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phenotypic plasticity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428965/natural-killer-cells-in-the-orchestration-of-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Luca Parisi, Barbara Bassani, Marco Tremolati, Elisabetta Gini, Giampietro Farronato, Antonino Bruno
Inflammation, altered immune cell phenotype, and functions are key features shared by diverse chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer. Natural killer cells are innate lymphoid cells primarily involved in the immune system response to non-self-components but their plasticity is largely influenced by the pathological microenvironment. Altered NK phenotype and function have been reported in several pathological conditions, basically related to impaired or enhanced toxicity...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428862/environmental-heterogeneity-does-not-affect-levels-of-phenotypic-plasticity-in-natural-populations-of-three-drosophila-species
#2
Tommaso Manenti, Jesper G Sørensen, Volker Loeschcke
Adaptation of natural populations to variable environmental conditions may occur by changes in trait means and/or in the levels of plasticity. Theory predicts that environmental heterogeneity favors plasticity of adaptive traits. Here we investigated the performance in several traits of three sympatric Drosophila species freshly collected in two environments that differ in the heterogeneity of environmental conditions. Differences in trait means within species were found in several traits, indicating that populations differed in their evolutionary response to the environmental conditions of their origin...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428541/tissue-engineered-cornea-constructed-with-compressed-collagen-and-laser-perforated-electrospun-mat
#3
Bin Kong, Wei Sun, Guoshi Chen, Song Tang, Ming Li, Zengwu Shao, Shengli Mi
While Plastic Compressed (PC) collagen technique is often used to fabricate bioengineered constructs, PC collagen gels are too weak to be sutured or conveniently handled for clinical applications. To overcome this limitation, electrospun poly (lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) mats, which have excellent biocompatibility and mechanical properties, were combined with PC collagen to fabricate sandwich-like hybrid constructs. By laser-perforating holes with different sizes and spacings in the electrospun mats to regulate the mechanical properties and light transmittance of the hybrid constructs, we produced hybrid constructs with properties very suitable to apply in corneal tissue engineering...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428330/genomic-responses-to-socio-sexual-environment-in-male-drosophila-melanogaster-exposed-to-conspecific-rivals
#4
Irina I Mohorianu, Amanda Bretman, Damian T Smith, Emily Fowler, Tamas Dalmay, Tracey Chapman
Socio-sexual environments have profound effects on fitness. Local sex ratios can alter the threat of sexual competition, to which males respond via plasticity in reproductive behaviours and ejaculate composition. In Drosophila melanogaster, males detect the presence of conspecific mating rivals prior to mating using multiple, redundant sensory cues. Males that respond to rivals gain significant fitness benefits by altering mating duration and ejaculate composition. Here we investigated the underlying genome-wide changes involved...
April 20, 2017: RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427742/investigating-the-biodiversity-of-ciliates-in-the-age-of-integration
#5
REVIEW
John C Clamp, Denis H Lynn
Biology is now turning toward a more integrative approach to research, distinguished by projects that depend on collaboration across hierarchical levels of organization or across disciplines. This trend is prompted by the need to solve complex, large-scale problems and includes disciplines that could be defined as integrative biodiversity. Integrative biodiversity of protists, including that of ciliates, is still partially in its infancy. This is the result of a shortage of historical data resources such as curated museum collections...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Protistology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427132/-influences-of-abar-gene-on-biofilm-formation-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#6
H N Guo, J Xiang
Objective: To detect drug-resistant phenotype and abaR gene of Acinetobacter baumannii (AB) and investigate influences of abaR gene on biofilm formation of AB. Methods: From February to July 2014, 159 strains AB were collected from Department of Clinical Microbiology of Ruijin Hospital of School of Medicine of Shanghai JiaoTong University and numbered starting from 1 according time when they were collected. (1) The above-mentioned 159 strains of AB were identified by detecting gene sequence of 16S ribosomal DNA...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419975/animal-models-for-neuropsychiatric-disorders-prospects-for-circuit-intervention
#7
REVIEW
Tobias Kaiser, Yang Zhou, Guoping Feng
Monogenic animal models for psychiatric diseases have enabled researchers to dissect the relationship between certain candidate genes, neural circuit abnormalities, and behavioral phenotypes along development. Early reports of phenotypic reversal after genetic restoration in mouse models sparked hope that genetic defects do not damage circuits irreversibly in early-onset disorders. However, further studies have suggested that only some circuits exhibit this plasticity, while many others require proper gene function during development...
April 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419678/secondary-compounds-from-exotic-tree-plantations-change-female-mating-preferences-in-the-palmate-newt-lissotriton-helveticus
#8
Maider Iglesias-Carrasco, Megan L Head, Michael D Jennions, Carlos Cabido
Selection can favor phenotypic plasticity in mate choice in response to environmental factors that alter the costs and benefits of being choosy, or of choosing specific mates. Human-induced environmental change could alter sexual selection by affecting the costs of mate choice, or by impairing the ability of individuals to identify preferred mates. For example, variation in mate choice could be driven by environmentally induced differences in body condition (e.g. health) that change the cost of choosiness, or by environmental effects on the ability to detect or discriminate sexual signals...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418069/genetic-control-of-plasticity-of-oil-yield-for-combined-abiotic-stresses-using-a-joint-approach-of-crop-modeling-and-genome-wide-association
#9
Brigitte Mangin, Pierre Casadebaig, Eléna Cadic, Nicolas Blanchet, Marie-Claude Boniface, Sébastien Carrère, Jérôme Gouzy, Ludovic Legrand, Baptiste Mayjonade, Nicolas Pouilly, Thierry André, Marie Coque, Joël Piquemal, Marion Laporte, Patrick Vincourt, Stéphane Muños, Nicolas B Langlade
Understanding the genetic basis of phenotypic plasticity is crucial for predicting and managing climate change effects on wild plants and crops. Here, we combined crop modeling and quantitative genetics to study the genetic control of oil yield plasticity for multiple abiotic stresses in sunflower. First we developed stress indicators to characterize 14 environments for three abiotic stresses (cold, drought and nitrogen) using the SUNFLO crop model and phenotypic variations of three commercial varieties. The computed plant stress indicators better explain yield variation than descriptors at the climatic or crop levels...
April 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414315/the-emt-activator-zeb1-is-a-key-factor-for-cell-plasticity-and-promotes-metastasis-in-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Angela M Krebs, Julia Mitschke, María Lasierra Losada, Otto Schmalhofer, Melanie Boerries, Hauke Busch, Martin Boettcher, Dimitrios Mougiakakos, Wilfried Reichardt, Peter Bronsert, Valerie G Brunton, Christian Pilarsky, Thomas H Winkler, Simone Brabletz, Marc P Stemmler, Thomas Brabletz
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-associated death. Partial activation of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition program (partial EMT) was considered a major driver of tumour progression from initiation to metastasis. However, the role of EMT in promoting metastasis has recently been challenged, in particular concerning effects of the Snail and Twist EMT transcription factors (EMT-TFs) in pancreatic cancer. In contrast, we show here that in the same pancreatic cancer model, driven by Pdx1-cre-mediated activation of mutant Kras and p53 (KPC model), the EMT-TF Zeb1 is a key factor for the formation of precursor lesions, invasion and notably metastasis...
April 17, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412735/glucose-deprivation-elicits-phenotypic-plasticity-via-zeb1-mediated-expression-of-nnmt
#11
Justyna Kanska, Paul-Joseph P Aspuria, Barbie Taylor-Harding, Lindsay Spurka, Vincent Funari, Sandra Orsulic, Beth Y Karlan, W Ruprecht Wiedemeyer
Glucose is considered the primary energy source for all cells, and some cancers are addicted to glucose. Here, we investigated the functional consequences of chronic glucose deprivation in serous ovarian cancer cells. We found that cells resistant to glucose starvation (glucose-restricted cells) demonstrated increased metabolic plasticity that was dependent on NNMT (Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase) expression. We further show that ZEB1 induced NNMT, rendered cells resistant to glucose deprivation and recapitulated metabolic adaptations and mesenchymal gene expression observed in glucose-restricted cells...
February 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412297/dysferlinopathy-promotes-an-intramuscle-expansion-of-macrophages-with-a-cyto-destructive-phenotype
#12
Jea-Hyun Baek, Gina M Many, Frances J Evesson, Vicki R Kelley
Dysferlinopathies are a group of muscular dystrophies resulting from a genetic deficiency in Dysf. Macrophages, highly plastic cells capable of mediating tissue repair and destruction, are prominent within dystrophic skeletal muscles of dysferlinopathy patients. In this study, we hypothesized that Dysf-deficient muscle promotes recruitment, proliferation, and skewing of macrophages toward a cyto-destructive phenotype in dysferlinopathy. To track macrophage dynamics in dysferlinopathy, we adoptively transferred enhanced green fluorescent protein-labeled monocytes into Dysf-deficient BLA/J mice with age-related (2 to 10 months) muscle disease and Dysf-intact (C57BL/6 [B6]) mice...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408285/from-epigenetic-landscape-to-phenotypic-fitness-landscape-evolutionary-effect-of-pathogens-on-host-traits
#13
Mark Jayson V Cortez, Jomar F Rabajante, Jerrold M Tubay, Ariel L Babierra
The epigenetic landscape illustrates how cells differentiate through the control of gene regulatory networks. Numerous studies have investigated epigenetic gene regulation but there are limited studies on how the epigenetic landscape and the presence of pathogens influence the evolution of host traits. Here, we formulate a multistable decision-switch model involving several phenotypes with the antagonistic influence of parasitism. As expected, pathogens can drive dominant (common) phenotypes to become inferior through negative frequency-dependent selection...
April 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407717/the-impact-of-insertion-sequences-on-bacterial-genome-plasticity-and-adaptability
#14
Joachim Vandecraen, Michael Chandler, Abram Aertsen, Rob Van Houdt
Transposable elements (TE), small mobile genetic elements unable to exist independently of the host genome, were initially believed to be exclusively deleterious genomic parasites. However, it is now clear that they play an important role as bacterial mutagenic agents, enabling the host to adapt to new environmental challenges and to colonize new niches. This review focuses on the impact of insertion sequences (IS), arguably the smallest TE, on bacterial genome plasticity and concomitant adaptability of phenotypic traits, including resistance to antibacterial agents, virulence, pathogenicity and catabolism...
April 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407379/epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-and-circulating-tumor-cells-travel-companions-to-metastases
#15
REVIEW
Marie-Emilie Francart, Justine Lambert, Aline M Vanwynsberghe, Erik W Thompson, Morgane Bourcy, Myriam Polette, Christine Gilles
Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transitions (EMT) associated with metastatic progression may contribute to the generation of hybrid phenotypes capable of plasticity. This cellular plasticity would provide tumor cells with an increased potential to adapt to the different microenvironments encountered during metastatic spread. Understanding how EMT may functionally equip Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs) with an enhanced competence to survive in the blood stream and niche in the colonized organs has thus become a major cancer research axis...
April 13, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406176/male-alliance-behaviour-and-mating-access-varies-with-habitat-in-a-dolphin-social-network
#16
Richard C Connor, William R Cioffi, Srđan Randić, Simon J Allen, Jana Watson-Capps, Michael Krützen
Within-species variation in social structure has attracted interest recently because of the potential to explore phenotypic plasticity and, specifically, how demographic and ecological variation influence social structure. Populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops spp.) vary in male alliance formation, from no alliances to simple pairs to, in Shark Bay, Western Australia, the most complex nested alliances known outside of humans. Examination of ecological contributions to this variation is complicated by differences among populations in other potentially explanatory traits, such as phylogenetic distance, as well as female reproductive schedules, sexual size dimorphism, and body size...
April 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406081/ecotoxicological-analysis-of-acrylamide-using-a-microalga-as-an-indicator-organism
#17
Bárbara Werle Nunes Keila Fernanda Hedlund Maria Angelica Oliveira And Elvis Carissimi
Aquatic ecosystems are very prone to contamination. The fast and accurate assessment of the toxicity of the water is animportant tool for environmental safety. The aim of this study was to assess the possible toxic effects of acrylamide on physiological parameters of the ChlorophyceaeandDesmodesmus quadricauda. Cells in exponential growth phase were exposed for 72 hours to different concentrations of acrylamide. Light microscopy analysis documented cell density, number of cells per coenobia, cell dimensions, and biovolume; chlorophyll "a" concentration was also determined...
April 12, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404777/transcriptomics-of-an-extended-phenotype-parasite-manipulation-of-wasp-social-behaviour-shifts-expression-of-caste-related-genes
#18
Amy C Geffre, Ruolin Liu, Fabio Manfredini, Laura Beani, Jeyaraney Kathirithamby, Christina M Grozinger, Amy L Toth
Parasites can manipulate host behaviour to increase their own transmission and fitness, but the genomic mechanisms by which parasites manipulate hosts are not well understood. We investigated the relationship between the social paper wasp, Polistes dominula, and its parasite, Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera), to understand the effects of an obligate endoparasitoid on its host's brain transcriptome. Previous research suggests that X. vesparum shifts aspects of host social caste-related behaviour and physiology in ways that benefit the parasitoid...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404582/histone-deacetylase-activity-modulates-exercise-induced-skeletal-muscle-plasticity-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#19
Alec Izaac Marcus Simmonds, Frank Seebacher
Aerobic exercise has a positive impact on animals by enhancing skeletal muscle function and locomotor performance. Responses of skeletal muscle to exercise involve changes in energy metabolism, calcium handling, and the composition of contractile protein isoforms, which together influence contractile properties. Histone deacetylases (HDAC) can cause short-term changes in gene expression, and may thereby mediate plasticity in contractile properties of skeletal muscle in response to exercise. The aim of this project was to determine (in zebrafish, Danio rerio) the traits that mediate inter-individual differences in sustained and sprint performance, and to determine whether inhibiting class I and II HDACs mediates exercise-induced changes in these traits...
April 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400482/epigenetic-programming-of-the-neuroendocrine-stress-response-by-adult-life-stress
#20
Bart Dirven, Judith Homberg, Tamas Kozicz, Marloes Henckens
The hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is critically involved in the neuroendocrine regulation of stress adaptation, and the restoration of homeostasis following stress exposure. Dysregulation of this axis is associated with stress-related pathologies like major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, and chronic anxiety. It has long been understood that stress during early life can have a significant lasting influence on the development of the neuroendocrine system and its neural regulators, partially by modifying epigenetic regulation of gene expression, with implications for health and well-being in later life...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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