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Distal Nephron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330945/cyclosporine-a-induces-endothelin-converting-enzyme-ece-1-studies-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#1
Samuel N Heyman, Zaid Abassi, Christian Rosenberger, Hiba Yaseen, Galia Skarjinski, Ahuva Shina, Susanne Mathia, Natalia Krits, Mogher Khamaisi
AIM: Cyclosporine A (CsA) induces renal vasoconstriction and hypoxia and enhances the expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) pro-hormone (pre-pro ET-1), plausibly leading to a feed-forward loop of renal vasoconstriction, hypoxia, and enhanced synthesis of the potent vasoconstrictor ET-1. Endothelin converting enzyme (ECE)-1 cleaves big endothelin to generate endothelin (ET)-1 and is up-regulated by hypoxia via hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). We hypothesized that in addition to the direct induction of ET-1 synthesis, CsA might also intensify renal ECE-1expression, thus contributing to enhanced ET-1 synthesis following CsA...
January 13, 2018: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285423/renal-intercalated-cells-and-blood-pressure-regulation
#2
REVIEW
Susan M Wall
Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl- absorption and HCO3- secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl-/HCO3- exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO3 administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO3- secretion modulates acid-base balance...
December 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244647/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-hyperkalemia
#3
REVIEW
Biff F Palmer, Deborah J Clegg
Hyperkalemia results either from the shift of potassium out of cells or from abnormal renal potassium excretion. Cell shift leads to transient increases in the plasma potassium concentration, whereas decreased renal excretion of potassium leads to sustained hyperkalemia. Impairments in renal potassium excretion can be the result of reduced sodium delivery to the distal nephron, decreased mineralocorticoid level or activity, or abnormalities in the cortical collecting duct. In some instances, all 3 of these perturbations are present...
December 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237740/grhl2-is-required-for-collecting-duct-epithelial-barrier-function-and-renal-osmoregulation
#4
Christian Hinze, Janett Ruffert, Katharina Walentin, Nina Himmerkus, Elham Nikpey, Olav Tenstad, Helge Wiig, Kerim Mutig, Zeliha Yesim Yurtdas, Janet D Klein, Jeff M Sands, Federica Branchi, Michael Schumann, Sebastian Bachmann, Markus Bleich, Kai M Schmidt-Ott
Collecting ducts make up the distal-most tubular segments of the kidney, extending from the cortex, where they connect to the nephron proper, into the medulla, where they release urine into the renal pelvis. During water deprivation, body water preservation is ensured by the selective transepithelial reabsorption of water into the hypertonic medullary interstitium mediated by collecting ducts. The collecting duct epithelium forms tight junctions composed of barrier-enforcing claudins and exhibits a higher transepithelial resistance than other segments of the renal tubule exhibit...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229168/monogenic-hypertension-in-children-a-review-with-emphasis-on-genetics
#5
REVIEW
Anjali Aggarwal, David Rodriguez-Buritica
Hypertension (HT) is a public health problem in children particularly related to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. Monogenic forms of HT are important in the differential diagnosis in children presenting with severe or refractory HT, who have a family history of early-onset HT, unusual physical examination findings, and/or characteristic hormonal and biochemical abnormalities. Most genetic defects in these disorders ultimately result in increased sodium transport in the distal nephron resulting in volume expansion and HT...
November 2017: Advances in Chronic Kidney Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145797/14-3-3%C3%AF-protein-expression-in-canine-renal-cell-carcinomas
#6
Alejandro Suárez-Bonnet, Ana Lara-García, Alexander L Stoll, Sofia Carvalho, Simon L Priestnall
14-3-3σ is a protein expressed in many epithelial tissues associated with essential cell functions, including cell-cycle control, apoptosis, and cytoskeletal integrity. There is a paucity of knowledge of the tumorigenesis of canine renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), and the histological origin of this tumor has not been established. This study analyzed the expression of 14-3-3σ, Ki-67, cytokeratins, and vimentin in 40 canine RCCs. Aberrant expression of 14-3-3σ was demonstrated in 15 (38%) cases and was associated with a significantly shorter survival time ( P < ...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134970/circadian-potassium-excretion-is-unaffected-following-furosemide-induced-increase-in-sodium-delivery-to-the-distal-nephron
#7
B P Ilenwabor, E O Asowata, L F Obika
The mineralocorticoid aldosterone is widely accepted as a key regulator of K+ balance as well as urinary K+excretion. However, recent evidence suggests that the circadian control of K+ excretion is independent of aldosterone. Thedelivery of Na+ to the distal nephron is known to be an important determinant of aldosterone mediated secretion of K+ in thissegment of the nephron. Examining the link between distal Na+ delivery and K+ excretion; and how this link affect circadianK+ excretion will advance what is currently known about the maintenance of K+ homeostasis...
June 30, 2017: Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences: Official Publication of the Physiological Society of Nigeria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120692/epithelial-na-channel-regulation-by-extracellular-and-intracellular-factors
#8
Thomas R Kleyman, Ossama B Kashlan, Rebecca P Hughey
Epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaCs) are members of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels that evolved to respond to extracellular factors. In addition to being expressed in the distal aspects of the nephron, where ENaCs couple the absorption of filtered Na(+) to K(+) secretion, these channels are found in other epithelia as well as nonepithelial tissues. This review addresses mechanisms by which ENaC activity is regulated by extracellular factors, including proteases, Na(+), and shear stress. It also addresses other factors, including acidic phospholipids and modification of ENaC cytoplasmic cysteine residues by palmitoylation, which enhance channel activity by altering interactions of the channel with the plasma membrane...
November 8, 2017: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113990/notch-is-required-for-the-formation-of-all-nephron-segments-and-primes-nephron-progenitors-for-differentiation
#9
Eunah Chung, Patrick Deacon, Joo-Seop Park
Notch signaling plays important roles during mammalian nephrogenesis. To investigate if Notch regulates nephron segmentation, we performed Notch loss-of-function and gain-of-function studies in developing nephrons in mice. Contrary to the previous notion that Notch signaling promotes the formation of proximal tubules and represses the formation of distal tubules in the mammalian nephron, we show that inhibition of Notch blocks the formation of all nephron segments and that constitutive activation of Notch in developing nephrons does not promote or repress the formation of a specific segment...
November 7, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102372/renal-potassium-physiology-integration-of-the-renal-response-to-dietary-potassium-depletion
#10
REVIEW
Kamel S Kamel, Martin Schreiber, Mitchell L Halperin
We summarize the current understanding of the physiology of the renal handling of potassium (K+), and present an integrative view of the renal response to K+ depletion caused by dietary K+ restriction. This renal response involves contributions from different nephron segments, and aims to diminish the rate of excretion of K+ as a result of: decreasing the rate of electrogenic (and increasing the rate of electroneutral) reabsorption of sodium in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron (ASDN), decreasing the abundance of renal outer medullary K+ channels in the luminal membrane of principal cells in the ASDN, decreasing the flow rate in the ASDN, and increasing the reabsorption of K+ in the cortical and medullary collecting ducts...
November 1, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079406/aldosterone-induced-protein-kinase-signalling-and-the-control-of-electrolyte-balance
#11
REVIEW
Brian J Harvey, Warren Thomas
Aldosterone acts through the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) to modulate gene expression in target tissues. In the kidney, the principal action of aldosterone is to promote sodium conservation in the distal nephron and so indirectly enhance water conservation under conditions of hypotension. Over the last twenty years the rapid activation of protein kinase signalling cascades by aldosterone has been described in various tissues. This review describes the integration of rapid protein kinase D signalling responses with the non-genomic actions of aldosterone and transcriptional effects of MR activation...
October 24, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037855/nephrosphere-derived-cells-are-induced-to-multilineage-differentiation-when-cultured-on-human-decellularized-kidney-scaffolds
#12
Silvia Bombelli, Chiara Meregalli, Carla Scalia, Giorgio Bovo, Barbara Torsello, Sofia De Marco, Massimiliano Cadamuro, Paolo Viganò, Guido Strada, Giorgio Cattoretti, Cristina Bianchi, Roberto A Perego
In end-stage chronic kidney disease, the option of organ transplantation is limited because of the scarce availability of kidneys. The combination of stem cell research, regenerative medicine, and tissue engineering seems a promising approach to produce new transplantable kidneys. Currently, the possibility to repopulate naturally obtained scaffolds with cells of different sources is advancing. Our aim was to test, for the first time, whether the nephrosphere (NS) cells, composed by renal stem/progenitor-like cells, were able to repopulate different nephron portions of renal extracellular matrix scaffolds obtained after decellularization of human renal tissue slices...
October 14, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990932/uromodulin-p-cys147trp-mutation-drives-kidney-disease-by-activating-er-stress-and-apoptosis
#13
Bryce G Johnson, Lan T Dang, Graham Marsh, Allie M Roach, Zebulon G Levine, Anthony Monti, Deepak Reyon, Lionel Feigenbaum, Jeremy S Duffield
Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) is caused by mutations in the uromodulin (UMOD) gene that result in a misfolded form of UMOD protein, which is normally secreted by nephrons. In UAKD patients, mutant UMOD is poorly secreted and accumulates in the ER of distal kidney epithelium, but its role in disease progression is largely unknown. Here, we modeled UMOD accumulation in mice by expressing the murine equivalent of the human UMOD p.Cys148Trp point mutation (UmodC147W/+ mice). Like affected humans, these UmodC147W/+ mice developed spontaneous and progressive kidney disease with organ failure over 24 weeks...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978534/nmr-spectroscopy-and-electron-microscopy-identification-of-metabolic-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-the-kidney-following-ischemia-reperfusion-injury
#14
Tafadzwa Chihanga, Qing Ma, Jenna D Nicholson, Hannah N Ruby, Richard E Edelmann, Prasad Devarajan, Michael A Kennedy
Cellular, molecular, and ultrastructural nephron changes associated with ischemia reperfusion injury-induced acute kidney injury (IRI-AKI) are not completely understood. Here, a multidisciplinary study was used to identify nephron changes in a mouse model of IRI-AKI. Histological analyses indicated distended Bowman's glomerular spaces and proximal and distal tubules. Increased filtrate volume in nephrons was caused by reduced water reabsorption by severely damaged proximal tubule brush borders and blocked flow of filtrate into collecting tubules by mucoprotein casts in distal tubules...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971994/early-life-stress-induces-priming-of-the-immune-response-in-kidneys-of-adult-male-rats
#15
Carmen De Miguel, Ijeoma E Obi, Dao H Ho, Analia S Loria, Jennifer S Pollock
Early life stress (ELS) in humans is associated with elevated pro-inflammatory markers. We hypothesized that ELS induces activation of the immune response in a rat model of ELS, maternal separation (MatSep), in adulthood. MatSep involves separating pups from the dam from postnatal day 2 to postnatal day 14 for 3hrs/day. Control rats are non-separated littermates. We determined circulating and renal immune cell numbers, renal immune cell activation markers, renal cytokine levels, and the renal inflammatory gene expression response to low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in male MatSep and control rats...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945920/human-podocytes-express-functional-thermosensitive-trpv-channels
#16
Lídia Ambrus, Balázs Kelemen, Tamás Szabó, Tamás Bíró, Balázs István Tóth
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heat-sensitive transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV) channels are expressed in various epithelial tissues regulating, among else, barrier functions. Their expression is well established in the distal nephron; however, we have no data about their presence in podocytes. As podocytes are indispensable in the formation of the glomerular filtration barrier, we investigated the presence and function of Ca(2+) -permeable TRPV1-4 channels in human podocyte cultures...
September 25, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940314/dietary-sodium-induces-a-redistribution-of-the-tubular-metabolic-workload
#17
Khalil Udwan, Ahmed Abed, Isabelle Roth, Eva Dizin, Marc Maillard, Carla Bettoni, Johannes Loffing, Carsten A Wagner, Aurélie Edwards, Eric Feraille
KEY POINTS: Body Na(+) content is tightly controlled by regulated urinary Na(+) excretion. The intrarenal mechanisms mediating adaptation to variations in dietary Na(+) intake are incompletely characterized. We confirmed and expanded observations in mice that variations in dietary Na(+) intake do not alter the glomerular filtration rate but alter the total and cell-surface expression of major Na(+) transporters all along the kidney tubule. Low dietary Na(+) intake increased Na(+) reabsorption in the proximal tubule and decreased it in more distal kidney tubule segments...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904694/-bellini-duct-carcinoma-a-new-case-study-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Abdessamad El Bahri, Jaouad Chafiki, Nabil Louardi, Omar Jendouzi, Abdellatif Janane, Ahmed Ameur, Mohammed Abbar
Bellini duct carcinoma is a very rare type of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), accounting for less than 1%. It arises from the distal nephron, more specifically from the collecting duct. Its morphological features are extremely variable, making its diagnosis difficult. We report the case of a 62-year old patient admitted with a painless progressive left flank swelling. CT scan showed a huge mass occupying the upper portion of the left kidney. The patient underwent radical nephrectomy. Anatomopathological examination showed collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889231/favorable-effects-of-early-tolvaptan-administration-in-very-elderly-patients-after-repeat-hospitalizations-for-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#19
Masaki Kinoshita, Hideki Okayama, Tetsuya Kosaki, Saki Hosokawa, Go Kawamura, Tatsuya Shigematsu, Tatsunori Takahashi, Yoshitaka Kawada, Go Hiasa, Tadakatsu Yamada, Hiroshi Matsuoka, Yukio Kazatani
Tolvaptan (TLV) is an oral selective vasopressin 2 receptor antagonist that acts on the distal nephrons, causing a loss of electrolyte-free water. To date, its early administration in very elderly patients after repeat hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) despite receiving optimal medical therapy has not been evaluated. Fifty-six ADHF patients who were >80 years old and had been repeatedly hospitalized were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Twenty-five patients (14 men; mean age 86...
September 9, 2017: Heart and Vessels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882112/identification-of-adenylyl-cyclase-isoforms-mediating-parathyroid-hormone-and-calcitonin-stimulated-cyclic-amp-accumulation-in-distal-tubule-cells
#20
Wararat Kittikulsuth, Peter A Friedman, Alfred van Hoek, Yang Gao, Donald E Kohan
BACKGROUND: The distal convoluted tubule (DCT) is an important nephron site for parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin regulation of urinary divalent cation excretion. These hormones exert their effects on the DCT in substantial part through activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC); however, it is unknown which AC isoforms are involved. METHODS: To examine this, two mouse DCT cell lines were studied: 209 and D1 cells. AC isoform mRNA expression was analyzed by real-time PCR...
September 7, 2017: BMC Nephrology
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