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Chromatin memory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156535/hdacis-class-i-cancer-stem-cell-and-phytochemicals-cancer-therapy-and-prevention-implications
#1
REVIEW
Sahar Bayat, Mahmoud Shekari Khaniani, Jalal Choupani, Mohammad Reza Alivand, Sima Mansoori Derakhshan
Epigenetics is independent of the sequence events that physically affect the condensing of chromatin and genes expression. The unique epigenetic memories of various cells trigger exclusive gene expression profiling. According to different studies, the aberrant epigenetic signatures and impaired gene expression profiles are master occurrences in cancer cells in which oncogene and tumor suppressor genes are affected. Owing to the facts that epigenetic modifications are performed earlier than expression and are reversible, the epigenetic reprogramming of cancer cells could be applied potentially for their prevention, control, and therapy...
November 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133437/abnormal-microglia-and-enhanced-inflammation-related-gene-transcription-in-mice-with-conditional-deletion-of-ctcf-in-camk2a-cre-expressing-neurons
#2
Bryan E McGill, Ruteja A Barve, Susan E Maloney, Amy Strickland, Nicholas Rensing, Peter Wang, Michael Wong, Richard Head, David F Wozniak, Jeffrey Milbrandt
CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) is an 11 zinc finger DNA-binding domain protein that regulates gene expression by modifying three dimensional chromatin structure. Human mutations in CTCF cause intellectual disability and autistic features. Knocking out Ctcf in mouse embryonic neurons is lethal by neonatal age, but the effects of CTCF deficiency in postnatal neurons are less well studied. We knocked out Ctcf postnatally in glutamatergic forebrain neurons under the control of Camk2a-CreCtcf(loxP/loxP) ;Camk2a-Cre+ (Ctcf CKO) mice of both sexes were viable and exhibited profound deficits in spatial learning/memory, impaired motor co-ordination, and decreased sociability by 4 months of age...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127660/exposure-to-a-sublethal-concentration-of-imidacloprid-and-the-side-effects-on-target-and-nontarget-organs-of-apis-mellifera-hymenoptera-apidae
#3
Aline Fernanda Catae, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Marcel Pratavieira, Anally Ribeiro da Silva Menegasso, Mario Sergio Palma, Osmar Malaspina
The use of insecticides has become increasingly frequent, and studies indicate that these compounds are involved in the intoxication of bees. Imidacloprid is a widely used neonicotinoid; thus, we have highlighted the importance of assessing its oral toxicity to Africanized bees and used transmission electron microscopy to investigate the sublethal effects in the brain, the target organ, and the midgut, responsible for the digestion/absorption of food. In addition, the distribution of proteins involved in important biological processes in the brain were evaluated on the 1st day of exposure by MALDI-imaging analysis...
November 10, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101321/contribution-of-epigenetic-landscapes-and-transcription-factors-to-x-chromosome-reactivation-in-the-inner-cell-mass
#4
Maud Borensztein, Ikuhiro Okamoto, Laurène Syx, Guillaume Guilbaud, Christel Picard, Katia Ancelin, Rafael Galupa, Patricia Diabangouaya, Nicolas Servant, Emmanuel Barillot, Azim Surani, Mitinori Saitou, Chong-Jian Chen, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, Edith Heard
X-chromosome inactivation is established during early development. In mice, transcriptional repression of the paternal X-chromosome (Xp) and enrichment in epigenetic marks such as H3K27me3 is achieved by the early blastocyst stage. X-chromosome inactivation is then reversed in the inner cell mass. The mechanisms underlying Xp reactivation remain enigmatic. Using in vivo single-cell approaches (allele-specific RNAseq, nascent RNA-fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence), we show here that different genes are reactivated at different stages, with more slowly reactivated genes tending to be enriched in H3meK27...
November 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089052/epigenetic-control-of-epilepsy-target-genes-contributes-to-a-cellular-memory-of-epileptogenesis-in-cultured-rat-hippocampal-neurons
#5
K Kiese, J Jablonski, J Hackenbracht, J K Wrosch, T W Groemer, J Kornhuber, I Blümcke, K Kobow
Hypersynchronous neuronal excitation manifests clinically as seizure (ictogenesis), and may recur spontaneously and repetitively after a variable latency period (epileptogenesis). Despite tremendous research efforts to describe molecular pathways and signatures of epileptogenesis, molecular pathomechanisms leading to chronic epilepsy remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that epigenetic modifications may form the basis for a cellular memory of epileptogenesis, and used a primary neuronal cell culture model of the rat hippocampus to study the translation of massive neuronal excitation into persisting changes of epigenetic signatures and pro-epileptogenic target gene expression...
October 31, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078152/evolution-of-epigenetic-chromatin-states
#6
REVIEW
Philip Yuk Kwong Yung, Simon J Elsässer
The central dogma of gene expression entails the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA, then to protein. Decades of studies on epigenetics have characterized an additional layer of information, where epigenetic states help to shape differential utilization of genetic information. Orchestrating conditional gene expressions to elicit a defined phenotype and function, epigenetics states distinguish different cell types or maintain a long-lived memory of past signals. Packaging the genetic information in the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell, chromatin provides a large regulatory repertoire that capacitates the genome to give rise to many distinct epigenomes...
October 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072296/embryonic-epigenetic-reprogramming-by-a-pioneer-transcription-factor-in-plants
#7
Zeng Tao, Lisha Shen, Xiaofeng Gu, Yizhong Wang, Hao Yu, Yuehui He
Epigenetic modifications, including chromatin modifications and DNA methylation, have a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plants and animals. The transmission of epigenetic marks is crucial for certain genes to retain cell lineage-specific expression patterns and maintain cell fate. However, the marks that have accumulated at regulatory loci during growth and development or in response to environmental stimuli need to be deleted in gametes or embryos, particularly in organisms such as plants that do not set aside a germ line, to ensure the proper development of offspring...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018328/intermittent-ethanol-during-adolescence-leads-to-lasting-behavioral-changes-in-adulthood-and-alters-gene-expression-and-histone-methylation-in-the-pfc
#8
Jennifer T Wolstenholme, Tariq Mahmood, Guy M Harris, Shahroze Abbas, Michael F Miles
Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017914/the-roles-of-class-i-histone-deacetylases-hdacs-in-memory-learning-and-executive-cognitive-functions-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Claudia Schmauss
Coordinated changes in gene expression are critical for synaptic plasticity supporting learning, memory, and optimal cognitive task performance. These gene expression changes are not only mediated by signaling pathways that activate transcription factors, but also by chromatin modifications that influence the accessibility of the transcriptional machinery to specific genomic regions. During the past decade, evidence accumulated that alterations in chromatin-based epigenetic regulation of gene expression are linked to cognitive dysfunctions in the ageing or neurodegenerating brain as well as to cognitive dysfunctions resulting from chronic stress exposure...
October 7, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986422/the-arabidopsis-dna-methylome-is-stable-under-transgenerational-drought-stress
#10
Diep Ganguly, Peter Alexander Crisp, Steven R Eichten, Barry J Pogson
Improving the responsiveness, acclimation, and memory of plants to abiotic stress holds substantive potential for improving agriculture. An unresolved question is the involvement of chromatin marks in the memory of agriculturally-relevant stresses. Such potential has spurred numerous investigations yielding both promising and conflicting results. Consequently, it remains unclear to what extent robust stress-induced DNA methylation variation can underpin stress memory. Using a slow onset water deprivation treatment in Arabidopsis we investigated the malleability of the DNA methylome to drought stress within a generation and under repeated drought stress over five successive generations...
October 6, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978221/epigenetics-and-trained-immunity
#11
Charlotte D van der Heijden, Marlies P Noz, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Niels P Riksen, Samuel T Keating
SIGNIFICANCE: A growing body of clinical and experimental evidence has challenged the traditional understanding that only the adaptive immune system can mount immunological memory. Recent findings describe the adaptive characteristics of the innate immune system, underscored by its ability to remember antecedent foreign encounters and respond in a nonspecific sensitized manner to reinfection. This has been termed trained innate immunity. Although beneficial in the context of recurrent infections, this might actually contribute to chronic immune-mediated diseases, such atherosclerosis...
October 5, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977539/incomplete-myod-induced-transdifferentiation-is-associated-with-chromatin-remodeling-deficiencies
#12
Dinesh Manandhar, Lingyun Song, Ami Kabadi, Jennifer B Kwon, Lee E Edsall, Melanie Ehrlich, Koji Tsumagari, Charles A Gersbach, Gregory E Crawford, Raluca Gordân
Our current understanding of cellular transdifferentiation systems is limited. It is oftentimes unknown, at a genome-wide scale, how much transdifferentiated cells differ quantitatively from both the starting cells and the target cells. Focusing on transdifferentiation of primary human skin fibroblasts by forced expression of myogenic transcription factor MyoD, we performed quantitative analyses of gene expression and chromatin accessibility profiles of transdifferentiated cells compared to fibroblasts and myoblasts...
November 16, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967098/epigenetic-regulation-of-melatonin-receptors-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#13
REVIEW
Sarra G Bahna, Lennard P Niles
Melatonin, the primary indoleamine hormone of the mammalian pineal gland, is known to have a plethora of neuroregulatory, neuroprotective and other properties. Melatonergic signaling is mediated by its two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 , which are widely expressed in the mammalian CNS. Melatonin levels and receptor expression often show a decrease during normal aging, and this reduction may be accelerated in some disease states. Depleted melatonergic signaling has been associated with neuropsychiatric dysfunction and impairments in cognition, memory, neurogenesis and neurorestorative processes...
October 2, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961992/capturing-environmental-plant-memories-in-dna-with-a-little-help-from-chromatin
#14
Diana Mihaela Buzas
Plants are eukaryotes living mostly immotile in harsh environments. On occasion, it is beneficial for their survival to maintain a transcriptional response to an environmental stress longer than the stress lasts (transcriptional memory) and even to reiterate such a response more quickly or more strongly when the same stress is re-encountered (priming memory). In eukaryotes, transcription takes place in the context of chromatin, the packaging material of DNA. Chromatin regulation is often invoked when it comes to environmental transcriptional and priming memory in plants, but rarely chromatin-based regulation can be accurately assigned to a given aspect of transcription in vivo...
August 1, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953906/analysis-of-chromatin-accessibility-in-human-epidermis-identifies-putative-barrier-dysfunction-sensing-enhancers
#15
Julie M Lander, Dorothy M Supp, Hua He, Lisa J Martin, Xiaoting Chen, Matthew T Weirauch, Steven T Boyce, Raphael Kopan
To identify putative gene regulatory regions that respond to epidermal injury, we mapped chromatin dynamics in a stratified human epidermis during barrier maturation and disruption. Engineered skin substitutes (ESS) cultured at the air-liquid interface were used as a model of developing human epidermis with incomplete barrier formation. The epidermal barrier stabilized following engraftment onto immunocompromised mice, and was compromised again upon injury. Modified formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE) was used to identify accessible genomic regions characteristic of monolayer keratinocytes, ESS in vitro, grafted ESS, and tape-stripped ESS graft...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951121/can-t-remember-to-forget-you-chromatin-based-priming-of-somatic-stress-responses
#16
REVIEW
Isabel Bäurle
In nature plants are exposed to frequent changes in their abiotic and biotic environment. While some environmental cues are used to gauge the environment and align growth and development, others are beyond the regularly encountered spectrum of a species and trigger stress responses. Such stressful conditions provide a potential threat to survival and integrity. Plants adapt to extreme environmental conditions through physiological adaptations that are usually transient and are maintained until stressful environments subside...
September 22, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28949335/the-bet-brd-inhibitor-jq1-improves-brain-plasticity-in-wt-and-app-mice
#17
E Benito, B Ramachandran, H Schroeder, G Schmidt, H Urbanke, S Burkhardt, V Capece, C Dean, A Fischer
Histone acetylation is essential for memory formation and its deregulation contributes to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Thus, targeting histone acetylation is discussed as a novel approach to treat dementia. The histone acetylation landscape is shaped by chromatin writer and eraser proteins, while readers link chromatin state to cellular function. Chromatin readers emerged novel drug targets in cancer research but little is known about the manipulation of readers in the adult brain. Here we tested the effect of JQ1-a small-molecule inhibitor of the chromatin readers BRD2, BRD3, BRD4 and BRDT-on brain function and show that JQ1 is able to enhance cognitive performance and long-term potentiation in wild-type animals and in a mouse model for Alzheimer's disease...
September 26, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938122/genome-regulation-by-polycomb-and-trithorax-70-years-and-counting
#18
REVIEW
Bernd Schuettengruber, Henri-Marc Bourbon, Luciano Di Croce, Giacomo Cavalli
Polycomb (PcG) and Trithorax (TrxG) group proteins are evolutionarily conserved chromatin-modifying factors originally identified as part of an epigenetic cellular memory system that maintains repressed or active gene expression states. Recently, they have been shown to globally control a plethora of cellular processes. This functional diversity is achieved by their ability to regulate chromatin at multiple levels, ranging from modifying local chromatin structure to orchestrating the three-dimensional organization of the genome...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934222/endogenous-rgs14-is-a-cytoplasmic-nuclear-shuttling-protein-that-localizes-to-juxtanuclear-membranes-and-chromatin-rich-regions-of-the-nucleus
#19
Mary Rose Branch, John R Hepler
Regulator of G protein signaling 14 (RGS14) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein that integrates G protein and H-Ras/MAPkinase signaling pathways to regulate synaptic plasticity important for hippocampal learning and memory. However, to date, little is known about the subcellular distribution and roles of endogenous RGS14 in a neuronal cell line. Most of what is known about RGS14 cellular behavior is based on studies of tagged, recombinant RGS14 ectopically overexpressed in unnatural host cells. Here, we report for the first time a comprehensive assessment of the subcellular distribution and dynamic localization of endogenous RGS14 in rat B35 neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928640/hdac3-inhibitor-rgfp966-modulates-neuronal-memory-for-vocal-communication-signals-in-a-songbird-model
#20
Mimi L Phan, Mark M Gergues, Shafali Mahidadia, Jorge Jimenez-Castillo, David S Vicario, Kasia M Bieszczad
Epigenetic mechanisms that modify chromatin conformation have recently been under investigation for their contributions to learning and the formation of memory. For example, the role of enzymes involved in histone acetylation are studied in the formation of long-lasting memories because memory consolidation requires gene expression events that are facilitated by an open state of chromatin. We recently proposed that epigenetic events may control the entry of specific sensory features into long-term memory by enabling transcription-mediated neuronal plasticity in sensory brain areas...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
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