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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224095/sex-differences-in-muscle-wasting
#1
Lindsey J Anderson, Haiming Liu, Jose M Garcia
With aging and other muscle wasting diseases, men and women undergo similar pathological changes in skeletal muscle: increased inflammation, enhanced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, satellite cell senescence, elevated apoptosis and proteasome activity, and suppressed protein synthesis and myocyte regeneration. Decreased food intake and physical activity also indirectly contribute to muscle wasting. Sex hormones also play important roles in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Testosterone is a potent anabolic factor promoting muscle protein synthesis and muscular regeneration...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219147/mitochondrial-metabolism-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Paolo Ettore Porporato, Nicoletta Filigheddu, José Manuel Bravo-San Pedro, Guido Kroemer, Lorenzo Galluzzi
Glycolysis has long been considered as the major metabolic process for energy production and anabolic growth in cancer cells. Although such a view has been instrumental for the development of powerful imaging tools that are still used in the clinics, it is now clear that mitochondria play a key role in oncogenesis. Besides exerting central bioenergetic functions, mitochondria provide indeed building blocks for tumor anabolism, control redox and calcium homeostasis, participate in transcriptional regulation, and govern cell death...
December 8, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216863/ccl5-ccr5-interactions-modulate-metabolic-events-during-tumor-onset-to-promote-tumorigenesis
#3
Darrin Gao, Lisa H Cazares, Eleanor N Fish
BACKGROUND: In earlier studies we have shown that CCL5 activation of CCR5 induces the proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells in a mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR)-dependent manner and that this is in part due to CCR5-mediated increases in glycolytic metabolism. METHODS: Using the MDA-MB-231 triple negative human breast cancer cell line and mouse mammary tumor virus - polyomavirus middle T-antigen (MMTV-PyMT) mouse primary breast cancer cells, we conducted in vivo tumor transplant experiments to examine the effects of CCL5-CCR5 interactions in the context of regulating tumor metabolism...
December 8, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216582/cellular-and-mitochondrial-determination-of-low-molecular-mass-organic-acids-by-lc-ms-ms
#4
Jessica Fiori, Elisa Amadesi, Flaminia Fanelli, Concetta Valentina Tropeano, Michela Rugolo, Roberto Gotti
A selective and sensitive method for the determination of low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) in cell and mitochondrial extracts is presented. The analytical method consists in the separation by reversed phase liquid chromatography and detection with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of the LMMOAs like malic, succinic, formic and citric acids. These acids are among the cellular intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA), thus their quantitation can provide essential information about the catabolic and anabolic processes occurring in cells under physiological and pathological conditions...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216311/amelioration-of-sexual-behavior-and-motor-activity-deficits-in-a-castrated-rodent-model-with-a-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-sarm-2f
#5
Megumi Morimoto, Yuichiro Amano, Masahiro Oka, Ayako Harada, Hisashi Fujita, Yukiko Hikichi, Ryuichi Tozawa, Masuo Yamaoka, Takahito Hara
Sarcopenia and cachexia present characteristic features of a decrease in skeletal muscle mass and strength, anorexia, and lack of motivation. Treatments for these diseases have not yet been established, although selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are considered as therapeutic targets. We previously reported that a novel SARM compound, SARM-2f, exhibits anabolic effect on muscles, with less stimulatory effect on prostate weight compared with testosterone, in rat Hershberger assays and cancer cachexia models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215200/mir-424-5p-reduces-ribosomal-rna-and-protein-synthesis-in-muscle-wasting
#6
Martin Connolly, Richard Paul, Roser Farre-Garros, Samantha A Natanek, Susannah Bloch, Jen Lee, Jose P Lorenzo, Harnish Patel, Cyrus Cooper, Avan A Sayer, Stephen J Wort, Mark Griffiths, Michael I Polkey, Paul R Kemp
BACKGROUND: A loss of muscle mass occurs as a consequence of a range of chronic and acute diseases as well as in older age. This wasting results from an imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation with a reduction in synthesis and resistance to anabolic stimulation often reported features. Ribosomes are required for protein synthesis, so changes in the control of ribosome synthesis are potential contributors to muscle wasting. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of muscle phenotype and have been shown to modulate components of the protein synthetic pathway...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215198/inflammatory-signalling-regulates-eccentric-contraction-induced-protein-synthesis-in-cachectic-skeletal-muscle
#7
Justin P Hardee, Brittany R Counts, Song Gao, Brandon N VanderVeen, Dennis K Fix, Ho-Jin Koh, James A Carson
BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle responds to eccentric contractions (ECC) with an anabolic response that involves the induction of protein synthesis through the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1. While we have reported that repeated ECC bouts after cachexia initiation attenuated muscle mass loss and inflammatory signalling, cachectic muscle's capacity to induce protein synthesis in response to ECC has not been determined. Therefore, we examined cachectic muscle's ability to induce mechano-sensitive pathways and protein synthesis in response to an anabolic stimulus involving ECC and determined the role of muscle signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)/nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB) signalling on ECC-induced anabolic signalling...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214461/co-ingestion-of-protein-or-a-protein-hydrolysate-with-carbohydrate-enhances-anabolic-signaling-but-not-glycogen-resynthesis-following-recovery-from-prolonged-aerobic-exercise-in-trained-cyclists
#8
Karl E Cogan, Mark Evans, Enzo Iuliano, Audrey Melvin, Davide Susta, Karl Neff, Giuseppe De Vito, Brendan Egan
PURPOSE: The effect of carbohydrate (CHO), or CHO supplemented with either sodium caseinate protein (CHO-C) or a sodium caseinate protein hydrolysate (CHO-H) on the recovery of skeletal muscle glycogen and anabolic signaling following prolonged aerobic exercise was determined in trained male cyclists [n = 11, mean ± SEM age 28.8 ± 2.3 years; body mass (BM) 75.0 ± 2.3 kg; VO2peak 61.3 ± 1.6 ml kg-1 min-1]. METHODS: On three separate occasions, participants cycled for 2 h at ~ 70% VO2peak followed by a 4-h recovery period...
December 6, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212308/metabolic-signaling-to-epigenetic-alterations-in-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Jung-Ae Kim, Young Il Yeom
Cancer cells reprogram cellular metabolism to support the malignant features of tumors, such as rapid growth and proliferation. The cancer promoting effects of metabolic reprogramming are found in many aspects: generating additional energy, providing more anabolic molecules for biosynthesis, and rebalancing cellular redox states in cancer cells. Metabolic pathways are considered the pipelines to supply metabolic cofactors of epigenetic modifiers. In this regard, cancer metabolism, whereby cellular metabolite levels are greatly altered compared to normal levels, is closely associated with cancer epigenetics, which is implicated in many stages of tumorigenesis...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212303/targeting-glutamine-metabolism-for-cancer-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Yeon-Kyung Choi, Keun-Gyu Park
Rapidly proliferating cancer cells require energy and cellular building blocks for their growth and ability to maintain redox balance. Many studies have focused on understanding how cancer cells adapt their nutrient metabolism to meet the high demand of anabolism required for proliferation and maintaining redox balance. Glutamine, the most abundant amino acid in plasma, is a well-known nutrient used by cancer cells to increase proliferation as well as survival under metabolic stress conditions. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of glutamine metabolism in cancer cell survival and growth and highlight the mechanisms by which glutamine metabolism affects cancer cell signaling...
December 7, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207472/effects-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-free-acid-supplementation-on-strength-power-and-hormonal-adaptations-following-resistance-training
#11
Abbas Asadi, Hamid Arazi, Katsuhiko Suzuki
BACKGROUND: β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate-free acid (HMB-FA) has been ingested prior to exercise to reduce muscle damage, however the effects of HMB-FA supplementation on hormonal, strength and power adaptation are unclear. METHODS: Sixteen healthy men were matched and randomized into two groups and performed six-week resistance training while supplementing with either HMB-FA or placebo (3 g per day). The subjects were evaluated for 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press and leg press and vertical jump (VJ) prior to and after training intervention...
December 2, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205258/sustained-intra-cartilage-delivery-of-low-dose-dexamethasone-using-a-cationic-carrier-for-treatment-of-post-traumatic-osteoarthritis
#12
A G Bajpayee, R E De la Vega, M Scheu, N H Varady, I A Yannatos, L A Brown, Y Krishnan, T J Fitzsimons, P Bhattacharya, E H Frank, A J Grodzinsky, R M Porter
Disease-modifying osteoarthritis drugs (DMOADs) should reach their intra-tissue target sites at optimal doses for clinical efficacy. The dense, negatively charged matrix of cartilage poses a major hindrance to the transport of potential therapeutics. In this work, electrostatic interactions were utilised to overcome this challenge and enable higher uptake, full-thickness penetration and enhanced retention of dexamethasone (Dex) inside rabbit cartilage. This was accomplished by using the positively charged glycoprotein avidin as nanocarrier, conjugated to Dex by releasable linkers...
December 5, 2017: European Cells & Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203713/therapeutic-potential-of-heat-shock-protein-induction-for-muscular-dystrophy-and-other-muscle-wasting-conditions
#13
REVIEW
Savant S Thakur, Kristy Swiderski, James G Ryall, Gordon S Lynch
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is the most common and severe of the muscular dystrophies, a group of inherited myopathies caused by different genetic mutations leading to aberrant expression or complete absence of cytoskeletal proteins. Dystrophic muscles are prone to injury, and regenerate poorly after damage. Remorseless cycles of muscle fibre breakdown and incomplete repair lead to progressive and severe muscle wasting, weakness and premature death. Many other conditions are similarly characterized by muscle wasting, including sarcopenia, cancer cachexia, sepsis, denervation, burns, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
January 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202574/effect-of-biostimulation-on-oral-fibroblast-a-pilot-study
#14
A Palmieri, A Avantaggiato, F Cura, R Papalia, M Casale, F Bressi, L Scapoli
Bio-stimulation is a technique in aesthetic medicine in which different drugs such as nucleotides, antioxidants and glucosaminoglycans precursors are injected in the dermis to improving the anabolic function of dermal fibroblasts, i.e., protein synthesis, replication and production of extracellular matrix components. It can be achieved with multiple intra-dermal injections, using two protocols: 1) Polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN) plus glucosamine sulphate (Gluc); 2) N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and amino acids (Aa) (named Bio- NAC procedure)...
December 4, 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202453/increased-ca2-signaling-through-cav1-2-promotes-bone-formation-and-prevents-estrogen-deficiency-induced-bone-loss
#15
Chike Cao, Yinshi Ren, Adam S Barnett, Anthony J Mirando, Douglas Rouse, Se Hwan Mun, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Amy L McNulty, Farshid Guilak, Courtney M Karner, Matthew J Hilton, Geoffrey S Pitt
While the prevalence of osteoporosis is growing rapidly with population aging, therapeutic options remain limited. Here, we identify potentially novel roles for CaV1.2 L-type voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in osteogenesis and exploit a transgenic gain-of-function mutant CaV1.2 to stem bone loss in ovariectomized female mice. We show that endogenous CaV1.2 is expressed in developing bone within proliferating chondrocytes and osteoblasts. Using primary BM stromal cell (BMSC) cultures, we found that Ca2+ influx through CaV1...
November 16, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201444/the-interaction-effects-of-resistance-training-and-sustanon-abuse-on-liver-antioxidant-activities-and-serum-enzymes-in-male-rats
#16
Hamid Arazi, Siavash Rahmati, Hosein Ghafoori
Background: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic drugs derived from testosterone, the uncontrolled usage of which may lead to serious side effects. Previous studies have shown that resistance training (RT) is the main exercise modality practiced by AAS abusers. Thus, this work was carried out to evaluate the hepatotoxic effects of sustanon (Su) as an example of AAS in trained male rats. Methods: Rats were divided into sedentary/non-Su, sedentary/Su, RT/non-Su, and RT/Su...
September 2017: Interventional Medicine & Applied Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200988/molecular-signaling-mechanisms-behind-polyphenol-induced-bone-anabolism
#17
REVIEW
Elisa Torre
For millennia, in the different cultures all over the world, plants have been extensively used as a source of therapeutic agents with wide-ranging medicinal applications, thus becoming part of a rational clinical and pharmacological investigation over the years. As bioactive molecules, plant-derived polyphenols have been demonstrated to exert many effects on human health by acting on different biological systems, thus their therapeutic potential would represent a novel approach on which natural product-based drug discovery and development could be based in the future...
2017: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200982/native-whey-protein-with-high-levels-of-leucine-results-in-similar-post-exercise-muscular-anabolic-responses-as-regular-whey-protein-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Håvard Hamarsland, Anne Lene Nordengen, Sigve Nyvik Aas, Kristin Holte, Ina Garthe, Gøran Paulsen, Matthew Cotter, Elisabet Børsheim, Haakon B Benestad, Truls Raastad
Background: Protein intake is essential to maximally stimulate muscle protein synthesis, and the amino acid leucine seems to possess a superior effect on muscle protein synthesis compared to other amino acids. Native whey has higher leucine content and thus a potentially greater anabolic effect on muscle than regular whey (WPC-80). This study compared the acute anabolic effects of ingesting 2 × 20 g of native whey protein, WPC-80 or milk protein after a resistance exercise session...
2017: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200051/anabolic-steroids-did-popeye-use-them-too
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Journal of Addictions Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198925/teriparatide-promotes-healing-of-critical-size-femur-defect-through-accelerating-angiogenesis-and-degradation-of-%C3%AE-tcp-in-ovx-osteoporotic-rat-model
#20
Zhongjie Xie, Sheji Weng, Hang Li, Xia Yu, Shanshan Lu, Kate Huang, Zongyi Wu, Bingli Bai, Viraj Boodhun, Lei Yang
Accumulating evidence suggests that early angiogenesis has an important effect on the healing of injury. Teriparatide (PTH) is extensively applied for its potent anabolic activity on bone, while little is known about its angiogenic ability which may facilitate new bone formation. In this study, we tested the angiogenic ability of PTH and its effect on degradation of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in an ovariectomized (OVX) rat distal femoral metaphysis model. After successful establishment of the OVX model was confirmed, a critical size defect was drilled into each distal femur of the OVX rats...
November 30, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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