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phenotypic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816361/msel-1l-deficiency-affects-vasculogenesis-and-neural-stem-cell-lineage-commitment
#1
Cardano M, Diaferia G R, Conti L, Baronchelli S, Sessa A, Broccoli V, Barbieri A, De Blasio P, Biunno I
mSEL-1L is a highly conserved ER-resident type I protein, involved in the degradation of misfolded peptides through the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS), a pathway known to control the plasticity of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) phenotype and survival. In this article we demonstrate that mSEL-1L deficiency interferes with the murine embryonic vascular network, showing particular irregularities in the intracranic and intersomitic neurovascular units and in the cerebral capillary microcirculation. During murine embryogenesis, mSEL-1L is expressed in cerebral areas known to harbor progenitor neural cells, while in the adult brain the protein is specifically restricted to the stem cell niches, co-localizing with Sox2 and Nestin...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815581/th1-polarizing-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-t-cells-and-scavenger-receptors-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pemphigus-vulgaris
#2
Dayasagar Das, Vivek Anand, Sujay Khandpur, V K Sharma, Alpana Sharma
Gamma delta T cells (γδ T cells) and Scavenger receptors are key innate immune machinery playing significant role in regulating immune homeostasis at epithelial surface. The roles of these immune components are not yet characterized for the autoimmune skin disorder Pemphigus Vulgaris (PV). Phenotyping and frequency of γδ T cells estimated by Flowcytometry has shown increased frequency of γδ T cells (6.7% vs. 4.4%) producing IFN-γ (35.2% vs. 26.68%), in circulation of patients compared to controls. Dual cytokine (IFN-γ & IL-4) secreting γδ T cells indicate plasticity of these cells...
August 16, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814652/evolution-of-plasticity-and-adaptive-responses-to-climate-change-along-climate-gradients
#3
Joel G Kingsolver, Lauren B Buckley
The relative contributions of phenotypic plasticity and adaptive evolution to the responses of species to recent and future climate change are poorly understood. We combine recent (1960-2010) climate and phenotypic data with microclimate, heat balance, demographic and evolutionary models to address this issue for a montane butterfly, Colias eriphyle, along an elevational gradient. Our focal phenotype, wing solar absorptivity, responds plastically to developmental (pupal) temperatures and plays a central role in thermoregulatory adaptation in adults...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814632/intermittent-apnea-elicits-inactivity-induced-phrenic-motor-facilitation-via-a-retinoic-acid-and-protein-synthesis-dependent-pathway
#4
Nathan A Baertsch, Tracy L Baker
Respiratory motoneuron pools must provide rhythmic inspiratory drive that is robust and reliable, yet dynamic enough to respond to respiratory challenges. One form of plasticity that is hypothesized to contribute to motor output stability by sensing and responding to inadequate respiratory neural activity is inactivity-induced phrenic motor facilitation (iPMF), an increase in inspiratory output triggered by a reduction in phrenic synaptic inputs. Evidence suggests that mechanisms giving rise to iPMF differ depending on the pattern of reduced respiratory neural activity (i...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813439/comparative-ecophysiology-of-a-critically-endangered-cr-ectotherm-implications-for-conservation-management
#5
Andrea F T Currylow, Angelo Mandimbihasina, Paul Gibbons, Ernest Bekarany, Craig B Stanford, Edward E Louis, Daniel E Crocker
Captive breeding is a vital conservation tool for many endangered species programs. It is often a last resort when wild animal population numbers drop to below critical minimums for natural reproduction. However, critical ecophysiological information of wild counterparts may not be well documented or understood, leading to years of minimal breeding successes. We collected endocrine and associated ecological data on a critically endangered ectotherm concurrently in the wild and in captivity over several years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812677/species-specific-responses-to-ocean-acidification-should-account-for-local-adaptation-and-adaptive-plasticity
#6
Cristian A Vargas, Nelson A Lagos, Marco A Lardies, Cristian Duarte, Patricio H Manríquez, Victor M Aguilera, Bernardo Broitman, Steve Widdicombe, Sam Dupont
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient...
March 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812568/gene-expression-plasticity-as-a-mechanism-of-coral-adaptation-to-a-variable-environment
#7
Carly D Kenkel, Mikhail V Matz
Local adaptation is ubiquitous, but the molecular mechanisms that give rise to this ecological phenomenon remain largely unknown. A year-long reciprocal transplant of mustard hill coral (Porites astreoides) between a highly environmentally variable inshore habitat and a more stable offshore habitat demonstrated that populations exhibit phenotypic signatures that are consistent with local adaptation. We characterized the genomic basis of this adaptation in both coral hosts and their intracellular symbionts (Symbiodinium sp...
November 7, 2016: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811128/a-newly-synthesized-ligustrazine-stilbene-derivative-inhibits-pdgf-bb-induced-vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-phenotypic-switch-and-proliferation-via-delaying-cell-cycle-progression
#8
Chunlian Peng, Siming Zhang, Haixin Liu, Yanxiao Jiao, Guifa Su, Yan Zhu
Vascular Smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) possess remarkable phenotype plasticity that allows it to rapidly adapt to fluctuating environmental cues, including the period of development and progression of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis subsequent to vein grafting or coronary intervention. Although VSMC phenotypic switch is an attractive target, there is no effective drug so far. Using rat aortic VSMCs, we investigate the effects of Ligustrazine and its synthetic derivatives on platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced proliferation and phenotypic switch by a cell image-based screening of 60 Ligustrazine stilbene derivatives...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808555/phenotypic-convergence-of-artificially-reared-and-wild-trout-is-mediated-by-shape-plasticity
#9
Jorge Ruben Sánchez-González, Alfredo G Nicieza
Phenotypic plasticity can be viewed as the first level of defense of organism homeostasis against environmental stress and therefore represents the potential to deal with rapid environmental changes. Transitions between low complexity, artificial environments and complex, natural habitats can promote phenotypic plasticity. Here, we conducted an experimental introduction with juvenile brown trout to evaluate the plasticity of shape in response to a transition between contrasting environments. We released 202 juvenile trout reared under hatchery conditions in a natural stream and analyzed changes in shape and morphological variability after 5 months...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806136/harnessing-olig2-function-in-tumorigenicity-and-plasticity-to-target-malignant-gliomas
#10
Jennifer Kosty, Fanghui Lu, Robert Kupp, Shwetal Mehta, Q Richard Lu
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most prevalent and malignant brain tumor, displaying notorious resistance to conventional therapy, partially due to molecular and genetic heterogeneity. Understanding the mechanisms for gliomagenesis, tumor stem/progenitor cell propagation and phenotypic diversity is critical for devising effective and targeted therapy for this lethal disease. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor OLIG2, which is universally expressed in gliomas, has emerged as an important player in GBM cell reprogramming, genotoxic resistance, and tumor phenotype plasticity...
August 14, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804462/heat-acclimation-mediated-cross-tolerance-origins-in-within-life-epigenetics
#11
REVIEW
Michal Horowitz
The primary outcome of heat acclimation is increased thermotolerance, which stems from enhancement of innate cytoprotective pathways. These pathways produce "ON CALL" molecules that can combat stressors to which the body has never been exposed, via cross-tolerance mechanisms (heat acclimation-mediated cross-tolerance-HACT). The foundation of HACT lies in the sharing of generic stress signaling, combined with tissue/organ- specific protective responses. HACT becomes apparent when acclimatory homeostasis is achieved, lasts for several weeks, and has a memory...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799224/genomic-insights-into-the-pathogenicity-and-environmental-adaptability-of-enterococcus-hirae-r17-isolated-from-pork-offered-for-retail-sale
#12
Zixin Peng, Menghan Li, Wei Wang, Hongtao Liu, Séamus Fanning, Yujie Hu, Jianzhong Zhang, Fengqin Li
Genetic information about Enterococcus hirae is limited, a feature that has compromised our understanding of these clinically challenging bacteria. In this study, comparative analysis was performed of E. hirae R17, a daptomycin-resistant strain isolated from pork purchased from a retail market in Beijing, China, and three other enterococcal genomes (Enterococcus faecium DO, Enterococcus faecalis V583, and E. hirae ATCC(™) 9790). Some 1,412 genes were identified that represented the core genome together with an additional 139 genes that were specific to E...
August 10, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798680/striatal-network-models-of-huntington-s-disease-dysfunction-phenotypes
#13
Pengsheng Zheng, James Kozloski
We present a network model of striatum, which generates "winnerless" dynamics typical for a network of sparse, unidirectionally connected inhibitory units. We observe that these dynamics, while interesting and a good match to normal striatal electrophysiological recordings, are fragile. Specifically, we find that randomly initialized networks often show dynamics more resembling "winner-take-all," and relate this "unhealthy" model activity to dysfunctional physiological and anatomical phenotypes in the striatum of Huntington's disease animal models...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797609/conservation-evo-devo-preserving-biodiversity-by-understanding-its-origins
#14
REVIEW
Calum S Campbell, Colin E Adams, Colin W Bean, Kevin J Parsons
Unprecedented rates of species extinction increase the urgency for effective conservation biology management practices. Thus, any improvements in practice are vital and we suggest that conservation can be enhanced through recent advances in evolutionary biology, specifically advances put forward by evolutionary developmental biology (i.e., evo-devo). There are strong overlapping conceptual links between conservation and evo-devo whereby both fields focus on evolutionary potential. In particular, benefits to conservation can be derived from some of the main areas of evo-devo research, namely phenotypic plasticity, modularity and integration, and mechanistic investigations of the precise developmental and genetic processes that determine phenotypes...
August 7, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797225/environmentally-triggered-genomic-plasticity-and-capsular-polysaccharide-formation-are-involved-in-increased-ethanol-and-acetic-acid-tolerance-in-kozakia-baliensis-nbrc-16680
#15
Julia U Brandt, Friederike-Leonie Born, Frank Jakob, Rudi F Vogel
BACKGROUND: Kozakia baliensis NBRC 16680 secretes a gum-cluster derived heteropolysaccharide and forms a surface pellicle composed of polysaccharides during static cultivation. Furthermore, this strain exhibits two colony types on agar plates; smooth wild-type (S) and rough mutant colonies (R). This switch is caused by a spontaneous transposon insertion into the gumD gene of the gum-cluster, resulting in a heteropolysaccharide secretion deficient, rough phenotype. To elucidate, whether this is a directed switch triggered by environmental factors, we checked the number of R and S colonies under different growth conditions including ethanol and acetic acid supplementation...
August 10, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795417/molecular-pathogenesis-of-human-prostate-basal-cell-hyperplasia
#16
Gervaise Henry, Alicia Malewska, Ryan Mauck, Jeffrey Gahan, Ryan Hutchinson, Jose Torrealba, Franto Francis, Claus Roehrborn, Douglas Strand
BACKGROUND: Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of distinct phenotypes in human benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is essential to improving therapeutic intervention. Current therapies target smooth muscle and luminal epithelia for relief of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to BPH, but basal cell hyperplasia (BCH) remains untargeted. The incidence of has been reported at 8-10%, but a molecular and cellular characterization has not been performed on this phenotype. METHODS: Using freshly digested tissue from surgical specimens, we performed RNA-seq analysis of flow cytometry-purified basal epithelia from 3 patients with and 4 patients without a majority BCH phenotype...
August 10, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794223/novel-host-plant-leads-to-the-loss-of-sexual-dimorphism-in-a-sexually-selected-male-weapon
#17
Pablo E Allen, Christine W Miller
In this time of massive global change, species are now frequently interacting with novel players. Greater insight into the impact of these novel interactions on traits linked to fitness is essential, because effects on these traits can hinder population existence or promote rapid adaptation. Sexually selected weapons and ornaments frequently influence fitness and often have heightened condition-dependence in response to nutrition. Condition-dependence in response to different ecological conditions, a form of developmental plasticity, may be responsible for much of the intraspecific variation in sexually selected ornaments and weapons in wild populations...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793288/macrophage-overexpressing-ngal-ameliorated-kidney-fibrosis-in-the-uuo-mice-model
#18
Roser Guiteras, Anna Sola, Maria Flaquer, Georgina Hotter, Joan Torras, Josep Maria Grinyó, Josep Maria Cruzado
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) have regenerative and anti-inflammatory characteristics. Here, we sought to evaluate whether AAM cell therapy reduces renal inflammation and fibrosis in the unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) mice model. METHODS: We stabilized macrophages by adenoviral vector NGAL (Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin-2) and infused them into UUO mice. To ascertain whether macrophages were capable of reaching the obstructed kidney, macrophages were stained and detected by in vivo cell tracking...
August 9, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792657/rapid-adaptation-to-a-novel-light-environment-the-importance-of-ontogeny-and-phenotypic-plasticity-in-shaping-the-visual-system-of-nicaraguan-midas-cichlid-fish-amphilophus-citrinellus-spp
#19
Andreas Härer, Julián Torres-Dowdall, Axel Meyer
Colonization of novel habitats is typically challenging to organisms. In the initial stage after colonization, approximation to fitness optima in the new environment can occur by selection acting on standing genetic variation, modification of developmental patterns or phenotypic plasticity. Midas cichlids have recently colonized crater Lake Apoyo from great Lake Nicaragua. The photic environment of crater Lake Apoyo is shifted towards shorter wavelengths compared to great Lake Nicaragua and Midas cichlids from both lakes differ in visual sensitivity...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792442/complex-determinants-of-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypic-plasticity-in-ovarian-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Yuliya Klymenko, Oleg Kim, M Sharon Stack
Unlike most epithelial malignancies which metastasize hematogenously, metastasis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) occurs primarily via transcoelomic dissemination, characterized by exfoliation of cells from the primary tumor, avoidance of detachment-induced cell death (anoikis), movement throughout the peritoneal cavity as individual cells and multi-cellular aggregates (MCAs), adhesion to and disruption of the mesothelial lining of the peritoneum, and submesothelial matrix anchoring and proliferation to generate widely disseminated metastases...
August 9, 2017: Cancers
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