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James C Needell, Madalyn Brown, Danny Zipris
The etiopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains poorly understood. We used the LEW1.WR1 rat model of Kilham rat virus (KRV)-induced T1D to better understand the role of the innate immune system in the mechanism of virus-induced disease. We observed that infection with KRV results in cell influx into visceral adipose tissue soon following infection prior to insulitis and hyperglycemia. In sharp contrast, subcutaneous adipose tissue is free of cellular infiltration, whereas β-cell inflammation and diabetes are observed beginning on day 14 post-infection...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Tony Rosen, Nisha Mehta-Naik, Alyssa Elman, Mary R Mulcare, Michael E Stern, Sunday Clark, Rahul Sharma, Veronica M LoFaso, Risa Breckman, Mark Lachs, Nancy Needell
PROBLEM DEFINITION: Hospitals have an opportunity to improve the quality of care provided to a particularly vulnerable population: victims of elder mistreatment. Despite this, no programs to prevent or stop elder abuse in the acute care hospital have been reported. An innovative, multidisciplinary emergency department (ED)-based intervention for elder abuse victims, the Vulnerable Elder Protection Team (VEPT), was developed at NewYork-Presbyterian / Weill Cornell Medical Center (New York City)...
March 2018: Joint Commission Journal on Quality and Patient Safety
James C Needell, Danny Zipris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite immense research efforts, type 1 diabetes (T1D) remains an autoimmune disease without a known trigger or approved intervention. Over the last three decades, studies have primarily focused on delineating the role of the adaptive immune system in the mechanism of T1D. The discovery of Toll-like receptors in the 1990s has advanced the knowledge on the role of the innate immune system in host defense as well as mechanisms that regulate adaptive immunity including the function of autoreactive T cells...
September 27, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
Allan A Needell
abstract James E. Webb, NASA's Administrator during the hectic years preparing to send American astronauts to the Moon, has come to represent the pinnacle of postwar American optimism and support for large-scale, technically complex national undertakings. Success in 1969 lent credence to Webb's faith in "space age management." By the 1980s such "technocratic optimism" had precipitously declined. Since 1985, with the publication of Walter A. McDougall's Pulitzer Prize winning. . . The Heavens and the Earth, the rise and decline of such optimism has often been framed in the context of Cold War ideology and competition...
2017: Technology and Culture
James C Needell, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Miranda E Kroehl, Daniel N Frank, Danny Zipris
We recently hypothesized that the intestinal microbiota and the innate immune system play key roles in the mechanism of Kilham Rat Virus-induced type 1 diabetes in the LEW1.WR1 rat. We used this animal model to test the hypothesis that maternal therapy with short-chain fatty acids can modulate the intestinal microbiota and reverse virus-induced proinflammatory responses and type 1 diabetes in rat offspring. We observed that administration of short-chain fatty acids to rat breeders via drinking water prior to pregnancy and further treatment of the offspring with short-chain fatty acids after weaning led to disease amelioration...
2017: PloS One
Robert C Abrams, M Carrington Reid, Cynthia Lien, Maria Pavlou, Anthony Rosen, Nancy Needell, Joseph Eimicke, Jeanne Teresi
OBJECTIVE: Self-neglect is an imprecisely defined entity with multiple clinical expressions and adverse health consequences, especially in the elderly. However, research has been limited by the absence of a measurement instrument that is both inclusive and specific. Our goal was to establish the psychometric properties of a quantitative instrument, the Abrams Geriatric Self-Neglect Scale (AGSS). METHODS: We analyzed data from a 2007 case-control study of 71 cognitively intact community-dwelling older self-neglectors that had used the AGSS...
January 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
James C Needell, Charles A Dinarello, Diana Ir, Charles E Robertson, Sarah M Ryan, Miranda E Kroehl, Daniel N Frank, Danny Zipris
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune proinflammatory disease with no effective intervention. A major obstacle in developing new immunotherapies for T1D is the lack of means for monitoring immune responsiveness to experimental therapies. The LEW1.WR1 rat develops autoimmunity following infection with the parvovirus Kilham rat virus (KRV) via mechanisms linked with activation of proinflammatory pathways and alterations in the gut bacterial composition. We used this animal to test the hypothesis that intervention with agents that block innate immunity and diabetes is associated with a shift in the gut microbiota...
2017: PloS One
James C Needell, Danny Zipris
The gastrointestinal system represents one of the largest interfaces between the human internal microenvironment and the external world. This system harbors trillions of commensal bacteria that reside in symbiosis with the host. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining systemic and intestinal immune and metabolic homeostasis because of their effect on nutrient absorption and immune development and function. Recently, altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) was hypothesized to be involved in mechanisms through which islet autoimmunity is triggered...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Jeremiah C Beam, Gabriel LeBlanc, Evan A Gizzie, Borislav L Ivanov, David R Needell, Melinda J Shearer, G Kane Jennings, Charles M Lukehart, David E Cliffel
The interface between photoactive biological materials with two distinct semiconducting electrodes is challenging both to develop and analyze. Building off of our previous work using films of photosystem I (PSI) on p-doped silicon, we have deposited a crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) anode using confined-plume chemical deposition (CPCD). We demonstrate the ability of CPCD to deposit crystalline ZnO without damage to the PSI biomaterial. Using electrochemical techniques, we were able to probe this complex semiconductor-biological interface...
September 15, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michelle Johnson-Motoyama, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Alan J Dettlaff, Kechen Zhao, Megan Finno-Velasquez, Barbara Needell
We followed Latino infants prospectively through age 1 to determine whether maternal foreign-born status conferred a protective advantage against reported and substantiated maltreatment across Hispanic-origin groups, and whether the likelihood an infant was reported or substantiated for maltreatment varied by Hispanic origin. We drew data for all Latino infants born in California between 2000 and 2006 (N = 1,909,155) from population-based birth records linked to child protective services data. We used χ(2) tests to assess distributional differences in covariates and utilized generalized linear models to estimate the adjusted relative risk of report and substantiation in models stratified by nativity...
May 2015: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Steven D Needell, Ross M Borzykowski, Dominic S Carreira, John Kozy
OBJECTIVE: To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115° through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities...
November 2014: Skeletal Radiology
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Julie A Cederbaum, Bryn King, Jaclyn Cleveland, Barbara Needell
PURPOSE: To document the abuse and neglect histories of adolescent mothers using official child protection records. METHODS: Vital birth records were used to identify adolescents 12-19 years of age who were born in California and gave birth in 2009. These records were linked to statewide child protective service data to determine maternal history of alleged and substantiated maltreatment victimization, as well as placement in foster care. RESULTS: A total of 35,098 adolescents gave birth in 2009...
December 2013: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Mario A Cleves, Robyn Licht, Barbara Needell
OBJECTIVES: We examined variations in children's risk of an unintentional or intentional fatal injury following an allegation of physical abuse, neglect, or other maltreatment. METHODS: We linked records of 514 232 children born in California from 1999 to 2006 and referred to child protective services for maltreatment to vital birth and death data. We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate variations in risk of fatal injury before age 5 years and modeled maltreatment allegations as time-varying covariates...
October 2013: American Journal of Public Health
Julie A Cederbaum, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Bryn King, Kaycee Gilbert, Barbara Needell
BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that maternal exposure to stress and adversity throughout the life course may have health consequences for offspring. PURPOSE: To examine the maltreatment history of adolescent mothers as an independent predictor of infant birth weight. METHODS: Birth records for all infants born between 2007 and 2009 to mothers aged 12-19 years were extracted from California's vital statistics files. Maternal information from the birth record was linked to child protection data (1999-2009) to identify young mothers with substantiated maltreatment...
August 2013: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Deanna Needell, Rachel Ward
Consider the problem of reconstructing a multidimensional signal from an underdetermined set of measurements, as in the setting of compressed sensing. Without any additional assumptions, this problem is ill-posed. However, for signals such as natural images or movies, the minimal total variation estimate consistent with the measurements often produces a good approximation to the underlying signal, even if the number of measurements is far smaller than the ambient dimensionality. This paper extends recent reconstruction guarantees for two-dimensional images [Formula: see text] to signals [Formula: see text] of arbitrary dimension d ≥ 2 and to isotropic total variation problems...
October 2013: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Barbara Needell, Bryn King, Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
OBJECTIVE: Data from the United States indicate pronounced and persistent racial/ethnic differences in the rates at which children are referred and substantiated as victims of child abuse and neglect. In this study, we examined the extent to which aggregate racial differences are attributable to variations in the distribution of individual and family-level risk factors. METHODS: This study was based on the full population of children born in California in 2002. Birth records were linked to child protective service (CPS) records to identify all children referred for maltreatment by age 5...
January 2013: Child Abuse & Neglect
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Barbara Needell, Anne E Rhodes
In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and prospective epidemiological data that can be used to better understand the distribution and interacting nature of risk and protective factors for maltreatment. We begin by briefly addressing the relevance of empirical observations to etiological theories of child maltreatment...
February 2013: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anna Klales, Donato Cianci, Zachary Needell, David A Meyer, Peter J Love
We present a hydrodynamic lattice gas model for two-dimensional flows on curved surfaces with dynamical geometry. This model is an extension to two dimensions of the dynamical geometry lattice gas model previously studied in one dimension. We expand upon a variation of the two-dimensional flat space Frisch-Hasslacher-Pomeau (FHP) model created by Frisch [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1505 (1986)] and independently by Wolfram, and modified by Boghosian [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 333 (2002)]. We define a hydrodynamic lattice gas model on an arbitrary triangulation whose flat space limit is the FHP model...
October 2010: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Norman B Gaylis, Steven D Needell
Low-field extremity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed as an alternative method for detecting inflammatory changes and structural damage associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have shown that extremity MRI is able to predict future joint damage in patients with early RA and is more sensitive than conventional radiography at detecting joint erosions. This report uses four different cases to illustrate how extremity MRI can be used to monitor disease activity and inform treatment decisions during the management of RA in the routine clinical practice setting...
December 2009: Rheumatology International
Rodney D Gilbert, Claire L S Turner, Jane Gibson, Paul S Bass, Mushfequr R Haq, Esta Cross, David J Bunyan, Andrew R Collins, William J Tapper, Juliet C Needell, Beverley Dell, Newton E Morton, I Karen Temple, David O Robinson
Diffuse mesangial sclerosis occurs as an isolated abnormality or as a part of a syndrome. Recently, mutations in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) were found to cause a nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive form of this disease. Here we describe three children from one consanguineous kindred of Pakistani origin with diffuse mesangial sclerosis who presented with congenital or infantile nephrotic syndrome. Homozygous mutations in PLCE1 (also known as KIAA1516, PLCE, or NPHS3) were identified following genome-wide mapping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
February 2009: Kidney International
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