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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926388/opportunistic-use-of-ct-imaging-for-osteoporosis-screening-and-bone-density-assessment-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#1
Elizabeth B Gausden, Benedict U Nwachukwu, Joseph J Schreiber, Dean G Lorich, Joseph M Lane
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical opportunities for the use of computed tomography (CT) imaging for inferring bone quality and to critically analyze the correlation between dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and diagnostic CT as reported in the literature. METHODS: A systematic review of the MEDLINE database was performed in February 2016 using the PubMed interface. The inclusion criteria were English language, studies performed using living human subjects, studies pertaining to orthopaedics, use of conventional diagnostic CT scans, studies that measured cancellous bone, and studies that reported Hounsfield unit (HU) measurements directly rather than a computed bone mineral density...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926385/graduation-protocol-after-growing-rod-treatment-removal-of-implants-without-new-instrumentation-is-not-a-realistic-approach
#2
Ismail Aykut Kocyigit, Z Deniz Olgun, H Gokhan Demirkiran, Mehmet Ayvaz, Muharrem Yazici
BACKGROUND: The growing rod remains an effective option in the treatment of early-onset scoliosis, and has previously been likened to an internal brace. While details of growing-rod treatment have been largely agreed on, the appropriate end point remains a matter of controversy. A decision was made in 2004, at the beginning of growing-rod treatment at our institution, to remove longitudinal instrumentation when the period of lengthening concluded and, similar to discontinuing a brace, leave the spine free...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925895/cardiovascular-drug-therapy-for-human-newborn-review-of-pharmacodynamic-data
#3
Ebru Ergenekon, Héctor Rojas-Anaya, María Carmen Bravo, Charalampos Kotidis, Liam Mahoney, Heike Rabe
BACKGROUND: Circulatory failure in preterm and term newborn infants is commonly treated with inotropes or vasoactive medications. In this structured literature review, the available data on pharmacodynamic effects of the inotropes adrenaline, dobutamine, dopamine, levosimendan, milrinone, noradrenaline, and the vasoactive drugs vasopressin and hydrocortisone are presented. METHODS: Structured searches were conducted to identify relevant articles according to pre-defined inclusion criteria which were human clinical trials published after 2000...
September 18, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925726/traumatic-brain-injury-amongst-indigenous-people-a-systematic-review
#4
Ali Lakhani, Clare Townsend, Jason Bishara
OBJECTIVES: To identify the types of research focusing on Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) amongst Indigenous people in order to (i) synthesise their findings and (ii) ascertain where research gaps exist. METHODOLOGY: A systematic review using the PRISMA approach was employed. Eight databases were searched for peer-reviewed literature published at any date. FINDINGS: Twenty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review...
September 19, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925418/mhealth-application-areas-and-technology-combinations-a-comparison-of-literature-from-high-and-low-middle-income-countries
#5
Haitham Abaza, Michael Marschollek
BACKGROUND: With the continuous and enormous spread of mobile technologies, mHealth has evolved as a new subfield of eHealth. While eHealth is broadly focused on information and communication technologies, mHealth seeks to explore more into mobile devices and wireless communication. Since mobile phone penetration has exceeded other infrastructure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), mHealth is seen as a promising component to provide pervasive and patient-centered care. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our research work for this paper is to examine the mHealth literature to identify application areas, target diseases, and mHealth service and technology types that are most appropriate for LMICs...
August 8, 2017: Methods of Information in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924630/role-of-in-vitro-release-methods-in-liposomal-formulation-development-challenges-and-regulatory-perspective
#6
Deepak Solomon, Nilesh Gupta, Nihal S Mulla, Snehal Shukla, Yadir A Guerrero, Vivek Gupta
In the past few years, measurement of drug release from pharmaceutical dosage forms has been a focus of extensive research because the release profile obtained in vitro can give an indication of the drug's performance in vivo. Currently, there are no compendial in vitro release methods designed for liposomes owing to a range of experimental challenges, which has created a major hurdle for both development and regulatory acceptance of liposome-based drug products. In this paper, we review the current techniques that are most often used to assess in vitro drug release from liposomal products; these include the membrane diffusion techniques (dialysis, reverse dialysis, fractional dialysis, and microdialysis), the sample-and-separate approach, the in situ method, the continuous flow, and the modified United States Pharmacopeia methods (USP I and USP IV)...
September 18, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924587/colorectal-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-predictors-and-neoplasm-related-gradients-of-difficulty
#7
Federico Iacopini, Yutaka Saito, Antonino Bella, Takuji Gotoda, Patrizia Rigato, Walter Elisei, Fabrizio Montagnese, Giampaolo Iacopini, Guido Costamagna
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM:  The role of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is standardized in Japan and East Asia, but technical difficulties hinder its diffusion. The aim was to identify predictors of difficulty for each neoplasm type. METHODS:  A competent operator performed all procedures. ESD difficulty was defined as: en bloc with a slow speed (< 0.07 cm (2) /min; 30 × 30 mm neoplasm in > 90 min), conversion to endoscopic mucosal resection, or resection abandonment...
September 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922696/does-air-gas-aesthesiometry-generate-a-true-mechanical-stimulus-for-corneal-sensitivity-measurement
#8
Daniela S Nosch, Heiko Pult, Julie Albon, Christine Purslow, Paul J Murphy
BACKGROUND: Belmonte Ocular Pain Meter (OPM) air jet aesthesiometry overcomes some of the limitations of the Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer. However, for true mechanical corneal sensitivity measurement, the airflow stimulus temperature of the aesthesiometer must equal ocular surface temperature (OST), to avoid additional response from temperature-sensitive nerves. The aim of this study was to determine: (A) the stimulus temperature inducing no or least change in OST; and (B) to evaluate if OST remains unchanged with different stimulus durations and airflow rates...
September 18, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922292/advances-in-delivery-of-ambulatory-autologous-stem-cell-transplantation-for-multiple-myeloma
#9
Jack Khouri, Navneet S Majhail
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) is generally performed in the inpatient setting in its entirety. Several centers have demonstrated the feasibility of performing ASCT for myeloma in the ambulatory setting. We review the safety, cost-effectiveness, complications and outcomes of outpatient ASCT for myeloma. RECENT FINDINGS: Published studies are heterogeneous but suggest that outpatient ASCT for myeloma is cost-effective and associated with a shorter or no initial hospitalization, albeit there is a high rate of readmission for complications...
September 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922277/percutaneous-posterior-trans-articular-atlantoaxial-fixation-for-the-treatment-of-odontoid-fractures-in-the-elderly-a-prospective-study
#10
Mohamed Alhashash, Mootaz Shousha, Hany Gendy, Ahmed Samir Barakat, Heinrich Boehm
STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study of 20 multimorbid patients older than 65 years undergoing minimally invasive surgical treatment for odontoid fracture. OBJECTIVES: To analyze the results of percutaneous transarticular atlantoaxial screw fixation as a new minimally invasive treatment modality in this high risk group of patients. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Odontoid fractures are a common injury pattern in the elderly. These fractures typically present significant challenges as geriatric patients often have multiple comorbidities that may adversely affect fracture management...
September 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921935/assessing-causal-relationships-using-genetic-proxies-for-exposures-an-introduction-to-mendelian-randomisation
#11
Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, Michael Green, Amy E Taylor, George Davey Smith, Marcus R Munafò
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studying the consequences of addictive behaviours is challenging, with understanding causal relationships from observational data being particularly difficult. For example, people who smoke or drink excessively are often systematically different from those who do not, are less likely to participate in research, and may misreport their behaviours when they do. Furthermore, the direction of causation between an addictive behaviour and outcome may be unclear. Mendelian randomisation (MR) offers potential solutions to these problems...
September 18, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921739/a-rapid-review-of-needs-assessment-tools-for-post-treatment-cancer-survivors
#12
REVIEW
M Jiao, A E Hall, L Nolte, A Piper, K Lisy, M Jefford
Relevant, comprehensive and psychometrically rigorous needs assessment tools are needed to ensure appropriate care is delivered to cancer survivors who have completed treatment. The aim of this rapid review was to identify and describe needs assessment tools that are used in cancer survivors post-treatment, assess their psychometric properties and describe their use in clinical care. The electronic databases Medline, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsycINFO were searched. Six studies were identified that described five needs assessment tools used in cancer survivors post-treatment...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921731/inter-observer-agreement-in-pediatric-cervical-spine-injury-assessment-between-prehospital-and-emergency-department-providers
#13
Lorin R Browne, Hamilton Schwartz, Fahd A Ahmad, Michael Wallendorf, Nathan Kuppermann, E Brooke Lerner, Julie C Leonard
BACKGROUND: Investigators have derived cervical spine injury (CSI) decision support tools from physician observations. There is a need to demonstrate that prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) providers can use these tools to appropriately determine the need for spinal motion restrictions and make field disposition decisions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the inter-observer agreement between EMS and emergency department (ED) providers for CSI risk assessment variables and overall gestalt for CSI in children after blunt trauma...
September 18, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921613/voxel-based-multi-model-fitting-method-for-modelling-time-activity-curves-in-spect-images
#14
David Sarrut, Adrien Halty, Jean-Noel Badel, Ludovic Ferrer, Manuel Bardiès
PURPOSE: Estimating the biodistribution and the pharmacokinetics from timesequence SPECT images on a per-voxel basis is useful for studying activity nonuniformity or computing absorbed dose distributions by convolution of voxel kernels or Monte-Carlo radiation transport. Current approaches are either region-based, thus assuming uniform activity within the region, or voxel-based but using the same fitting model for all voxels. METHODS: We propose a voxel-based multi-model fitting method (VoMM) that estimates a fitting function for each voxel by automatically selecting the most appropriate model among a predetermined set with Akaike criteria...
September 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920457/implementing-a-tiered-approach-to-bioanalytical-method-validation-for-large-molecule-ligand-binding-assay-methods-in-pharmacokinetic-assessments
#15
Rebecca G Watson, Adrienne Clements-Egan, Allen Schantz, Mark Ware, Bonnie Wu, Tong-Yuan Yang, Gopi Shankar, Joseph C Marini
Bioanalytical methods must enable the delivery of data that meet sound, scientifically justified, fit-for-purpose criteria. At early phases of biotherapeutic drug development, suitable criteria of a ligand-binding assay could be met for pharmacokinetic (PK) in-study sample testing without a full validation defined by regulatory guidelines. To ensure fit-for-purpose methods support PK testing through all phases of biotherapeutic development, three tiers of method validation - regulatory, scientific and research validations - are proposed...
September 18, 2017: Bioanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920178/impact-of-splenic-volume-and-splenectomy-on-prognosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-within-milan-criteria-after-curative-hepatectomy
#16
Kazuki Takeishi, Hirofumi Kawanaka, Shinji Itoh, Norifumi Harimoto, Toru Ikegami, Tomoharu Yoshizumi, Ken Shirabe, Yoshihiko Maehara
BACKGROUND: The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal hypertension (PH) is very poor. Splenomegaly is considered important evidence of PH. Our aim was to clarify the prognostic value of splenic volume (SV) and the effect of splenectomy on the prognosis of HCC within the Milan criteria after curative hepatectomy. METHODS: In this single-center retrospective study, we reviewed 160 patients with HCC that met the Milan criteria, including 138 who had undergone hepatectomy and 22 who had undergone hepatectomy and splenectomy between July 2004 and December 2010...
September 18, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919929/does-physical-activity-benefit-motor-performance-and-learning-of-upper-extremity-tasks-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Lena Hübner, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Upper extremity motor performance declines with increasing age. However, older adults need to maintain, learn new and relearn known motor tasks. Research with young adults indicated that regular and acute physical activity might facilitate motor performance and motor learning processes. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the association between chronic physical activity and acute bouts of exercise on motor performance and motor learning in upper extremity motor tasks in older adults. Literature was searched via Cochrane library, PubMED, PsycINFO and Scopus and 27 studies met all inclusion criteria...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919793/burden-of-uterine-fibroids-in-italy-epidemiology-treatment-outcomes-and-consumption-of-health-care-resources-in-more-than-5-000-women
#18
Marco Chiumente, Mauro De Rosa, Andrea Messori, Enrica Maria Proli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies on uterine fibroids (UFs) are mostly based on surveys or analyses of small samples of patients. In 50% of women, the quality of life is worsened by disease-related symptoms; furthermore, treatments imply a remarkable health care cost. The aim of this observational study was to analyze a large sample of Italian patients with UFs and to assess the epidemiology, the appropriateness of treatments, and the consumption of disease-related resources...
2017: ClinicoEconomics and Outcomes Research: CEOR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919609/psychiatric-disorders-in-drop-out-from-educational-attainment-attending-mental-health-facilities-a-descriptive-cross-sectional-study
#19
M S Islam, M H Rashid, M N Uddin, R K Singha, M A Rahman, M A Haque, C K Saha, M F Abedin
Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare. Mental disorders, those beginning in childhood or adolescence may increase the risk of early drop out from education. The latter has been shown to have adverse life-course consequences on individuals such as greater demand on social welfare entitlements. A descriptive cross sectional study was carried out at the department of Psychiatry, Comilla Medical College, Comilla, Bangladesh. All cases were selected from patients attending at Comilla Medical College Hospital and Private Mental Health Facilities in Comilla City from March 2015 to February 2016...
July 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918351/susceptibility-profiles-of-bacteria-causing-urinary-tract-infection-in-southern-tunisia
#20
Sonda Guermazi-Toumi, Sirine Boujlel, Mouna Assoudi, Riadh Issaoui, Sonia Tlili, Mohamed Ennaceur Hlaiem
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological profile and the antibiotic resistance of bacteria responsible for urinary infections diagnosed in the department of microbiology of the regional hospital Houcine Bouzaiene (Gafsa) in the south west of Tunisia. METHODS: All the cytobacteriological urine samples analyzed from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2016 were included in the study. The adopted criteria to define urinary infection were: leukocyturia >10(4)/ml and bacteriuria >10(5)CFU/ml...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
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