrhagic shock injuries. Hibernators cycle periodically out of torpor, restoring high metabolic activity. If understood at the molecular level, the adaptations underlying torpor-arousal cycles may be leveraged for translational applications in critical fields such as intensive care medicine. Here, we monitored 266 metabolites to investigate the metabolic adaptations to hibernation in plasma from 13-lined ground squirrels (57 animals, 9 time points)...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974423/vegf165b-modulates-endothelial-vegfr1-stat3-signaling-pathway-and-angiogenesis-in-human-and-experimental-peripheral-arterial-disease
#10
Vijay Chaitanya Ganta, Min Choi, Anna Kutateladze, Brian H Annex
RATIONALE: Atherosclerotic-arterial occlusions decrease tissue perfusion causing ischemia to lower limbs in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Ischemia in muscle induces an angiogenic response, but the magnitude of this response is frequently inadequate to meet tissue perfusion requirements. Alternate splicing in the exon-8 of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A results in production of proangiogenic VEGFxxxa isoforms (VEGF165a, 165 for the 165 amino acid product) and antiangiogenic VEGFxxxb (VEGF165b) isoforms...
January 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934126/selective-and-sensitive-monitoring-of-cerebral-antioxidants-based-on-the-dye-labeled-dna-polydopamine-conjugates
#11
Shishi Ma, Yan-Xia Qi, Xiao-Qin Jiang, Jie-Qiong Chen, Qiao-Yu Zhou, Guoyue Shi, Min Zhang
A simple and novel method for evaluating antioxidants in complex biological fluids has been developed based on the interaction of dye-labeled single-strand DNA (ssDNA) and polydopamine (PDA). Due to the interaction between ssDNA and PDA, the fluorescence of dye-labeled ssDNA (e.g., FITC-ssDNA, as donor) can be quenched by PDA (as acceptor) to the fluorescence "off" state through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). However, in the presence of various antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), ascorbic acid (AA), cysteine (Cys), and homocysteine (Hcys), the spontaneous oxidative polymerization reaction from DA to PDA would be blocked, resulting in the freedom of FITC-ssDNA and leading to the fluorescence "on" state...
December 6, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884929/pro-nociceptive-migraine-mediator-cgrp-provides-neuroprotection-of-sensory-cortical-and-cerebellar-neurons-via-multi-kinase-signaling
#12
Polina A Abushik, Geneviève Bart, Paula Korhonen, Hanna Leinonen, Raisa Giniatullina, Dmitry A Sibarov, Anna-Liisa Levonen, Tarja Malm, Sergei M Antonov, Rashid Giniatullin
BACKGROUND: Blocking the pro-nociceptive action of CGRP is one of the most promising approaches for migraine prophylaxis. The aim of this study was to explore a role for CGRP as a neuroprotective agent for central and peripheral neurons. METHODS: The viability of isolated rat trigeminal, cortical and cerebellar neurons was tested by fluorescence vital assay. Engagement of Nrf2 target genes was analyzed by qPCR. The neuroprotective efficacy of CGRP in vivo was tested in mice using a permanent cerebral ischemia model...
November 24, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881952/tissue-type-plasminogen-activator-tpa-modulates-the-postsynaptic-response-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons-to-the-presynaptic-release-of-glutamate
#13
Valerie Jeanneret, Fang Wu, Paola Merino, Enrique Torre, Ariel Diaz, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) is a serine proteinase released by the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons following membrane depolarization (Echeverry et al., 2010). Recent studies indicate that the release of tPA triggers the synaptic vesicle cycle and promotes the exocytosis (Wu et al., 2015) and endocytic retrieval (Yepes et al., 2016) of glutamate-containing synaptic vesicles. Here we used electron microscopy, proteomics, quantitative phosphoproteomics, biochemical analyses with extracts of the postsynaptic density (PSD), and an animal model of cerebral ischemia with mice overexpressing neuronal tPA to study whether the presynaptic release of tPA also has an effect on the postsynaptic terminal...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832938/keto-acid-metabolites-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-inhibit-oxidative-stress-induced-necrosis-and-attenuate-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Weibing Dong, Meiyi Zhou, Mei Dong, Bangfen Pan, Yunxia Liu, Jing Shao, Xiaoping Gu, Ying Huang, Guangping Li, Yibin Wang, Haipeng Sun
Branched chain α-keto acids (BCKAs) are endogenous metabolites of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). BCAA and BCKA are significantly elevated in pathologically stressed heart and contribute to chronic pathological remodeling and dysfunction. However, their direct impact on acute cardiac injury is unknown. Here, we demonstrated that elevated BCKAs significantly attenuated ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and preserved post I/R function in isolated mouse hearts. BCKAs protected cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced cell death in vitro...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816754/characterizing-the-mode-of-action-of-extracellular-connexin43-channel-blocking-mimetic-peptides-in-an-in-vitro-ischemia-injury-model
#15
Yeri Kim, Jarred M Griffin, Paul W R Harris, Sin Hang Crystal Chan, Louise F B Nicholson, Margaret A Brimble, Simon J O'Carroll, Colin R Green
BACKGROUND: Non-selective Connexin43 hemichannels contribute to secondary lesion spread. The hemichannel blocking peptidomimetic Peptide5, derived from the second extracellular loop of the human Connexin43 protein, prevents lesion spread and reduces vascular permeability in preclinical models of central nervous system injury. The molecular mode of action of Peptide5, however, was unknown and is described here. METHODS: Human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and APRE-19 cells were used...
February 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803669/the-role-of-hydrogen-sulfide-in-renal-system
#16
REVIEW
Xu Cao, Jin-Song Bian
Hydrogen sulfide has gained recognition as the third gaseous signaling molecule after nitric oxide and carbon monoxide. This review surveys the emerging role of H2S in mammalian renal system, with emphasis on both renal physiology and diseases. H2S is produced redundantly by four pathways in kidney, indicating the abundance of this gaseous molecule in the organ. In physiological conditions, H2S was found to regulate the excretory function of the kidney possibly by the inhibitory effect on sodium transporters on renal tubular cells...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793236/isoflurane-provides-neuroprotection-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-by-suppressing-apoptosis
#17
De-An Zhao, Ling-Yun Bi, Qian Huang, Fang-Min Zhang, Zi-Ming Han
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Isoflurane is halogenated volatile ether used for inhalational anesthesia. It is widely used in clinics as an inhalational anesthetic. Neonatal hypoxic ischemia injury ensues in the immature brain that results in delayed cell death via excitotoxicity and oxidative stress. Isoflurane has shown neuroprotective properties that make a beneficial basis of using isoflurane in both cell culture and animal models, including various models of brain injury. We aimed to determine the neuroprotective effect of isoflurane on hypoxic brain injury and elucidated the underlying mechanism...
November 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768719/rlj-rgd3-a-novel-recombinant-toxin-protein-from-lampetra-japonica-protects-against-cerebral-reperfusion-injury-following-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-involving-the-integrin-pi3k-akt-pathway-in-rats
#18
Qian Lu, Jihong Wang, Junshu Jiang, Shengnan Wang, Qilan Jia, Yue Wang, Weiping Li, Qin Zhou, Li Lv, Qingwei Li
BACKGROUND: The RGD-toxin protein Lj-RGD3 is a naturally occurring 118 amino acid peptide that can be obtained from the salivary gland of the Lampetra japonica fish. This unique peptide contains 3 RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) motifs in its primary structure. Lj-RGD3 is available in recombinant form (rLj-RGD3) and can be produced in large quantities using DNA recombination techniques. The pharmacology of the three RGD motif-containing peptides has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of rLj-RGD3, a novel polypeptide, against ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the brain caused by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in a rat stroke model...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768124/neovascularization-and-functional-recovery-after-intracerebral-hemorrhage-is-conditioned-by-the-tp53-arg72pro-single-nucleotide-polymorphism
#19
Cristina Rodríguez, Tomás Sobrino, Jesús Agulla, Verónica Bobo-Jiménez, María E Ramos-Araque, Juan J Duarte, José C Gómez-Sánchez, Juan P Bolaños, José Castillo, Ángeles Almeida
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a devastating subtype of stroke that lacks effective therapy and reliable prognosis. Neovascularization following ICH is an essential compensatory response that mediates brain repair and modulates the clinical outcome of stroke patients. However, the mechanism that dictates this process is unknown. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) promote endothelial repair and contribute to ischemia-induced neovascularization. The human Tp53 gene harbors a common single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 72, which yields an arginine-to-proline amino-acidic substitution (Arg72Pro) that modulates the apoptotic activity of the p53 protein...
January 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666815/role-of-galectin-3-in-autoimmune-and-non-autoimmune-nephropathies
#20
REVIEW
Francesca Saccon, Mariele Gatto, Anna Ghirardello, Luca Iaccarino, Leonardo Punzi, Andrea Doria
Galectins are evolutionary conserved β-galactoside binding proteins with a carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD) of approximately 130 amino acids. In mammals, 15 members of the galectin family have been identified and classified into three subtypes according to CRD organization: prototype, tandem repeat-type and chimera-type galectins. Galectin-3 (gal-3) is the only chimera type galectin in vertebrates containing one CRD linked to an unusual long N-terminal domain which displays non-lectin dependent activities...
January 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
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