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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212859/human-hair-follicle-transcriptome-profiling-a-minimally-invasive-tool-to-assess-molecular-adaptations-upon-low-volume-high-intensity-interval-training
#1
Jing Zhang, Sarah J Wallace, Maria Y Shiu, Ingrid Smith, Shawn G Rhind, Valerie S Langlois
High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has become a popular fitness training approach under both civilian and military settings. Consisting of brief and intense exercise intervals, HIIT requires less time commitment yet is able to produce the consistent targeted physical adaptations as conventional endurance training. To effectively characterize and monitor HIIT-induced cellular and molecular responses, a highly accessible yet comprehensive biomarker discovery source is desirable. Both gene differential expression (DE) and gene set (GS) analyses were conducted using hair follicle transcriptome established from pre and postexercise subjects upon a 10-day HIIT program by RNA-Seq, Comparing between pre and posttraining groups, differentially expressed protein coding genes were identified...
December 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190771/synergistic-role-of-5-azacytidine-and-ascorbic-acid-in-directing-cardiosphere-derived-cells-to-cardiomyocytes-in-vitro-by-downregulating-wnt-signaling-pathway-via-phosphorylation-of-%C3%AE-catenin
#2
Reddy Sailaja Mundre, Pavani Koka, Prakash Dhanaraj, Nitin Khatri, Sanjana Vig, Yamini Chandramohan, Anuradha Dhanasekaran
BACKGROUND: Cardiosphere derived cells (CDCs) represent a valuable source in stem cell based therapy for cardiovascular diseases, yet poor differentiation rate hinders the transplantation efficiency. The aim of this study is to check the ability of 5-Azacytidine (Aza) alone and in combination with ascorbic acid (Aza+AA) in delineating CDCs to cardiomyogenesis and the underlying Wnt signaling mechanism in induced differentiation. METHODS: CDCs were treated with Aza and Aza+AA for a period of 14 days to examine the expression of cardiac specific markers and Wnt downstream regulators by immunofluorescence, real time PCR and western blot...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180573/plasticity-within-the-niche-ensures-the-maintenance-of-a-sox2-stem-cell-population-in-the-mouse-incisor
#3
Maria Sanz-Navarro, Kerstin Seidel, Zhao Sun, Ludivine Bertonnier-Brouty, Brad A Amendt, Ophir D Klein, Frederic Michon
In mice, the incisors grow throughout the animal's life, and this continuous renewal is driven by dental epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells. Sox2 is a principal marker of the epithelial stem cells that reside in the mouse incisor stem cell niche, called the labial cervical loop, but relatively little is known about the role of the Sox2+ stem cell population. In this study, we show that conditional deletion of Sox2 in the embryonic incisor epithelium leads to growth defects and impairment of ameloblast lineage commitment...
November 27, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158445/pdgfr%C3%AE-pdgfr%C3%AE-signaling-balance-modulates-progenitor-cell-differentiation-into-white-and-beige-adipocytes
#4
Zhanguo Gao, Alexes C Daquinag, Fei Su, Brad Snyder, Mikhail G Kolonin
Relative abundance of thermogenic beige adipocytes and lipid-storing white adipocytes in adipose tissue underlie its metabolic activity. The roles of adipocyte progenitor cells, which express PDGFRα or PDGFRβ, in adipose tissue function have remained unclear. Here, by defining the developmental timing of PDGFRα and PDGFRβ expression in mouse subcutaneous and visceral adipose depots, we uncover depot-specificity of preadipocyte delineation. We demonstrate that PDGFRα expression precedes PDGFRβ expression in all subcutaneous but only in a fraction of visceral adipose stromal cells...
November 20, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140246/an-eya1-notch-axis-specifies-bipotential-epibranchial-differentiation-in-mammalian-craniofacial-morphogenesis
#5
Haoran Zhang, Li Wang, Elaine Yee Man Wong, Sze Lan Tsang, Pin-Xian Xu, Urban Lendahl, Mai Har Sham
Craniofacial morphogenesis requires proper development of pharyngeal arches and epibranchial placodes. We show that the epibranchial placodes, in addition to giving rise to cranial sensory neurons, generate a novel lineage-related non-neuronal cell population for mouse pharyngeal arch development. Eya1 is essential for the development of epibranchial placodes and proximal pharyngeal arches. We identify an Eya1-Notch regulatory axis that specifies both the neuronal and non-neuronal commitment of the epibranchial placode, where Notch acts downstream of Eya1 and promotes the non-neuronal cell fate...
November 15, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138823/mechanical-strain-promotes-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-ovariectomized-rats-via-the-phosphoinositide-3%C3%A2-kinase-akt-signaling-pathway
#6
Ningjuan Ouyang, Peng Zhang, Runqing Fu, Guofang Shen, Lingyong Jiang, Bing Fang
Osteoporosis has become an overwhelming public health problem worldwide. As an elementary physiological factor to regulate bone formation and regeneration, mechanical strain may be used as a non‑invasive intervention in osteoporosis prevention and treatment. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of continuous mechanical strain (CMS) on osteogenic differentiation of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) from ovariectomized rats (OVX BMSCs)...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111380/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-may-regulate-the-commitment-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-toward-angio-osteogenesis-by-mirna-675-5p
#7
Viviana Costa, Lavinia Raimondi, Alice Conigliaro, Francesca Salamanna, Valeria Carina, Angela De Luca, Daniele Bellavia, Riccardo Alessandro, Milena Fini, Gianluca Giavaresi
BACKGROUND AIMS: During bone formation, angiogenesis and osteogenesis are regulated by hypoxia, which is able to induce blood vessel formation, as well as recruit and differentiate human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). The molecular mechanisms involved in HIF-1α response and hMSC differentiation during bone formation are still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the synergistic role of hypoxia and hypoxia-mimetic microRNA miR-675-5p in angiogenesis response and osteo-chondroblast commitment of hMSCs...
October 27, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076133/effects-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factors-and-their-receptors-on-megakaryocytes-and-platelets-and-related-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Jin-Gang Yang, Li-Li Wang, Dong-Chu Ma
It is well known that vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (vascular endothelial growth factor receptors, VEGFRs) are expressed in different tissues, and VEGF-VEGFR loops regulate a wide range of responses, including metabolic homeostasis, cell proliferation, migration and tubuleogenesis. As ligands, VEGFs act on three structurally related VEGFRs (VEGFR1, VEGFR2 and VEGFR3 [also termed FLT1, KDR and FLT4, respectively]) that deliver downstream signals. Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), megakaryocytic cell lines, cultured megakaryocytes (MKs), primary MKs and abnormal MKs express and secrete VEGFs...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064586/a-pivotal-role-of-ampk-signaling-in-medicarpin-mediated-formation-of-brown-and-beige-adipocytes-from-c3h10t1-2-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#9
Khan Mohammad Imran, Dahyeon Yoon, Yong-Sik Kim
Obesity poses a substantial threat of a worldwide epidemic and requires better understanding of adipose-tissue biology as well as necessitates research into the etiology and therapeutic interventions. In this study, Medicarpin (Med), a natural pterocarpan, was selected (by screening) as a small-molecule inducer of adipocyte differentiation among 854 candidates by using C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cell; a cellular model of adipogenesis. Med induced the expression of brown-adipocyte commitment marker Bmp7 as well as the early regulators of brown fat fate Pparγ, Prdm16, and Pgc-1α during differentiation of C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells...
October 24, 2017: BioFactors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064396/intermittent-administration-of-parathyroid-hormone-1-34-enhances-osteogenesis-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-by-regulating-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE
#10
Shu-Wen Kuo, Marilyn G Rimando, Yi-Shiuan Liu, Oscar K Lee
Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can differentiate into osteoblasts and are regulated by chemical cues. The recombinant N-terminal (1-34 amino acids) fragment of the parathyroid hormone (PTH (1-34)) is identified to promote osteogenesis. The osteoanabolic effects of intermittent PTH (1-34) treatment are linked to a complex consisting of signaling pathways; additionally, protein kinase C (PKC) act as mediators of multifunctional signaling transduction pathways, but the role of PKC δ (PKCδ), a downstream target in regulating osteoblast differentiation during intermittent administration of PTH (1-34) is less studied and still remains elusive...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052618/a-role-for-prefrontal-cortical-nmda-receptors-in-murine-alcohol-heightened-aggression
#11
Emily L Newman, Miho Terunuma, Tiffany Wang, Nishani Hewage, Matthew B Bicakci, Stephen J Moss, Joseph F DeBold, Klaus A Miczek
Alcohol is associated with nearly half of all violent crimes committed in the United States; yet, a potential neural basis for this type of pathological aggression remains elusive. Alcohol may act on NMDA receptors (NMDARs) within cortical circuits to impede processing and to promote aggression. Here, male mice were characterized as alcohol-heightened (AHAs) or alcohol non-heightened aggressors (ANAs) during resident-intruder confrontations after self-administering 1.0 g/kg alcohol (6% w/v) or water. Alcohol produced a pathological-like pattern of aggression in AHAs; these mice shifted their bites to more vulnerable locations on the body of a submissive animal, including the anterior back and ventrum after consuming alcohol...
October 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048433/tmem74-promotes-tumor-cell-survival-by-inducing-autophagy-via-interactions-with-atg16l1-and-atg9a
#12
Yizhe Sun, Yingyu Chen, Jingyu Zhang, Lulu Cao, Minwei He, Xi Liu, Ning Zhao, Ang Yin, He Huang, Lu Wang
Autophagy is a highly inducible system of intracellular degradation that occurs in lysosomes or vacuoles. Transmembrane 74 (TMEM74) has been shown to induce autophagy. However, the mechanism by which TMEM74 stimulates autophagy and the impacts of TMEM74-induced autophagy on tumor cell survival remain unclear. In this study, TMEM74 was shown to increase the autophagic flux process in different tumor cell lines. Further investigations revealed that TMEM74 interacts with ATG16L1 and ATG9A. Moreover, distinctive from the common autophagy models, it is found that TMEM74-related autophagy is independent of BECN1/PI3KC3 complex and ULK1, and TMEM74 may initiate and promote autophagy directly via interactions with ATG16L1 and ATG9A responsible for the nucleation and elongation respectively...
August 31, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042616/reduced-nitric-oxide-levels-during-drought-stress-promote-drought-tolerance-in-barley-and-is-associated-with-elevated-polyamine-biosynthesis
#13
Gracia Montilla-Bascón, Diego Rubiales, Kim H Hebelstrup, Julien Mandon, Frans J M Harren, Simona M Cristescu, Luis A J Mur, Elena Prats
Nitric oxide (NO) is a key messenger in plant stress responses but its exact role in drought response remains unclear. To investigate the role of NO in drought response we employed transgenic barley plants (UHb) overexpressing the barley non-symbiotic hemoglobin gene HvHb1 that oxidizes NO to NO3(-). Reduced NO production under drought conditions in UHb plants was associated with increased drought tolerance. Since NO biosynthesis has been related to polyamine metabolism, we investigated whether the observed drought-related NO changes could involve polyamine pathway...
October 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036304/il-1r-and-myd88-signaling-in-cd4-t-cells-promote-th17-immunity-and-atherosclerosis
#14
Daniel Engelbertsen, Sara Rattik, Maria Wigren, Jenifer Vallejo, Goran Marinkovic, Alexandru Schiopu, Harry Björkbacka, Jan Nilsson, Eva Bengtsson
Aims: The role of CD4+ T cells in atherosclerosis has been shown to be dependent on cytokine cues that regulate lineage commitment into mature T helper subsets. In this study we tested the roles of IL-1R1 and MyD88 signaling in CD4+ T cells in atherosclerosis. Methods and results: We transferred apoe-/-myd88+/+or apoe-/-myd88-/- CD4+ T cells to T- and B-cell-deficient rag1-/-apoe-/- mice fed high fat diet. Mice given apoe-/-myd88-/- CD4+ T cells exhibited reduced atherosclerosis compared to mice given apoe-/-myd88+/+ CD4+ T cells...
September 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027120/elucidating-the-preadipocyte-and-its-role-in-adipocyte-formation-a-comprehensive-review
#15
REVIEW
Christos N Sarantopoulos, Derek A Banyard, Mary E Ziegler, Beatrice Sun, Ashkaun Shaterian, Alan D Widgerow
Adipogenesis is a complex process whereby the multipotent adipose-derived stem cell is converted to a preadipocyte before terminal differentiation into the mature adipocyte. Preadipocytes are present throughout adult life, exhibit adipose fat depot specificity, and differentiate and proliferate from distinct progenitor cells. The mechanisms that promote preadipocyte commitment and maturation involve numerous protein factor regulators, epigenetic factors, and miRNAs. Detailed characterization of this process is currently an area of intense research and understanding the roles of preadipocytes in tissue plasticity may provide insight into novel approaches for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and treating a host of obesity-related conditions...
October 13, 2017: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026404/investigation-of-the-relationship-between-structural-empowerment-and-organizational-commitment-of-nurses-in-zanjan-hospitals
#16
Fereidoun Eskandari, Soheila Rabie Siahkali, Alireza Shoghli, Mehrnoosh Pazargadi, Mansoreh Zaghari Tafreshi
BACKGROUND: The demanding nature of nursing work environments signals longstanding and growing concerns about nurses' health and job satisfaction and the provision of quality care. Specifically in health care settings, nurse leaders play an essential role in creating supportive work environments to avert these negative trends and increase nurse job satisfaction. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between structural empowerment and organizational commitment of nurses...
March 2017: African Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021889/linguistic-camouflage-in-girls-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#17
Julia Parish-Morris, Mark Y Liberman, Christopher Cieri, John D Herrington, Benjamin E Yerys, Leila Bateman, Joseph Donaher, Emily Ferguson, Juhi Pandey, Robert T Schultz
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed more frequently in boys than girls, even when girls are equally symptomatic. Cutting-edge behavioral imaging has detected "camouflaging" in girls with ASD, wherein social behaviors appear superficially typical, complicating diagnosis. The present study explores a new kind of camouflage based on language differences. Pauses during conversation can be filled with words like UM or UH, but research suggests that these two words are pragmatically distinct (e...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972157/transcriptome-analysis-reveals-determinant-stages-controlling-human-embryonic-stem-cell-commitment-to-neuronal-cells
#18
Yuanyuan Li, Ran Wang, Nan Qiao, Guangdun Peng, Ke Zhang, Ke Tang, Jing-Dong J Han, Naihe Jing
Proper neural commitment is essential for ensuring the appropriate development of the human brain and for preventing neurodevelopmental diseases such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, and intellectual disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the neural commitment in humans remain elusive. Here, we report the establishment of a neural differentiation system based on human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and on comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of transcriptome dynamics during early hESC differentiation...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939991/when-three-is-greater-than-five-eeg-and-fmri-signatures-of-errors-in-numerical-and-physical-comparisons
#19
Ewa Beldzik, Aleksandra Domagalik, Magda Gawlowska, Tadeusz Marek, Justyna Mojsa-Kaja
Unravelling the neural mechanisms, which determine performance accuracy, is one of the key concepts in cognitive neuroscience. When compared to correct responses, shorter reaction times are commonly observed behavioural feature of errors committed in typical conflict tasks. Yet, little is known about the origins of this phenomenon. In this study, EEG and fMRI experiments were conducted using the numerical version of the Stroop paradigm, which yielded unique behavioural outcomes. Particularly, errors in numerical comparison had shorter reaction times than correct trials, whereas physical comparison resulted in the opposite pattern...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926111/regulating-osteogenesis-and-adipogenesis-in-adipose-derived-stem-cells-by-controlling-underlying-substrate-stiffness
#20
Tao Zhang, Shiyu Lin, Xiaoru Shao, Sirong Shi, Qi Zhang, Changyue Xue, Yunfeng Lin, Bofeng Zhu, Xiaoxiao Cai
Cells reside in a complex microenvironment (niche) in which the biochemical and biophysical properties of the extracellular matrix profoundly affect cell behavior. Extracellular stiffness, one important bio-mechanical characteristic of the cell niche, is important in regulating cell proliferation, migration, and lineage specification. However, the mechanism by which mechanical signals guide osteogenic and adipogenic commitment of stem cells remains difficult to dissect. To explore this question, we generated a range of polydimethylsiloxane-based matrices with differing degrees of stiffness that mimicked the stiffness seen in natural tissues and examined adipose stem cell morphology, spreading, vinculin expression and differentiation along the osteogenic and adipogenic pathways...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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