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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676248/rnase-e-and-the-high-fidelity-orchestration-of-rna-metabolism
#1
Katarzyna J Bandyra, Ben F Luisi
The bacterial endoribonuclease RNase E occupies a pivotal position in the control of gene expression, as its actions either commit transcripts to an irreversible fate of rapid destruction or unveil their hidden functions through specific processing. Moreover, the enzyme contributes to quality control of rRNAs. The activity of RNase E can be directed and modulated by signals provided through regulatory RNAs that guide the enzyme to specific transcripts that are to be silenced. Early in its evolutionary history, RNase E acquired a natively unfolded appendage that recruits accessory proteins and RNA...
April 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672929/functional-anatomy-of-the-hair-follicle-the-secondary-hair-germ
#2
REVIEW
Andrey A Panteleyev
The secondary hair germ (SHG) - a transitory structure in the lower portion of the mouse telogen hair follicle (HF) - is directly involved in anagen induction and eventual HF regrowth. Some crucial aspects of SHG functioning and ontogenetic relations with other HF parts, however, remain undefined. According to recent evidence (in contrast to previous bulge-centric views), the SHG is the primary target of anagen-inducing signaling and a source of both the outer root sheath (ORS) and ascending HF layers during the initial (morphogenetic) anagen sub-phase...
April 19, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650947/hsa-let-7c-controls-the-committed-differentiation-of-igf-1-treated-mesenchymal-stem-cells-derived-from-dental-pulps-by-targeting-igf-1r-via-the-mapk-pathways
#3
Gen-Xia Liu, Shu Ma, Yao Li, Yan Yu, Yi-Xiang Zhou, Ya-Die Lu, Lin Jin, Zi-Lu Wang, Jin-Hua Yu
The putative tumor suppressor microRNA let-7c is extensively associated with the biological properties of cancer cells. However, the potential involvement of let-7c in the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells has not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the influence of hsa-let-7c (let-7c) on the proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp-derived mesenchymal stem cells (DPMSCs) treated with insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) via flow cytometry, CCK-8 assays, alizarin red staining, real-time RT-PCR, and western blotting...
April 13, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622701/the-role-of-notch3-in-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Zviadi Aburjania, Samuel Jang, Jason Whitt, Renata Jaskula-Stzul, Herbert Chen, J Bart Rose
The Notch family is a highly conserved gene group that regulates cell-cell interaction, embryogenesis, and tissue commitment. This review article focuses on the third Notch family subtype, Notch3. Regulation via Notch3 signaling was first implicated in vasculogenesis. However, more recent findings suggest that Notch3 signaling may play an important role in oncogenesis, tumor maintenance, and resistance to chemotherapy. Its role is mainly oncogenic, although in some cancers it appears to be tumor suppressive...
April 5, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572540/pulsed-electromagnetic-fields-increase-osteogenetic-commitment-of-mscs-via-the-mtor-pathway-in-tnf-%C3%AE-mediated-inflammatory-conditions-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Letizia Ferroni, Chiara Gardin, Oleg Dolkart, Moshe Salai, Shlomo Barak, Adriano Piattelli, Hadar Amir-Barak, Barbara Zavan
Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been considered a potential treatment modality for fracture healing, however, the mechanism of their action remains unclear. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling may affect osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. This study aimed to assess the osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under PEMF stimulation and the potential involvement of mTOR signaling pathway in this process. PEMFs were generated by a novel miniaturized electromagnetic device...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526526/the-dual-role-of-mitochondrial-superoxide-in-arsenite-toxicity-signaling-at-the-boundary-between-apoptotic-commitment-and-cytoprotection
#6
Mara Fiorani, Andrea Guidarelli, Valentina Capellacci, Liana Cerioni, Rita Crinelli, Orazio Cantoni
Arsenite toxicity is in numerous cellular systems dependent on the formation of reactive oxygen and or nitrogen species. This is also true in U937 cells in which the metalloid selectively promotes the formation of mitochondrial superoxide (mitoO2 - ) rapidly converted to diffusible H2 O2 . We tested the hypothesis that, under the same conditions, mitoO2 - also mediates the triggering of a parallel survival signaling. We found that a low concentration of the metalloid causes an early activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and a downstream signaling leading to enhanced GSH biosynthesis, via a mechanism sensitive to various treatments/strategies selectively preventing mitoO2 - formation...
March 8, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466743/a-roadmap-for-human-liver-differentiation-from-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Lay Teng Ang, Antson Kiat Yee Tan, Matias I Autio, Su Hua Goh, Siew Hua Choo, Kian Leong Lee, Jianmin Tan, Bangfen Pan, Jane Jia Hui Lee, Jen Jen Lum, Christina Ying Yan Lim, Isabelle Kai Xin Yeo, Chloe Jin Yee Wong, Min Liu, Jueween Ling Li Oh, Cheryl Pei Lynn Chia, Chet Hong Loh, Angela Chen, Qingfeng Chen, Irving L Weissman, Kyle M Loh, Bing Lim
How are closely related lineages, including liver, pancreas, and intestines, diversified from a common endodermal origin? Here, we apply principles learned from developmental biology to rapidly reconstitute liver progenitors from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). Mapping the formation of multiple endodermal lineages revealed how alternate endodermal fates (e.g., pancreas and intestines) are restricted during liver commitment. Human liver fate was encoded by combinations of inductive and repressive extracellular signals at different doses...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447276/mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosomes-have-altered-microrna-profiles-and-induce-osteogenic-differentiation-depending-on-the-stage-of-differentiation
#8
Xiaoqin Wang, Omar Omar, Forugh Vazirisani, Peter Thomsen, Karin Ekström
Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC)-derived exosomes have shown regenerative effects, but their role in osteogenesis and the underlying mechanism are yet to be determined. In this study, we examined the time-course secretion of exosomes by hMSCs during the entire process of osteogenic differentiation. Exosomes derived from hMSCs in various stages of osteogenic differentiation committed homotypic cells to differentiate towards osteogenic lineage, but only exosomes from late stages of osteogenic differentiation induced extracellular matrix mineralisation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442322/zebrafish-zic-genes-mediate-developmental-signaling
#9
Cecilia Lanny Winata, Vladimir Korzh
The introduction of genomics into the field of developmental biology led to a vast expansion of knowledge about developmental genes and signaling mechanisms they are involved in. Unlike mammals, the zebrafish features seven Zic genes. This provides an interesting insight into Zic gene evolution. In addition, an unprecedented bioimaging capability of semitransparent zebrafish embryos turns to be a crucial factor in medium- to large-scale analysis of the activity of potential regulatory elements. The Zic family of zinc finger proteins plays an important, relatively well-established, role in the regulation of stem cells and neural development and, in particular, during neural fate commitment and determination...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432467/a-drift-diffusion-checkpoint-model-predicts-a-highly-variable-and-growth-factor-sensitive-portion-of-the-cell-cycle-g1-phase
#10
Zack W Jones, Rachel Leander, Vito Quaranta, Leonard A Harris, Darren R Tyson
Even among isogenic cells, the time to progress through the cell cycle, or the intermitotic time (IMT), is highly variable. This variability has been a topic of research for several decades and numerous mathematical models have been proposed to explain it. Previously, we developed a top-down, stochastic drift-diffusion+threshold (DDT) model of a cell cycle checkpoint and showed that it can accurately describe experimentally-derived IMT distributions [Leander R, Allen EJ, Garbett SP, Tyson DR, Quaranta V. Derivation and experimental comparison of cell-division probability densities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417620/her2-ile655val-polymorphism-is-negatively-associated-with-breast-cancer-susceptibility
#11
Felipe Campos de Almeida, Bruna Karina Banin Hirata, Carolina Batista Ariza, Roberta Losi Guembarovski, Karen Brajão de Oliveira, Karen Mayumi Suzuki, Alda Losi Guembarovski, Julie Massayo Maeda Oda, Glauco Akelinghton Freire Vitiello, Maria Angelica Ehara Watanabe
BACKGROUND: The HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor-2) Ile655Val (rs1136201) genetic polymorphism can alter the receptor structure and its auto-activation, which can modify the signal transduction and, consequently, the cell cycle regulation. For this reason, this polymorphism has been extensively investigated as a candidate marker for breast cancer (BC). In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of HER2 Ile655Val in BC susceptibility and prognostic factors in a Brazilian population...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29379952/acute-brain-lesions-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-delayed-neurological-sequelae-in-carbon-monoxide-poisoning
#12
Sang-Beom Jeon, Chang Hwan Sohn, Dong-Woo Seo, Bum Jin Oh, Kyoung Soo Lim, Dong-Wha Kang, Won Young Kim
Importance: Preventing delayed neurological sequelae is a major goal of treating acute carbon monoxide poisoning, but to our knowledge there are no reliable tools for assessing the probability of these sequelae. Objectives: To determine whether acute brain lesions on diffusion-weighted imaging are related to subsequent development of delayed neurological sequelae after acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Design, Setting, and Participants: This registry-based observational study was conducted at a university hospital in Seoul, Korea, between April 1, 2011, and December 31, 2015...
January 29, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339787/cilia-related-protein-spef2-regulates-osteoblast-differentiation
#13
Mari S Lehti, Henna Henriksson, Petri Rummukainen, Fan Wang, Liina Uusitalo-Kylmälä, Riku Kiviranta, Terhi J Heino, Noora Kotaja, Anu Sironen
Sperm flagellar protein 2 (SPEF2) is essential for motile cilia, and lack of SPEF2 function causes male infertility and primary ciliary dyskinesia. Cilia are pointing out from the cell surface and are involved in signal transduction from extracellular matrix, fluid flow and motility. It has been shown that cilia and cilia-related genes play essential role in commitment and differentiation of chondrocytes and osteoblasts during bone formation. Here we show that SPEF2 is expressed in bone and cartilage. The analysis of a Spef2 knockout (KO) mouse model revealed hydrocephalus, growth retardation and death prior to five weeks of age...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323720/tfcp2l1-safeguards-the-maintenance-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-self-renewal
#14
Hongwei Sun, Yu You, Mengmeng Guo, Xiaohu Wang, Yan Zhang, Shoudong Ye
Tfcp2l1 is a transcription factor critical for mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) maintenance. However, its role in human ESCs (hESCs) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the role of Tfcp2l1 in controlling hESC activity and showed that Tfcp2l1 is functionally important in the maintenance of hESC identity. Tfcp2l1 expression is highly enriched in hESCs and dramatically decreases upon differentiation. Forced expression of Tfcp2l1 promoted hESC self-renewal. Functional analysis of the mutant forms of Tfcp2l1 revealed that both the CP2- and SAM-like domains are indispensable for Tfcp2l1 to maintain the undifferentiated state of hESCs...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298881/multiple-intracellular-signaling-pathways-orchestrate-adipocytic-differentiation-of-human-bone-marrow-stromal-stem-cells
#15
Dalia Ali, Sarah Abuelreich, Nora Alkeraishan, Najla Bin Shwish, Rimi Hamam, Moustapha Kassem, Musaad Alfayez, Abdullah Aldahmash, Nehad M Alajez
Bone marrow adipocyte formation plays a role in bone homeostasis and whole body energy metabolism. However, the transcriptional landscape and signaling pathways associated with adipocyte lineage commitment and maturation are not fully delineated. Thus, we performed global gene expression profiling during adipocyte differentiation of human bone marrow stromal (mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSCs) and identified 2,589 up-regulated and 2,583 down-regulated mRNA transcripts. Pathway analysis on the up-regulated gene list untraveled enrichment in multiple signaling pathways including insulin receptor signaling, focal Adhesion, metapathway biotransformation, a number of metabolic pathways e...
February 28, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298655/fisetin-attenuates-akt-associated-growth-promoting-events-in-aflatoxinb1-induced-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Brajesh Kumar Maurya, Surendra Kumar Trigun
Recently we have reported that Fisetin, a natural flavonol, is able to regress Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) by suppressing reactive oxygen species (ROS) led pro-inflammatory factors in rats. In the current study, we aimed to delineate whether Fisetin does so by modulating the cell growth promoting signaling cascade in HCC. The reciprocal interplay of 3-phosphoinositol kinase (PI3K) vs phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) displays Akt, a protein kinase B, to get phosphorylated at Thr308 by a 3-phosphoinositol dependent kinase 1 (PDK1)...
December 29, 2017: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226966/using-trial-level-data-and-multilevel-modeling-to-investigate-within-task-change-in-event-related-potentials
#17
Hannah I Volpert-Esmond, Edgar C Merkle, Meredith P Levsen, Tiffany A Ito, Bruce D Bartholow
EEG data, and specifically the ERP, provide psychologists with the power to examine quickly occurring cognitive processes at the native temporal resolution at which they occur. Despite the advantages conferred by ERPs to examine processes at different points in time, ERP researchers commonly ignore the trial-to-trial temporal dimension by collapsing across trials of similar types (i.e., the signal averaging approach) because of constraints imposed by repeated measures ANOVA. Here, we present the advantages of using multilevel modeling (MLM) to examine trial-level data to investigate change in neurocognitive processes across the course of an experiment...
December 11, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212859/human-hair-follicle-transcriptome-profiling-a-minimally-invasive-tool-to-assess-molecular-adaptations-upon-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training
#18
Jing Zhang, Sarah J Wallace, Maria Y Shiu, Ingrid Smith, Shawn G Rhind, Valerie S Langlois
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a popular fitness training approach under both civilian and military settings. Consisting of brief and intense exercise intervals, HIIT requires less time commitment yet is able to produce the consistent targeted physical adaptations as conventional endurance training. To effectively characterize and monitor HIIT-induced cellular and molecular responses, a highly accessible yet comprehensive biomarker discovery source is desirable. Both gene differential expression (DE) and gene set (GS) analyses were conducted using hair follicle transcriptome established from pre and postexercise subjects upon a 10-day HIIT program by RNA-Seq, Comparing between pre and posttraining groups, differentially expressed protein coding genes were identified...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190771/synergistic-role-of-5-azacytidine-and-ascorbic-acid-in-directing-cardiosphere-derived-cells-to-cardiomyocytes-in-vitro-by-downregulating-wnt-signaling-pathway-via-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#19
Reddy Sailaja Mundre, Pavani Koka, Prakash Dhanaraj, Nitin Khatri, Sanjana Vig, Yamini Chandramohan, Anuradha Dhanasekaran
BACKGROUND: Cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs) represent a valuable source in stem cell based therapy for cardiovascular diseases, yet poor differentiation rate hinders the transplantation efficiency. The aim of this study is to check the ability of 5-Azacytidine (Aza) alone and in combination with ascorbic acid (Aza+AA) in delineating CDCs to cardiomyogenesis and the underlying Wnt signaling mechanism in induced differentiation. METHODS: CDCs were treated with Aza and Aza+AA for a period of 14 days to examine the expression of cardiac specific markers and Wnt downstream regulators by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180573/plasticity-within-the-niche-ensures-the-maintenance-of-a-sox2-stem-cell-population-in-the-mouse-incisor
#20
Maria Sanz-Navarro, Kerstin Seidel, Zhao Sun, Ludivine Bertonnier-Brouty, Brad A Amendt, Ophir D Klein, Frederic Michon
In mice, the incisors grow throughout the animal's life, and this continuous renewal is driven by dental epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells. Sox2 is a principal marker of the epithelial stem cells that reside in the mouse incisor stem cell niche, called the labial cervical loop, but relatively little is known about the role of the Sox2 + stem cell population. In this study, we show that conditional deletion of Sox2 in the embryonic incisor epithelium leads to growth defects and impairment of ameloblast lineage commitment...
January 8, 2018: Development
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