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phenotypic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926759/instructed-subsets-or-agile-swarms-how-t-helper-cells-may-adaptively-counter-uncertainty-with-variability-and-plasticity
#1
REVIEW
Edward C Schrom, Andrea L Graham
Over recent years, extensive phenotypic variability and plasticity have been revealed among the T-helper cells of the mammalian adaptive immune system, even within clonal lineages of identical antigen specificity. This challenges the conventional view that T-helper cells assort into functionally distinct subsets following differential instruction by the innate immune system. We argue that the adaptive value of coping with uncertainty can reconcile the 'instructed subset' framework with T-helper variability and plasticity...
September 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926160/adult-plasticity-in-african-cichlids-rapid-changes-in-opsin-expression-in-response-to-environmental-light-differences
#2
Sri Pratima Nandamuri, Miranda R Yourick, Karen L Carleton
Phenotypic plasticity allows organisms to adapt quickly to local environmental conditions and could facilitate adaptive radiations. Cichlids have recently undergone an adaptive radiation in Lake Malawi where they inhabit diverse light environments and tune their visual sensitivity through differences in cone opsin expression. While cichlid opsin expression is known to be plastic over development, whether adults remain plastic is unknown. Adult plasticity in visual tuning could play a role in cichlid radiations by enabling survival in changing environments and facilitating invasion into novel environments...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922973/a-new-wnt1-cre-tomatorosa-es-cell-line-a-tool-for-studying-neural-crest-cell-integration-capacity
#3
Soledad Acuna Mendoza, Sabrina Martin, Sabine Kuchler-Bopp, Sandy Ribes, Jeremy H Thalgott, Catherine Chaussain, Sophie Creuzet, Hervé Lesot, Franck Lebrin, Anne Poliard
Neural crest (NC) cells are a migratory, multipotent population giving rise to numerous lineages in the embryo. Their plasticity renders attractive their use in tissue engineering-based therapies but further knowledge on their in vivo behaviour is required before clinical transfer may be envisioned. We here describe isolation and characterization of a new mouse ES line derived from Wnt1-CRE-R26 RosaTomatoTdv blastocyst and show that it displays the characteristics of typical ES cells. Furthermore, these cells can be efficiently directed towards a NC stem cell-like phenotype as attested by concomitant expression of NC marker genes and Tomato fluorescence...
September 19, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921757/the-neurobiological-bases-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-the-r451c-neuroligin-3-mutation-hampers-the-expression-of-long-term-synaptic-depression-in-the-dorsal-striatum
#4
Giuseppina Martella, Maria Meringolo, Laura Trobiani, Antonella De Jaco, Antonio Pisani, Paola Bonsi
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) comprise a heterogeneous group of disorders with a complex genetic etiology. Current theories on the pathogenesis of ASDs suggest that they might arise from an aberrant synaptic transmission affecting specific brain circuits and synapses. The striatum, which is part of the basal ganglia circuit, is one of the brain regions involved in ASDs. Mouse models of ASDs have provided evidence for an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission. Here we investigated the expression of long-term synaptic plasticity at corticostriatal glutamatergic synapses in the dorsal striatum of the R451C-NL3 phenotypic mouse model of autism...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920957/klf4-dependent-perivascular-cell-plasticity-mediates-pre-metastatic-niche-formation-and-metastasis
#5
Meera Murgai, Wei Ju, Matthew Eason, Jessica Kline, Daniel W Beury, Sabina Kaczanowska, Markku M Miettinen, Michael Kruhlak, Haiyan Lei, Jack F Shern, Olga A Cherepanova, Gary K Owens, Rosandra N Kaplan
A deeper understanding of the metastatic process is required for the development of new therapies that improve patient survival. Metastatic tumor cell growth and survival in distant organs is facilitated by the formation of a pre-metastatic niche that is composed of hematopoietic cells, stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Perivascular cells, including vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) and pericytes, are involved in new vessel formation and in promoting stem cell maintenance and proliferation. Given the well-described plasticity of perivascular cells, we hypothesized that perivascular cells similarly regulate tumor cell fate at metastatic sites...
September 18, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920704/endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-a-potential-mechanism-for-atherosclerosis-plaque-progression-and-destabilization
#6
Afang Li, Wenxi Peng, Xiaodan Xia, Rongqing Li, Yu Wang, Dangheng Wei
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is a cellular reprogramming mechanism by which endothelial cells acquire a mesenchymal phenotype. EndMT is associated with fibroproliferative diseases, such as cancer progression and metastasis and cardiac and kidney fibrosis, and this condition has been extensively investigated over the past decade. Recently, studies showed that EndMT contributes to the initiation and progression of atherosclerotic lesion and plaque destabilization. Unstable atherosclerotic plaque rupture and subsequent thrombosis are the main pathological causes of acute cardiovascular events...
September 18, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919904/plasticity-of-sorghum-stem-biomass-accumulation-in-response-to-water-deficit-a-multiscale-analysis-from-internode-tissue-to-plant-level
#7
Lisa Perrier, Lauriane Rouan, Sylvie Jaffuel, Anne Clément-Vidal, Sandrine Roques, Armelle Soutiras, Christelle Baptiste, Denis Bastianelli, Denis Fabre, Cécile Dubois, David Pot, Delphine Luquet
Sorghum is increasingly used as a biomass crop worldwide. Its genetic diversity provides a large range of stem biochemical composition suitable for various end-uses as bioenergy or forage. Its drought tolerance enables it to reasonably sustain biomass production under water limited conditions. However, drought effect on the accumulation of sorghum stem biomass remains poorly understood which limits progress in crop improvement and management. This study aimed at identifying the morphological, biochemical and histological traits underlying biomass accumulation in the sorghum stem and its plasticity in response to water deficit...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919555/disturbances-of-systemic-and-hippocampal-insulin-sensitivity-in-macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-mif-knockout-male-mice-lead-to-behavioral-changes-associated-with-decreased-psa-ncam-levels
#8
Ana Djordjevic, Biljana Bursać, Nataša Veličković, Ljupka Gligorovska, Djurdjica Ignjatović, Mirko Tomić, Gordana Matić
Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a multifunctional cytokine well known for its role in inflammation enhancement. However, a growing body of evidence is emerging on its role in energy metabolism in insulin sensitive tissues such as hippocampus, a brain region implicated in cognition, learning and memory. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of MIF may result in the specific behavioral changes, which may be linked tо impairments in brain or systemic insulin sensitivity by possible changes of the hippocampal synaptic plasticity...
September 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919019/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-epigenetic-reprogramming-driving-cellular-plasticity
#9
REVIEW
Nicolas Skrypek, Steven Goossens, Eva De Smedt, Niels Vandamme, Geert Berx
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose their junctions and polarity to gain a motile mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is essential during embryogenesis and adult physiological processes like wound healing, but is aberrantly activated in pathological conditions like fibrosis and cancer. A series of transcription factors (EMT-inducing transcription factor; EMT-TF) regulate the induction of EMT by repressing the transcription of epithelial genes while activating mesenchymal genes through mechanisms still debated...
September 14, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918081/developmental-alcohol-exposure-impairs-synaptic-plasticity-without-overtly-altering-microglial-function-in-mouse-visual-cortex
#10
Elissa L Wong, Nina M Lutz, Victoria A Hogan, Cassandra E Lamantia, Helene R McMurray, Jason R Myers, John M Ashton, Ania K Majewska
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), caused by gestational ethanol (EtOH) exposure, is one of the most common causes of non-heritable and life-long mental disability worldwide, with no standard treatment or therapy available. While EtOH exposure can alter the function of both neurons and glia, it is still unclear how EtOH influences brain development to cause deficits in sensory and cognitive processing later in life. Microglia play an important role in shaping synaptic function and plasticity during neural circuit development and have been shown to mount an acute immunological response to EtOH exposure in certain brain regions...
September 13, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917839/m2b-macrophage-polarization-accompanied-with-reduction-of-long-noncoding-rna-gas5
#11
Ichiaki Ito, Akira Asai, Sumihiro Suzuki, Makiko Kobayashi, Fujio Suzuki
Macrophages (Mϕ) are highly plastic and change their functional phenotypes depending on microenvironmental signals. Recent studies have shown that microRNAs are involved in the polarization of Mϕ. In this study, we demonstrated that the phenotype of M2bMϕ [CCL1(+) IL-10(+) LIGHT(+)] switches to other phenotypes with interchangeability attained through the increased expression of growth arrest-specific 5 RNA (GAS5 RNA), a long non-coding RNA. GAS5 RNA has been described as a silencer of the CCL1 gene. Various phenotypes of Mϕ were prepared from bone marrow-derived Mϕ (BMDMϕ) after stimulation with IFNγ [M(IFNγ)]/M1Mϕ, IL-4 [M(IL-4)]/M2aMϕ, LPS and immobilized IgG [M(LPS + IC)]/M2bMϕ, and IL-10 [M(IL-10)/M2cMϕ]...
September 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916331/depressive-like-phenotype-induced-by-prenatal-dexamethasone-in-mice-is-reversed-by-desipramine
#12
Mirko Conti, Stefan Spulber, Marilena Raciti, Sandra Ceccatelli
Exposure to prenatal insults has been associated with an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, but the mechanisms are still poorly understood. Persistent alterations of the HPA axis feedback mechanism as well as adult impaired neurogenesis are believed to play a relevant role in the etiology of depression. In addition, growing evidence points at epigenetic reprogramming as a key factor. We have previously shown that prenatal exposure to the synthetic glucocorticoid dexamethasone (DEX) impairs neurogenesis and leads to late onset of depression-like behavior that does not respond to the SSRI antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX)...
September 12, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916169/the-large-and-small-spen-family-proteins-stimulate-axon-outgrowth-during-neurosecretory-cell-remodeling-in-drosophila
#13
Tingting Gu, Tao Zhao, Uday Kohli, Randall S Hewes
Split ends (SPEN) is the founding member of a well conserved family of nuclear proteins with critical functions in transcriptional regulation and the post-transcriptional processing and nuclear export of transcripts. In animals, the SPEN proteins fall into two size classes that perform either complementary or antagonistic functions in different cellular contexts. Here, we show that the two Drosophila representatives of this family, SPEN and Spenito (NITO), regulate metamorphic remodeling of the CCAP/bursicon neurosecretory cells...
September 12, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915705/promising-landscape-for-regulating-macrophage-polarization-epigenetic-viewpoint
#14
REVIEW
Dexi Zhou, Kui Yang, Lu Chen, Wen Zhang, Zhenyu Xu, Jian Zuo, Hui Jiang, Jiajie Luan
Macrophages are critical myeloid cells with the hallmark of phenotypic heterogeneity and functional plasticity. Macrophages phenotypes are commonly described as classically-activated M1 and alternatively-activated M2 macrophages which play an essential role in the tissues homeostasis and diseases pathogenesis. Alternations of macrophage polarization and function states require precise regulation of target-gene expression. Emerging data demonstrate that epigenetic mechanisms and transcriptional factors are becoming increasingly appreciated in the orchestration of macrophage polarization in response to local environmental signals...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915600/tumor-vasculogenic-mimicry-formation-as-an-unfavorable-prognostic-indicator-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#15
Yanwei Shen, Jianfeng Quan, Mengying Wang, Shuting Li, Jiao Yang, Meng Lv, Zheling Chen, Lingxiao Zhang, Xiaoai Zhao, Jin Yang
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a newly defined pattern of tumor blood perfusion, describes the functional plasticity of aggressive tumor cells forming de novo vascular networks and is associated with the cancer progression and metastasis. However, the VM-positive rate and the impact of VM status on breast cancer patients' clinicopathological parameters and prognosis remain unclear. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis by incorporating all available evidence to clarify these issues. Eight studies that involved 1,238 breast cancer patients were eligible for inclusion in our study...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915506/maternal-diethylhexyl-phthalate-exposure-affects-adiposity-and-insulin-tolerance-in-offspring-in-a-pcna-dependent-manner
#16
Brian G Hunt, Yuan-Liang Wang, Min-Shan Chen, Shao-Chun Wang, Susan E Waltz
The ubiquitous plasticizer, diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), is a known endocrine disruptor. However, DEHP exposure effects are not well understood. Changes in industrial and agricultural practices have resulted in increased prevalence of DEHP exposure and has coincided with the heightened occurrence of metabolic syndrome and obesity. DEHP and its metabolites are detected in the umbilical cord blood of newborns; however, the prenatal and perinatal effects of DEHP exposure have not been intensively studied. Previously, we discovered that phosphorylation (p) of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at tyrosine 114 (Y114) is required for adipogenesis and diet-induced obesity in mice...
September 12, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912799/triportheus-albus-cope-1872-in-the-blackwater-clearwater-and-whitewater-of-the-amazon-a-case-of-phenotypic-plasticity
#17
José D A Araújo, Andrea Ghelfi, Adalberto L Val
The Amazon basin includes 1000s of bodies of water, that are sorted according to their color in three types: blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater, which significantly differ in terms of their physicochemical parameters. More than 3,000 species of fish live in the rivers of the Amazon, among them, the sardine, Triportheus albus, which is one of the few species that inhabit all three types of water. The purpose of our study was to analyze if the gene expression of T. albus is determined by the different types of water, that is, if the species presents phenotypic plasticity to live in blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912781/microrna-dynamic-regulators-of-macrophage-polarization-and-plasticity
#18
REVIEW
Jezrom Bokcaerin Self-Fordham, Afsar Raza Naqvi, Juhi Raju Uttamani, Varun Kulkarni, Salvador Nares
The ability of a healthy immune system to clear the plethora of antigens it encounters incessantly relies on the enormous plasticity displayed by the comprising cell types. Macrophages (MΦs) are crucial member of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) that constantly patrol the peripheral tissues and are actively recruited to the sites of injury and infection. In tissues, infiltrating monocytes replenish MΦ. Under the guidance of the local micro-milieu, MΦ can be activated to acquire specialized functional phenotypes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911825/paving-the-rho-in-cancer-metastasis-rho-gtpases-and-beyond
#19
REVIEW
Sepp Jansen, Reinoud Gosens, Thomas Wieland, Martina Schmidt
Malignant carcinomas are often characterized by metastasis, the movement of carcinoma cells from a primary site to colonize distant organs. For metastasis to occur, carcinoma cells first must adopt a pro-migratory phenotype and move through the surrounding stroma towards a blood or lymphatic vessel. Currently, there are very limited possibilities to target these processes therapeutically. The family of Rho GTPases is an ubiquitously expressed division of GTP-binding proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics and intracellular signaling...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910422/a-prolonged-chronological-lifespan-is-an-unexpected-benefit-of-the-psi-prion-in-yeast
#20
Kai Wang, Ronald Melki, Mehdi Kabani
Self-replicating 'proteinaceous infectious particles' or prions are responsible for complex heritable traits in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Our current understanding of the biology of yeast prions stems from studies mostly done in the context of actively dividing cells in optimal laboratory growth conditions. Evidence suggest that fungal prions exist in the wild where most cells are in a non-dividing quiescent state, because of imperfect growth conditions, scarcity of nutrients and competition. We know little about the faithful transmission of yeast prions in such conditions and their physiological consequences throughout the lifespan of yeast cells...
2017: PloS One
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