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James C Needell, Danny Zipris
The gastrointestinal system represents one of the largest interfaces between the human internal microenvironment and the external world. This system harbors trillions of commensal bacteria that reside in symbiosis with the host. Intestinal bacteria play a crucial role in maintaining systemic and intestinal immune and metabolic homeostasis because of their effect on nutrient absorption and immune development and function. Recently, altered gut bacterial composition (dysbiosis) was hypothesized to be involved in mechanisms through which islet autoimmunity is triggered...
October 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Jeremiah C Beam, Gabriel LeBlanc, Evan A Gizzie, Borislav L Ivanov, David R Needell, Melinda J Shearer, G Kane Jennings, Charles M Lukehart, David E Cliffel
The interface between photoactive biological materials with two distinct semiconducting electrodes is challenging both to develop and analyze. Building off of our previous work using films of photosystem I (PSI) on p-doped silicon, we have deposited a crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) anode using confined-plume chemical deposition (CPCD). We demonstrate the ability of CPCD to deposit crystalline ZnO without damage to the PSI biomaterial. Using electrochemical techniques, we were able to probe this complex semiconductor-biological interface...
September 15, 2015: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Michelle Johnson-Motoyama, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Alan J Dettlaff, Kechen Zhao, Megan Finno-Velasquez, Barbara Needell
We followed Latino infants prospectively through age 1 to determine whether maternal foreign-born status conferred a protective advantage against reported and substantiated maltreatment across Hispanic-origin groups, and whether the likelihood an infant was reported or substantiated for maltreatment varied by Hispanic origin. We drew data for all Latino infants born in California between 2000 and 2006 (N = 1,909,155) from population-based birth records linked to child protective services data. We used χ(2) tests to assess distributional differences in covariates and utilized generalized linear models to estimate the adjusted relative risk of report and substantiation in models stratified by nativity...
May 2015: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Steven D Needell, Ross M Borzykowski, Dominic S Carreira, John Kozy
OBJECTIVE: To devise a simple, reproducible method of using CT data to measure anterior acetabular coverage that results in values analogous to metrics derived from false-profile radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Volume CT images were used to generate simulated false-profile radiographs and cross-sectional false-profile views by angling a multiplanar reformat 115° through the affected acetabulum relative to a line tangential to the posterior margin of the ischial tuberosities...
November 2014: Skeletal Radiology
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Julie A Cederbaum, Bryn King, Jaclyn Cleveland, Barbara Needell
PURPOSE: To document the abuse and neglect histories of adolescent mothers using official child protection records. METHODS: Vital birth records were used to identify adolescents 12-19 years of age who were born in California and gave birth in 2009. These records were linked to statewide child protective service data to determine maternal history of alleged and substantiated maltreatment victimization, as well as placement in foster care. RESULTS: A total of 35,098 adolescents gave birth in 2009...
December 2013: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Mario A Cleves, Robyn Licht, Barbara Needell
OBJECTIVES: We examined variations in children's risk of an unintentional or intentional fatal injury following an allegation of physical abuse, neglect, or other maltreatment. METHODS: We linked records of 514 232 children born in California from 1999 to 2006 and referred to child protective services for maltreatment to vital birth and death data. We used multivariable Cox regression models to estimate variations in risk of fatal injury before age 5 years and modeled maltreatment allegations as time-varying covariates...
October 2013: American Journal of Public Health
Julie A Cederbaum, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Bryn King, Kaycee Gilbert, Barbara Needell
BACKGROUND: Emerging literature suggests that maternal exposure to stress and adversity throughout the life course may have health consequences for offspring. PURPOSE: To examine the maltreatment history of adolescent mothers as an independent predictor of infant birth weight. METHODS: Birth records for all infants born between 2007 and 2009 to mothers aged 12-19 years were extracted from California's vital statistics files. Maternal information from the birth record was linked to child protection data (1999-2009) to identify young mothers with substantiated maltreatment...
August 2013: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Deanna Needell, Rachel Ward
Consider the problem of reconstructing a multidimensional signal from an underdetermined set of measurements, as in the setting of compressed sensing. Without any additional assumptions, this problem is ill-posed. However, for signals such as natural images or movies, the minimal total variation estimate consistent with the measurements often produces a good approximation to the underlying signal, even if the number of measurements is far smaller than the ambient dimensionality. This paper extends recent reconstruction guarantees for two-dimensional images [Formula: see text] to signals [Formula: see text] of arbitrary dimension d ≥ 2 and to isotropic total variation problems...
October 2013: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Barbara Needell, Bryn King, Michelle Johnson-Motoyama
OBJECTIVE: Data from the United States indicate pronounced and persistent racial/ethnic differences in the rates at which children are referred and substantiated as victims of child abuse and neglect. In this study, we examined the extent to which aggregate racial differences are attributable to variations in the distribution of individual and family-level risk factors. METHODS: This study was based on the full population of children born in California in 2002. Birth records were linked to child protective service (CPS) records to identify all children referred for maltreatment by age 5...
January 2013: Child Abuse & Neglect
Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Barbara Needell, Anne E Rhodes
In this article, we argue for expanded efforts to integrate administrative data systems as a "practical strategy" for developing a richer understanding of child abuse and neglect. Although the study of child maltreatment is often critiqued for being atheoretical, we believe that a more pressing concern is the absence of population-based and prospective epidemiological data that can be used to better understand the distribution and interacting nature of risk and protective factors for maltreatment. We begin by briefly addressing the relevance of empirical observations to etiological theories of child maltreatment...
February 2013: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anna Klales, Donato Cianci, Zachary Needell, David A Meyer, Peter J Love
We present a hydrodynamic lattice gas model for two-dimensional flows on curved surfaces with dynamical geometry. This model is an extension to two dimensions of the dynamical geometry lattice gas model previously studied in one dimension. We expand upon a variation of the two-dimensional flat space Frisch-Hasslacher-Pomeau (FHP) model created by Frisch [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1505 (1986)] and independently by Wolfram, and modified by Boghosian [Philos. Trans. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 360, 333 (2002)]. We define a hydrodynamic lattice gas model on an arbitrary triangulation whose flat space limit is the FHP model...
October 2010: Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics
Norman B Gaylis, Steven D Needell
Low-field extremity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been developed as an alternative method for detecting inflammatory changes and structural damage associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have shown that extremity MRI is able to predict future joint damage in patients with early RA and is more sensitive than conventional radiography at detecting joint erosions. This report uses four different cases to illustrate how extremity MRI can be used to monitor disease activity and inform treatment decisions during the management of RA in the routine clinical practice setting...
December 2009: Rheumatology International
Rodney D Gilbert, Claire L S Turner, Jane Gibson, Paul S Bass, Mushfequr R Haq, Esta Cross, David J Bunyan, Andrew R Collins, William J Tapper, Juliet C Needell, Beverley Dell, Newton E Morton, I Karen Temple, David O Robinson
Diffuse mesangial sclerosis occurs as an isolated abnormality or as a part of a syndrome. Recently, mutations in phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) were found to cause a nonsyndromic, autosomal recessive form of this disease. Here we describe three children from one consanguineous kindred of Pakistani origin with diffuse mesangial sclerosis who presented with congenital or infantile nephrotic syndrome. Homozygous mutations in PLCE1 (also known as KIAA1516, PLCE, or NPHS3) were identified following genome-wide mapping of single-nucleotide polymorphisms...
February 2009: Kidney International
Terry V Shaw, Emily Putnam-Hornstein, Joseph Magruder, Barbara Needell
Overrepresentation of certain racial/ethnic groups in the foster care system is one of the most troubling and challenging issues in child welfare today. In response, many states have started reporting outcomes by race and ethnicity to identify disproportionately high rates of system contact. The identification of disproportional representation is the first step in developing targeted strategies to address disproportionality--highlighting where resources should be directed and guiding future research. However, present and future efforts to address disproportionality must be accompanied by statistically sound and meaningful methods of measurement...
2008: Child Welfare
Christine E Grella, Barbara Needell, Yifei Shi, Yih-Ing Hser
The effect of mothers' participation in substance abuse treatment on reunification with their children who are in out-of-home care is an important policy issue. This article examines the predictors of child reunification among mothers who participated in a statewide treatment outcome study. Data were integrated from multiple sources to determine the contributions of characteristics of mothers (n = 1,115), their children (n = 2,299), and treatment programs (n = 43) on reunification outcomes. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the fixed and random effects of mother, child, and program characteristics...
April 2009: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
A A Needell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 16, 1981: Science
A Needell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 18, 1983: Science
Norman B Gaylis, Steven D Needell, Daniel Rudensky
The objective of this study was to compare standard hand radiographs with in-office 0.2 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in monitoring response to therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who were receiving infliximab, to evaluate the frequency and location of erosions, and to determine if there were differences in outcome based on disease duration at baseline. Patients who satisfied the American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA and were receiving infliximab therapy were evaluated with a baseline and 1-year follow-up MRI...
2007: Modern Rheumatology
Bridget Freisthler, Paul J Gruenewald, Lillian G Remer, Bridgette Lery, Barbara Needell
Controlling for neighborhood demographic characteristics, this study examined the relationship of alcohol outlets with rates of Child Protective Services (CPS) referrals, substantiations, and foster care entries from 1998-2003 in 579 zip codes in California. Data for this panel study were analyzed using spatial random effects panel models. Zip codes with higher concentrations of off-premise alcohol outlets (e.g., convenience or liquor stores) and proportions of Black residents had higher rates of maltreatment...
May 2007: Child Maltreatment
Dennis E Zeller, Thomas J Gamble
Some of the key outcome measures used in the first federal Child and Family Service Reviews rely on retrospective cohorts and exclude key portions of the population from the analysis. Most discussions of this issue have focused on the extent to which retrospective measurement is a valid basis on which to judge states' performance (Courtney, Needell, & Wulczyn, 2003). The analyses presented here suggest that in some instances the relative or comparative results of retrospective and prospective measurements exhibit few differences...
January 2007: Child Welfare
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