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David Penton, Jan Czogalla, Agnieszka Wengi, Nina Himmerkus, Dominique Loffing-Cueni, Monique Carrel, Renuga Devi Rajaram, Olivier Staub, Markus Bleich, Frank Schweda, Johannes Loffing
A high dietary potassium (K(+) ) intake causes a rapid dephosphorylation, and hence inactivation, of the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Based on experiments in heterologous expression systems, it was proposed that changes in extracellular K(+) concentration ([K(+) ]ex ) modulate NCC phosphorylation via a Cl(-) dependent modulation of the WNK-SPAK/OSR1 kinase pathway. We used the isolated perfused mouse kidney technique and ex vivo preparations of mouse kidney slices to test the physiological relevance of this model on native DCT...
July 25, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Eduardo R Argaiz, Gerardo Gamba
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Abundant evidence supports that the NaCl cotransporter (NCC) activity is tightly regulated by the with-no-lysine (WNK) kinases. Here, we summarize the data regarding NCC regulation by WNKs, with a particular emphasis on WNK4. RECENT FINDINGS: Several studies involving in-vivo and in-vitro models have provided paradoxical data regarding WNK4 regulation of the NCC. Although some studies show that WNK4 can activate the NCC, other equally compelling studies show that WNK4 inhibits the NCC...
September 2016: Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension
Xiangyu Zhou, Isao Naguro, Hidenori Ichijo, Kengo Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Osmotic stress arises from the difference between intracellular and extracellular osmolality. It induces cell swelling or shrinkage as a consequence of water influx or efflux, which threatens cellular activities. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play central roles in signaling pathways in osmotic stress responses, including the regulation of intracellular levels of inorganic ions and organic osmolytes. SCOPE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the cellular osmotic stress response and the function and regulation of the vertebrate MAPK signaling pathways involved...
September 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Rainelli Koumangoye, Eric Delpire
Proteomics studies have identified Ste20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress response 1 (OSR1) in exosomes isolated from body fluids such as blood, saliva, and urine. Because proteomics studies likely overestimate the number of exosome proteins, we sought to confirm and extend this observation using traditional biochemical and cell biology methods. We utilized HEK293 cells in culture to verify the packaging of these Ste20 kinases in exosomes. Using a series of centrifugation and filtration steps of conditioned culture medium isolated from HEK293 cells, we isolated nanovesicles in the range of 40-100 nm...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Bernat Elvira, Yogesh Singh, Jamshed Warsi, Carlos Munoz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1 (OSR1) and the serine/threonine kinases SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) are under the control of WNK (with-no-K [Lys]) kinases. OSR1 and SPAK participate in diverse functions including cell volume regulation and neuronal excitability. Cell volume and neuronal excitation are further modified by the large conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (maxi K+ channel or BK channels). An influence of OSR1 and/or SPAK on BK channel activity has, however, never been shown...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Mohammed Z Ferdaus, James A McCormick
Chronic high blood pressure (hypertension) is the most common disease in the Unites States. While several classes of drugs exist to treat it, many patients (up to 10 million Americans) respond poorly to therapy, even when multiple classes are used. Recent evidence suggests that a significant portion of patients will always remain hypertensive despite maximum therapy with the drugs currently available. Therefore, there is a pressing need to develop novel antihypertensive agents. One limitation has been the identification of new targets, a limitation that has been overcome by recent insights into the mechanisms underlying monogenic forms of hypertension...
June 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Mohammed Z Ferdaus, Karl W Barber, Karen I López-Cayuqueo, Andrew S Terker, Eduardo R Argaiz, Brandon M Gassaway, Régine Chambrey, Gerardo Gamba, Jesse Rinehart, James A McCormick
KEY POINTS: STE20 (Sterile 20)/SPS-1 related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-response kinase-1 (OSR1) phosphorylate and activate the renal Na(+) -K(+) -2Cl(-) cotransporter 2 (NKCC2) and Na(+) Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Mouse models suggest that OSR1 mainly activates NKCC2-mediated sodium transport along the thick ascending limb, while SPAK mainly activates NCC along the distal convoluted tubule, but the kinases may compensate for each other. We hypothesized that disruption of both kinases would lead to polyuria and severe salt-wasting, and generated SPAK/OSR1 double knockout mice to test this...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Juliette Hadchouel, David H Ellison, Gerardo Gamba
The discovery of four genes responsible for pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, or familial hyperkalemic hypertension, which features arterial hypertension with hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis, unmasked a complex multiprotein system that regulates electrolyte transport in the distal nephron. Two of these genes encode the serine-threonine kinases WNK1 and WNK4. The other two genes [kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) and cullin 3 (CUL3)] form a RING-type E3-ubiquitin ligase complex that modulates WNK1 and WNK4 abundance. WNKs regulate the activity of the Na(+):Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), the renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK), and other transport pathways...
2016: Annual Review of Physiology
Chong Zhang, Nicholas P Meermeier, Andrew S Terker, Katharina I Blankenstein, Jeffrey D Singer, Juliette Hadchouel, David H Ellison, Chao-Ling Yang
Mutations in WNK1 and WNK4, and in components of the Cullin-Ring Ligase system, kelch-like 3 (KLHL3) and Cullin 3 (CUL3), can cause the rare hereditary disease, Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt). The disease is characterized by overactivity of the renal sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is phosphorylated and activated by the WNK-stimulated Ste20-type kinases, SPAK and OSR1. WNK kinases themselves can be targeted for ubiquitination and degradataion by the CUL3-KLHL3 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex...
January 1, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Bernat Elvira, Jamshed Warsi, Myriam Fezai, Carlos Munoz, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: KCNQ1/E1 channels are expressed in diverse tissues and serve a variety of functions including endolymph secretion in the inner ear, cardiac repolarization, epithelial transport and cell volume regulation. Kinases involved in regulation of epithelial transport and cell volume include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1), which are under control of WNK (with-no-K[Lys]) kinases. The present study explored whether KCNQ1/E1 channels are regulated by SPAK and/or OSR1...
2015: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Myriam Fezai, Bernat Elvira, Jamshed Warsi, Mossadok Ben-Attia, Zohreh Hosseinzadeh, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1), kinases controlled by WNK (with-no-K[Lys] kinase), are powerful regulators of cellular ion transport and blood pressure. Observations in gene-targeted mice disclosed an impact of SPAK/OSR1 on phosphate metabolism. The present study thus tested whether SPAK and/or OSR1 contributes to the regulation of the intestinal Na(+)-coupled phosphate co-transporter NaPi-IIb (SLC34A2)...
2015: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Miho Watanabe, Atsuo Fukuda
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mature central nervous system (CNS). The developmental switch of GABAergic transmission from excitation to inhibition is induced by changes in Cl(-) gradients, which are generated by cation-Cl(-) co-transporters. An accumulation of Cl(-) by the Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC1) increases the intracellular Cl(-) concentration ([Cl(-)]i) such that GABA depolarizes neuronal precursors and immature neurons. The subsequent ontogenetic switch, i...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Eriko Kikuchi, Takayasu Mori, Shinichi Uchida
WNK-oxidative stress-responsive 1 (OSR1) /STE20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase(SPAK)-SLC12A transporters cascade regulates blood pressure through NaCl reabsorption in kidney and vasoconstriction. Furthermore, we recently reported that this cascade is positively regulated by insulin, which may contribute to hypertension in patients with hyperinsulinemia. Therefore, drugs that inhibit this signal cascade could become new antihypertensive drugs that have dual effects as a diuretic and vasodilator and be particularly beneficial for patients with hyperinsulinemia such as metabolic syndrome and obesity...
September 2015: Nihon Rinsho. Japanese Journal of Clinical Medicine
Ankita Roy, Lama Al-Qusairi, Bridget F Donnelly, Caroline Ronzaud, Allison L Marciszyn, Fan Gong, Y P Christy Chang, Michael B Butterworth, Núria M Pastor-Soler, Kenneth R Hallows, Olivier Staub, Arohan R Subramanya
The thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is important for renal salt handling and blood-pressure homeostasis. The canonical NCC-activating pathway consists of With-No-Lysine (WNK) kinases and their downstream effector kinases SPAK and OSR1, which phosphorylate NCC directly. The upstream mechanisms that connect physiological stimuli to this system remain obscure. Here, we have shown that aldosterone activates SPAK/OSR1 via WNK1. We identified 2 alternatively spliced exons embedded within a proline-rich region of WNK1 that contain PY motifs, which bind the E3 ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-2...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Abeer Abousaab, Jamshed Warsi, Bernat Elvira, Ioana Alesutan, Zohreh Hoseinzadeh, Florian Lang
SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1) are cell volume-sensitive kinases regulated by WNK (with-no-K[Lys]) kinases. SPAK/OSR1 regulate several channels and carriers. SPAK/OSR1 sensitive functions include neuronal excitability. Orchestration of neuronal excitation involves the excitatory glutamate transporters EAAT1 and EAAT2. Sensitivity of those carriers to SPAK/OSR1 has never been shown. The present study thus explored whether SPAK and/or OSR1 contribute to the regulation of EAAT1 and/or EAAT2...
December 2015: Journal of Membrane Biology
Clinton A Taylor, Yu-Chi Juang, Svetlana Earnest, Samarpita Sengupta, Elizabeth J Goldsmith, Melanie H Cobb
The related protein kinases SPAK and OSR1 regulate ion homeostasis in part by phosphorylating cation cotransporter family members. The structure of the kinase domain of OSR1 was determined in the unphosphorylated inactive form and, like some other Ste20 kinases, exhibited a domain-swapped activation loop. To further probe the role of domain swapping in SPAK and OSR1, we have determined the crystal structures of SPAK 63-403 at 3.1 Å and SPAK 63-390 T243D at 2.5 Å resolution. These structures encompass the kinase domain and different portions of the C-terminal tail, the longer without and the shorter with an activating T243D point mutation...
August 18, 2015: Biochemistry
Eisei Sohara, Shinichi Uchida
Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is a hereditary disease characterized by salt-sensitive hypertension, hyperkalemia and thiazide sensitivity. Mutations in with-no-lysine kinase 1 (WNK1) and WNK4 genes are reported to cause PHAII. Rigorous studies have demonstrated that WNK kinases constitute a signaling cascade with oxidative stress-responsive gene 1 (OSR1), Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and the solute carrier family 12a (SLC12a) transporter, including thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter...
September 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Gen-Min Lin, Pang-Yen Liu, Ching-Fen Wu, Wen-Been Wang, Chih-Lu Han
According to a genome-wide association study, intronic SNPs within the human sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) gene was linked to 20% of the general population and may be associated with elevated blood pressure. As cell volume changes, mammalian SPAK kinases respond to phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled chloride co-transporter activity. To our knowledge, phosphorylation of upstream with-no-lysine (K) (WNK) kinases would activate SPAK kinases. The activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK cascade on the kidneys and aortic tissue is related to the development of hypertension...
June 26, 2015: World Journal of Cardiology
José Borrás, Madhuri S Salker, Bernat Elvira, Jamshed Warsi, Myriam Fezai, Zohreh Hoseinzadeh, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Kinases involved in the regulation of epithelial transport include SPAK (SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase 1). SPAK and OSR1 are both regulated by WNK (with-no-K(Lys)) kinases. The present study explored whether SPAK and/or OSR1 influence the excitatory amino acid transporter EAAT3, which accomplishes glutamate and aspartate transport in kidney, intestine and brain. METHODS: cRNA encoding EAAT3 was injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes with or without additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type SPAK, constitutively active (T233E)SPAK, WNK insensitive (T233A)SPAK, catalytically inactive (D212A)SPAK, wild-type OSR1, constitutively active (T185E)OSR1, WNK insensitive (T185A)OSR1 and catalytically inactive (D164A)OSR1...
2015: Nephron
Gulnaz Begum, Hui Yuan, Kristopher T Kahle, Liaoliao Li, Shaoxia Wang, Yejie Shi, Boris E Shmukler, Sung-Sen Yang, Shih-Hua Lin, Seth L Alper, Dandan Sun
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: WNK kinases, including WNK3, and the associated downstream Ste20/SPS1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress responsive 1 (OSR1) kinases, comprise an important signaling cascade that regulates the cation-chloride cotransporters. Ischemia-induced stimulation of the bumetanide-sensitive Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC1) plays an important role in the pathophysiology of experimental stroke, but the mechanism of its regulation in this context is unknown...
July 2015: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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