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phenotypic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136184/female-mimicry-by-sneaker-males-has-a-transcriptomic-signature-in-both-the-brain-and-gonad-in-a-sex-changing-fish
#1
Erica V Todd, Hui Liu, Melissa S Lamm, Jodi T Thomas, Kim Rutherford, Kelly C Thompson, John R Godwin, Neil J Gemmell
Phenotypic plasticity represents an elegant adaptive response of individuals to a change in their environment. Bluehead wrasses (Thalassoma bifasciatum) exhibit astonishing sexual plasticity, including female-to-male sex change and discrete male morphs that differ strikingly in behaviour, morphology and gonadal investment. Using RNA-seq transcriptome profiling, we examined the genes and physiological pathways underlying flexible behavioural and gonadal differences among female, dominant (bourgeois) male, and female-mimic (sneaker) male blueheads...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134739/phenotypic-plasticity-in-response-to-environmental-heterogeneity-contributes-to-fluctuating-asymmetry-in-plants-first-empirical-evidence
#2
Branka Tucić, Sanja Budečević, Sanja Manitašević Jovanović, Ana Vuleta, Christian Peter Klingenberg
Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is widely used to quantify developmental instability (DI) in ecological and evolutionary studies. It has long been recognized that FA may not exclusively originate from DI for sessile organisms such as plants, because phenotypic plasticity in response to heterogeneities in the environment might also produce FA. This study provides the first empirical evidence for this hypothesis. We reasoned that solar irradiance, which is greater on the southern side than on the northern side of plants growing in the temperate zone of the northern hemisphere, would cause systematic morphological differences and asymmetry associated with the orientation of plant parts...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134713/comparative-ecological-transcriptomics-and-the-contribution-of-gene-expression-to-the-evolutionary-potential-of-a-threatened-fish
#3
Chris J Brauer, Peter J Unmack, Luciano B Beheregaray
Understanding whether small populations with low genetic diversity can respond to rapid environmental change via phenotypic plasticity is an outstanding research question in biology. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has recently provided the opportunity to examine variation in gene expression, a surrogate for phenotypic variation, in non-model species. We used a comparative RNA-seq approach to assess expression variation within and among adaptively divergent populations of a threatened freshwater fish, Nannoperca australis, found across a steep hydroclimatic gradient in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134710/isolation-by-distance-not-incipient-ecological-speciation-explains-genetic-differentiation-in-an-andean-songbird-aves-furnariidae-cranioleuca-antisiensis-line-cheeked-spinetail-despite-near-three-fold-body-size-change-across-an-environmental-gradient
#4
Glenn F Seeholzer, Robb T Brumfield
During the process of ecological speciation, reproductive isolation results from divergent natural selection and leads to a positive correlation between genetic divergence and adaptive phenotypic divergence, i.e. isolation-by-adaptation (IBA). In natural populations, phenotypic differentiation is often autocorrelated with geographic distance, making IBA difficult to distinguish from the neutral expectation of isolation-by-distance (IBD). We examined these two alternatives in a dramatic case of clinal phenotypic variation in an Andean songbird, the Line-cheeked Spinetail (Cranioleuca antisiensis)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134082/is-the-behavioural-divergence-between-range-core-and-range-edge-populations-of-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-due-to-evolutionary-change-or-developmental-plasticity
#5
Jodie Gruber, Gregory Brown, Martin J Whiting, Richard Shine
Individuals at the leading edge of expanding biological invasions often show distinctive phenotypic traits, in ways that enhance their ability to disperse rapidly and to function effectively in novel environments. Cane toads (Rhinella marina) at the invasion front in Australia exhibit shifts in morphology, physiology and behaviour (directionality of dispersal, boldness, risk-taking). We took a common-garden approach, raising toads from range-core and range-edge populations in captivity, to see if the behavioural divergences observed in wild-caught toads are also evident in common-garden offspring...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131388/saccharomyces-interspecies-hybrids-as-model-organisms-for-studying-yeast-adaptation-to-stressful-environments
#6
Ksenija Lopandic
The strong development of molecular biology techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies in the last two decades has significantly improved our understanding of the evolutionary history of Saccharomyces yeasts. It has been shown that many strains isolated from man-made environments are not pure genetic lines, but contain genetic materials from different species that substantially increase their genome complexity. A number of strains have been described as interspecies hybrids, implying different yeast species that under specific circumstances exchange and recombine their genomes...
November 13, 2017: Yeast
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131381/long-non-coding-rna-cox-2-prevents-immune-evasion-and-metastasis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-altering-m1-m2-macrophage-polarization
#7
Yibiao Ye, Yunxiuxiu Xu, Yu Lai, Wenguang He, Yanshan Li, Ruomei Wang, Xinxi Luo, Xinxi Luo, Rufu Chen, Tao Chen
OBJECTIVE: Macrophages have been shown to demonstrate a high level of plasticity, with the ability to undergo dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. We investigate long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) cox-2 in macrophage polarization and the regulatory mechanism functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to induce RAW264.7 macrophages into M1 type, and IL-4 was to induce RAW264.7 macrophages into M2 type. We selected mouse hepatic cell line Hepal-6 and hepatoma cell line HepG2 for co-incubation with M1 or M2 macrophages...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129882/plasticity-in-glioma-stem-cell-phenotype-and-its-therapeutic-implication
#8
Yasuo Iwadate
The marked heterogeneity in glioblastoma (GBM) may be induced through dynamic differentiation and dedifferentiation process of glioma cells. The hypothesis that environmental stimuli induce these phenotypic changes, including dedifferentiation into the stem cell phenotype which contributes to the high invasiveness and resultant poor outcome in GBM patients, is recently being proven. In the process of cancer invasion and metastasis, the phenotypic change has also been described as epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
November 13, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128643/transcriptional-profiles-of-plasticity-for-desiccation-stress-in-drosophila
#9
Allannah S Clemson, Carla M Sgrò, Marina Telonis-Scott
We examined the transcriptional responses of desiccation resistance candidate genes in populations of Drosophila melanogaster divergent for desiccation resistance and in capacity to improve resistance via phenotypic plasticity. Adult females from temperate and tropical eastern Australian populations were exposed to a rapid desiccation hardening (RDH) treatment, and groups without RDH to acute desiccation stress, and temporally profiled transcript expression of 12 candidate desiccation genes during, and in recovery from stress...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128642/the-evolution-of-metabolic-regulation-in-animals
#10
Frank Seebacher
Energy metabolism is determined by a suite of regulatory mechanism, and their increasing complexity over evolutionary time provides the key to understanding the emergence of different metabolic phenotypes. Energy metabolism is at the core of biological processes because all organisms must maintain energy balance against thermodynamic gradients. Energy metabolism is regulated by a bewildering array of interacting molecular mechanisms, and much of what is known about metabolic regulation comes from the medical literature...
November 8, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128445/the-promise-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-for-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Katrin Linda, Carol Fiuza, Nael Nadif Kasri
A major challenge in clinical genetics and medicine is represented by genetically and phenotypically highly diverse neurodevelopmental disorders, like for example intellectual disability and autism. Intellectual disability is characterized by substantial limitations in cognitive function and adaptive behaviour. At the cellular level, this is reflected by deficits in synaptic structure and plasticity and therefore has been coined as a synaptic disorder or "synaptopathy". In this review, we summarize the findings from recent studies in which iPSCs have been used to model specific neurodevelopmental syndromes, including Fragile X syndrome, Rett syndrome, Williams-Beuren syndrome and Phelan-McDermid syndrome...
November 8, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128107/a-systematic-look-at-environmental-modulation-and-its-impact-in-brain-development
#12
REVIEW
Alessandro Sale
Several experimental procedures are currently used to investigate the impact of the environment on brain plasticity under physiological and pathological conditions. The available methodologies are aimed at obtaining global or specific reductions or intensifications of the stimuli, with initial standardization in animal models being paralleled by translational applications to humans. More procedures can be combined together or applied in series to obtain powerful experimental paradigms, and the choice of a given setting should take into account the specific genetic background, age, and phenotypic vulnerabilities of the target subjects...
November 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125852/processes-affecting-altitudinal-distribution-of-invasive-ageratina-adenophora-in-western-himalaya-the-role-of-local-adaptation-and-the-importance-of-different-life-cycle-stages
#13
Arunava Datta, Ingolf Kühn, Mustaqeem Ahmad, Stefan Michalski, Harald Auge
The spread of invasive plants along elevational gradients is considered a threat to fragile mountain ecosystems, but it can also provide the opportunity to better understand some of the basic processes driving the success of invasive species. Ageratina adenophora (Asteraceae) is an invasive plant of global importance and has a broad distribution along elevational gradients in the Western Himalayas. Our study aimed at understanding the role of evolutionary processes (e.g. local adaptation and clinal differentiation) and different life history stages in shaping the distribution pattern of the invasive plant along an elevational gradient in the Western Himalaya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125643/environmental-variation-partitioned-into-separate-heritable-components
#14
Michael Ørsted, Palle Duun Rohde, Ary Anthony Hoffmann, Peter Sørensen, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Trait variation is normally separated into genetic and environmental components, yet genetic factors also control the expression of environmental variation, encompassing plasticity across environmental gradients and within-environment responses. We defined four components of environmental variation: plasticity across environments, variability in plasticity, variation within environments, and differences in within-environment variation across environments. We assessed these components for cold tolerance across five rearing temperatures using the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP)...
November 10, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125251/morphological-and-morphometric-analysis-of-scutella-of-six-species-and-two-subspecies-of-triatoma-hemiptera-reduviidae-in-mexico
#15
Nancy Rivas, Víctor Sánchez-Cordero, Alejandro D Camacho, Alejandro Córdoba-Aguilar, Ricardo Alejandre-Aguilar
Morphological characters can be used to distinguish the vast majority of triatomine species, but the existence of high levels of phenotypic plasticity and recently diverged species can lead to erroneous determinations. To approach this problem, we analyzed the male and female morphologies of the scutella of Triatoma barberi, T. dimidiata, T. lecticularia, T. mexicana, T. recurva, T. rubida, and two sub-species, T. protracta protracta and T. protracta nahuatlae. Scutellum samples were observed by scanning electron microscopy and subjected to morphological analysis and morphometric investigation using a canonical discriminant analysis...
December 2017: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124764/flank-spot-number-and-its-significance-for-systematics-taxonomy-and-conservation-of-the-near-threatened-mediterranean-trout-salmo-cettii-evidence-from-a-genetically-pure-population
#16
A Duchi
The number of spots on the flank of the Mediterranean trout Salmo cettii population from Tellesimo Stream in Sicily, Italy, varied between seven and 37, with a median and mode of 21, numbers much lower than those reported in the literature and different from those of other Italian trout populations. This finding could be ascribed to the phenotypic plasticity of the species or, alternatively, could provide evidence to support the different origin of Sicilian autochthonous trout. Given the ease of use of this character for the identification of native fish, it could be particularly important for conservation and management purposes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122607/morphological-variation-in-the-cosmopolitan-fish-parasite-neobenedenia-girellae-capsalidae-monogenea
#17
Alexander K Brazenor, Richard J Saunders, Terrence L Miller, Kate S Hutson
Intra-species morphological variation presents a considerable problem for species identification and can result in taxonomic confusion. This is particularly pertinent for species of Neobenedenia which are harmful agents in captive fish populations and have historically been identified almost entirely based on morphological characters. This study aimed to understand how the morphology of Neobenedenia girellae varies with host fish species and the environment. Standard morphological features of genetically indistinct parasites from various host fish species were measured under controlled temperatures and salinities...
November 6, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121166/characteristics-diagnosis-and-management-of-ehlers-danlos-syndromes-a-review
#18
Andrew W Joseph, Shannon S Joseph, Clair A Francomano, Theda C Kontis
Importance: Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDSs) are a group of heritable connective tissue disorders. Patients with EDSs can develop excessive facial rhytids, nasal deformities, and facial scarring, for which they may seek consultation with a facial plastic surgeon. Ehlers-Danlos syndromes can be associated with serious surgical complications and should be identified preoperatively to facilitate optimal treatment. To our knowledge, no management guidelines for patients with EDSs exist in the facial plastic surgery literature...
November 9, 2017: JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120695/hypoxia-and-sprint-swimming-performance-of-juvenile-striped-bass-morone-saxatilis
#19
Krista Kraskura, Jay A Nelson
Annual hypoxia in the Chesapeake Bay has expanded to the point where Darwinian fitness of juvenile striped bass (Morone saxatilis) may depend on their ability to perform in low-oxygen environments. The locomotion they use in predator/prey dynamics relies primarily on white (type II) muscle that is powered by anaerobic metabolic pathways and has generally been thought to be immune to aquatic hypoxia. We tested the sprint performance of 15 juvenile striped bass twice under acute hypoxia (20% air saturation [AS]) 5 wk apart and once under normoxia (>85% AS) in between...
January 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119927/gene-environment-interactions-in-late-life-linking-psychosocial-stress-with-brain-aging
#20
Anthony S Zannas
Gene-environment interactions (GxE) can have lasting consequences on brain structure and function, potentially contributing to diverse neuropsychiatric phenotypes. This has been extensively demonstrated by studies examining GxE in childhood and early adulthood, whereas much fewer studies have addressed this question in late life. The relative paucity of studies examining GxE in late life may stem from the working hypothesis that brains become less malleable to environmental inputs as life progresses. However, while some components of brain plasticity decline with increasing age, others are retained and may even become more pronounced in old ages...
November 9, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
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