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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027120/elucidating-the-preadipocyte-and-its-role-in-adipocyte-formation-a-comprehensive-review
#1
REVIEW
Christos N Sarantopoulos, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Beatrice Sun, Ashkaun Shaterian, Alan D Widgerow
Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026404/investigation-of-the-relationship-between-structural-empowerment-and-organizational-commitment-of-nurses-in-zanjan-hospitals
#2
Fereidoun Eskandari, Soheila Rabie Siahkali, Alireza Shoghli, Mehrnoosh Pazargadi, Mansoreh Zaghari Tafreshi
BACKGROUND: The demanding nature of nursing work environments signals longstanding and growing concerns about nurses' health and job satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Specifically in health care settings, nurse leaders play an essential role in creating supportive work environments to avert these negative trends and increase nurse job satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of nurses...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#3
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972157/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-determinant-stages-controlling-human-embryonic-stem-cell-commitment-to-neuronal-cells
#4
Yuanyuan Li, Ran Wang, Nan Qiao, Guangdun Peng, Ke Zhang, Ke Tang, Jing-Dong J Han, Naihe Jing
Proper neural commitment is essential for ensuring the appropriate development of the human brain and for preventing neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neural commitment in humans remain elusive. Here, we report the establishment of a neural differentiation system based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and on comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of transcriptome dynamics during early hESC differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939991/when-three-is-greater-than-five-eeg-and-fmri-signatures-of-errors-in-numerical-and-physical-comparisons
#5
Ewa Beldzik, Aleksandra Domagalik, Magda Gawlowska, Tadeusz Marek, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja
Unravelling the neural mechanisms, which determine performance accuracy, is one of the key concepts in cognitive neuroscience. When compared to correct responses, shorter reaction times are commonly observed behavioural feature of errors committed in typical conflict tasks. Yet, little is known about the origins of this phenomenon. In this study, EEG and fMRI experiments were conducted using the numerical version of the Stroop paradigm, which yielded unique behavioural outcomes. Particularly, errors in numerical comparison had shorter reaction times than correct trials, whereas physical comparison resulted in the opposite pattern...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926111/regulating-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-controlling-underlying-substrate-stiffness
#6
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Sirong Shi, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
Cells reside in a complex microenvironment (niche) in which the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix profoundly affect cell behavior. Extracellular stiffness, one important bio-mechanical characteristic of the cell niche, is important in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and lineage specification. However, the mechanism by which mechanical signals guide osteogenic and adipogenic commitment of stem cells remains difficult to dissect. To explore this question, we generated a range of polydimethylsiloxane-based matrices with differing degrees of stiffness that mimicked the stiffness seen in natural tissues and examined adipose stem cell morphology, spreading, vinculin expression and differentiation along the osteogenic and adipogenic pathways...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902851/redox-mediated-quorum-sensing-in-plants
#7
Alexandra W Fuller, Phoebe Young, B Daniel Pierce, Jamie Kitson-Finuff, Purvi Jain, Karl Schneider, Stephen Lazar, Olga Taran, Andrew G Palmer, David G Lynn
The rhizosphere, the narrow zone of soil around plant roots, is a complex network of interactions between plants, bacteria, and a variety of other organisms. The absolute dependence on host-derived signals, or xenognosins, to regulate critical developmental checkpoints for host commitment in the obligate parasitic plants provides a window into the rhizosphere's chemical dynamics. These sessile intruders use H2O2 in a process known as semagenesis to chemically modify the mature root surfaces of proximal host plants and generate p-benzoquinones (BQs)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883483/serpinb2-is-a-novel-tgf%C3%AE-responsive-lineage-fate-determinant-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#8
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Muhammad Atteya, Raed Abu Dawud, Sami Almalki, Zahid Ali Kaimkhani, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Amer Mahmood
TGF-β1, a multifunctional regulator of cell growth and differentiation, is the most abundant bone matrix growth factor. During differentiation of human bone stromal cells (hBMSCs), which constitute bone marrow osteoblast (OS) and adipocyte (AD) progenitor cells, continuous TGF-β1 (10 ng/ml) treatment enhanced OS differentiation as evidenced by increased mineralised matrix production. Conversely, pulsed TGF-β1 administration during the commitment phase increased mature lipid-filled adipocyte numbers. Global gene expression analysis using DNA microarrays in hBMSCs treated with TGF-β1 identified 1587 up- and 1716 down-regulated genes in OS-induced, TGF-β1-treated compared to OS-induced hBMSCs (2...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857315/emerging-importance-of-phytochemicals-in-regulation-of-stem-cells-fate-via-signaling-pathways
#9
REVIEW
Mehdi Dadashpour, Younes Pilehvar-Soltanahmadi, Nosratollah Zarghami, Akram Firouzi-Amandi, Mohammad Pourhassan-Moghaddam, Mohammad Nouri
To reach ideal therapeutic potential of stem cells for regenerative medicine purposes, it is essential to retain their self-renewal and differentiation capacities. Currently, biological factors are extensively used for stemness maintaining and differentiation induction of stem cells. However, low stability, high cost, complicated production process, and risks associated with viral/endotoxin infection hamper the widespread use of biological factors in the stem cell biology. Moreover, regarding the modulation of several signaling cascades, which lead to a distinct fate, phytochemicals are preferable in the stem cells biology because of their efficiency...
August 31, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807014/epigenetic-reprogramming-converts-human-wharton-s-jelly-mesenchymal-stem-cells-into-functional-cardiomyocytes-by-differential-regulation-of-wnt-mediators
#10
G Bhuvanalakshmi, Frank Arfuso, Alan Prem Kumar, Arun Dharmarajan, Sudha Warrier
BACKGROUND: Lineage commitment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to cardiac differentiation is controlled by transcription factors that are regulated by epigenetic events, mainly histone deacetylation and promoter DNA methylation. Here, we studied the differentiation of human Wharton's jelly MSCs (WJMSCs) into the cardiomyocyte lineage via epigenetic manipulations. METHODS: We introduced these changes using inhibitors of DNA methyl transferase and histone deacetylase, DC301, DC302, and DC303, in various combinations...
August 14, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797291/how-canada-can-help-global-adolescent-health-mature
#11
Ashley Vandermorris, Zulfiqar A Bhutta
BACKGROUND: There is an emerging focus on adolescent health within the global health community as we come to recognize that the adolescent years are formative in determining health and health-related behaviours across the life-course. Such attention is not only relevant on the global scale but is imperative in Canada as well. MAIN BODY: This commentary provides a brief review of recent investments targeting global adolescent health and presents five potential avenues for action which emerged out of the recent Canadian Partnership for Women and Children's Health (CanWaCH) Global Adolescent Health conference...
August 10, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751022/er-resident-antioxidative-gpx7-and-gpx8-enzyme-isoforms-protect-insulin-secreting-ins-1e-%C3%AE-cells-against-lipotoxicity-by-improving-the-er-antioxidative-capacity
#12
Ilir Mehmeti, Stephan Lortz, Edward Avezov, Anne Jörns, Sigurd Lenzen
Increased circulating levels of saturated fatty acids (FFAs) and glucose are considered to be major mediators of β-cell dysfunction and death in T2DM. Although it has been proposed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress play a crucial role in gluco/lipotoxicity, their interplay and relative contribution to β-cell dysfunction and apoptosis has not been fully elucidated. In addition it is still unclear how palmitate - the physiologically most abundant long-chain saturated FFA - elicits ER stress and which immediate signals commit β-cells to apoptosis...
July 24, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738599/development-of-a-chemiluminescent-dna-fibre-optic-genosensor-to-hepatitis-a-virus-hav
#13
Kehan Ye, Marisa Manzano, Riccardo Muzzi, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin, Nazanin Saeidi, Shin Giek Goh, Alfred Iing Yoong Tok, Robert S Marks
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection has caused substantial morbidity and economic losses to human society, presenting a major public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the capability for low-concentration detection, current PCR-based techniques are limited by the requirement of specialized lab equipment, trained personnel and a relatively large time-commitment. The need for a prompt in-field quantitative identification of HAV in real samples has led us to develop a chemiluminescent fibre optic genosensor system...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649629/rhogtpase-stimulation-is-associated-with-strontium-chloride-treatment-to-counter-simulated-microgravity-induced-changes-in-multipotent-cell-commitment
#14
Fiona Louis, Wafa Bouleftour, Aline Rattner, Marie-Thérèse Linossier, Laurence Vico, Alain Guignandon
Microgravity-related cytoskeletal disorganization is associated with an altered balance between osteoblastogenesis and adipogenesis of multipotent cells. Strontium chloride is known to increase osteoblastogenesis and repress adipogenesis, but its effects in microgravity-related conditions have not been established. Our goal was to investigate early events in this process, focusing on RhoGTPases as controllers of cytoskeletal organization leading to stem cell commitment. We cultivated C3H10T1/2 on microspheres using a rotating wall vessel bioreactor (NASA) in order to simulate microgravity-related conditions in adipogenesis and osteoblastogenesis conditions independently...
2017: NPJ Microgravity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621452/osteogenic-commitment-and-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-low-intensity-pulsed-ultrasound-stimulation
#15
Viviana Costa, Valeria Carina, Simona Fontana, Angela De Luca, Francesca Monteleone, Stefania Pagani, Maria Sartori, Stefania Setti, Cesare Faldini, Riccardo Alessandro, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) as an adjuvant therapy in in vitro and in vivo bone engineering has proven to be extremely useful. The present study aimed at investigating the effect of 30 mW/cm(2) LIPUS stimulation on commercially available human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) cultured in basal or osteogenic medium at different experimental time points (7d, 14d, 21d). The hypothesis was that LIPUS would improve the osteogenic differentiation of hMSC and guarantying the maintenance of osteogenic committed fraction, as demonstrated by cell vitality and proteomic analysis...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586019/protective-effects-of-astragaloside-iv-against-ovalbumin-induced-allergic-rhinitis-are-mediated-by-t-box-protein-expressed-in-t-cells-gata-3-and-forkhead-box-protein-3-retinoic-acid-related-orphan-nuclear-receptor-%C3%AE-t
#16
Keqiong Li, Yi Chen, Rong Jiang, Dilong Chen, Hong Wang, Wei Xiong, Danyang Li, Zehong Liu, Xiaopeng Li, Jing Li, Ke Yuan
3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-6-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-cycloastragenol, or Astragaloside IV (AST), is one of the major active ingredients isolated from Astragalus membranaceous with distinct pharmacological effects, and possesses anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and antifibrotic properties. However, the effects of AST on allergic rhinitis remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to examine the effects of AST on immunoglobulin (Ig) E‑mediated allergic reactions in vivo, by using a mouse model of allergic rhinitis established via repetitive sensitization and intranasal challenge with ovalbumin (OVA)...
August 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584128/bcl11b-and-combinatorial-resolution-of-cell-fate-in-the-t-cell-gene-regulatory-network
#17
William J R Longabaugh, Weihua Zeng, Jingli A Zhang, Hiroyuki Hosokawa, Camden S Jansen, Long Li, Maile Romero-Wolf, Pentao Liu, Hao Yuan Kueh, Ali Mortazavi, Ellen V Rothenberg
T-cell development from hematopoietic progenitors depends on multiple transcription factors, mobilized and modulated by intrathymic Notch signaling. Key aspects of T-cell specification network architecture have been illuminated through recent reports defining roles of transcription factors PU.1, GATA-3, and E2A, their interactions with Notch signaling, and roles of Runx1, TCF-1, and Hes1, providing bases for a comprehensively updated model of the T-cell specification gene regulatory network presented herein...
June 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529938/senescence-inflammatory-regulation-of-reparative-cellular-reprogramming-in-aging-and-cancer
#18
Javier A Menendez, Tomás Alarcón
The inability of adult tissues to transitorily generate cells with functional stem cell-like properties is a major obstacle to tissue self-repair. Nuclear reprogramming-like phenomena that induce a transient acquisition of epigenetic plasticity and phenotype malleability may constitute a reparative route through which human tissues respond to injury, stress, and disease. However, tissue rejuvenation should involve not only the transient epigenetic reprogramming of differentiated cells, but also the committed re-acquisition of the original or alternative committed cell fate...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420723/mitochondrial-bax-determines-the-predisposition-to-apoptosis-in-human-aml
#19
Frank Reichenbach, Cornelius Wiedenmann, Enrico Schalk, Diana Becker, Kathrin Funk, Peter Scholz-Kreisel, Franziska Todt, Denise Wolleschak, Konstanze Döhner, Jens U Marquardt, Florian Heidel, Frank Edlich
Purpose: Cell-to-cell variability in apoptosis signaling contributes to heterogenic responses to cytotoxic stress in clinically heterogeneous neoplasia, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The BCL-2 proteins BAX and BAK can commit mammalian cells to apoptosis and are inhibited by retrotranslocation from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The subcellular localization of BAX and BAK could determine the cellular predisposition to apoptotic death.Experimental Design: The relative localization of BAX and BAK was determined by fractionation of AML cell lines and patient samples of a test cohort and a validation cohort...
August 15, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370561/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-activates-expression-of-the-bone-related-transcription-factor-runx2-in-select-human-osteosarcoma-cell-types
#20
Oscar A Vega, Claudia M J Lucero, Hector F Araya, Sofia Jerez, Julio C Tapia, Marcelo Antonelli, Flavio Salazar-Onfray, Facundo Las Heras, Roman Thaler, Scott M Riester, Gary S Stein, Andre J van Wijnen, Mario A Galindo
Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. Metastasis and poor responsiveness to chemotherapy in osteosarcoma correlates with over-expression of the runt-related transcription factor RUNX2, which normally plays a key role in osteogenic lineage commitment, osteoblast differentiation, and bone formation. Furthermore, WNT/β-catenin signaling is over-activated in osteosarcoma and promotes tumor progression. Importantly, the WNT/β-catenin pathway normally activates RUNX2 gene expression during osteogenic lineage commitment...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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