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Yao-Tang Chang, Sunil Sharma, Miao-Ken Hung, Yu-Hsuan Lee, Show-An Chen
σ-π conjugated polymer strategy is proposed for designing electroluminescent host polymers with silylene-diphenylene as the backbone repeat unit giving a high triplet energy (ET = 2.67 eV). By incorporation of high ET (3.0 eV) electron (oxadiazole, OXD) and hole (triphenyl amine, TPA) transport moieties, or TPA alone (in this case, the main chain acts as electron transport channel) as side arms on the silylene, the high ET bipolar and unipolar polymers are formed, allowing a use of iridium green phosphor (Ir(ppy)2(acac), Ir-G) (ET = 2...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
M J May, J Weaver, K Widmann, G E Kemp, D Thorn, J D Colvin, M B Schneider, A Moore, B E Blue
The Dante is an 18 channel filtered diode array used at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) to measure the spectrally and temporally resolved radiation flux between 50 eV and 20 keV from various targets. The absolute flux is determined from the radiometric calibration of the x-ray diodes, filters, and mirrors and a reconstruction algorithm applied to the recorded voltages from each channel. The reconstructed spectra are very low resolution with features consistent with the instrument response and are not necessarily consistent with the spectral emission features from the plasma...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
E Parke, W X Ding, J Duff, D L Brower
Measuring high-frequency fluctuations (above tearing mode frequencies) is important for diagnosing instabilities and transport phenomena. The Madison Symmetric Torus interferometer-polarimeter system has been upgraded to utilize improved planar-diode mixer technology. The new mixers reduce phase noise and allow more sensitive measurements of fluctuations at high frequency. Typical polarimeter rms phase noise values of 0.05°-0.07° are obtained with 400 kHz bandwidth. The low phase noise enables the resolution of fluctuations up to 250 kHz for polarimetry and 600 kHz for interferometry...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Alexander Pikin, James G Alessi, Edward N Beebe, Deepak Raparia, John Ritter
Electron diode guns, which have strongly varying magnetic or electric fields in a cathode-anode gap, were investigated in order to generate laminar electron beams with high current density using magnetically immersed guns. By creating a strongly varying radial electric field in a cathode-anode gap of the electron gun, it was demonstrated that the optical properties of the gun can be significantly altered, which allows the generation of a laminar, high-current electron beam with relatively low magnetic field on the cathode...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
M E Austin, M W Brookman, W L Rowan, S Danani, E W Bryerton, P Dougherty
On ITER, second harmonic optically thick electron cyclotron emission (ECE) in the range of 220-340 GHz will supply the electron temperature (Te). To investigate the requirements and capabilities prescribed for the ITER system, a prototype radiometer covering this frequency range has been developed by Virginia Diodes, Inc. The first plasma measurements with this instrument have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak, with lab bench tests and measurements of third through fifth harmonic ECE from high Te plasmas...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
E Pasch, M N A Beurskens, S A Bozhenkov, G Fuchert, J Knauer, R C Wolf
This paper describes the design of the Thomson scattering system at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. For the first operation campaign we installed a 10 spatial channel system to cover a radial half profile of the plasma cross section. The start-up system is based on one Nd:YAG laser with 10 Hz repetition frequency, one observation optics, five fiber bundles with one delay line each, and five interference filter polychromators with five spectral channels and silicon avalanche diodes as detectors. High dynamic range analog to digital converters with 14 bit, 1 GS/s are used to digitize the signals...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
William G Tobias, Jason S Rosenberg, Nicholas R Hutzler, Kang-Kuen Ni
We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to the spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64 °C, more than 85 °C below the ambient temperature...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
G Acconcia, A Cominelli, I Rech, M Ghioni
In recent years, lifetime measurements by means of the Time Correlated Single Photon Counting (TCSPC) technique have led to a significant breakthrough in medical and biological fields. Unfortunately, the many advantages of TCSPC-based approaches come along with the major drawback of a relatively long acquisition time. The exploitation of multiple channels in parallel could in principle mitigate this issue, and at the same time it opens the way to a multi-parameter analysis of the optical signals, e.g., as a function of wavelength or spatial coordinates...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
B L Fan, W Xiong, S G Wang, L J Wang
We demonstrate a method to stabilize laser frequency which can be continuously tuned over a range of 1.5 GHz. It is based on saturated absorption spectroscopy (SAS) generated by an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) which is modulated by an electro-optic amplitude modulator (EO-AM). The spectra consist of not only the original peaks corresponding to resonant and crossover lines of (133)Cs D2 line, but also signals introduced by sidebands from an EO-AM. Thus, the laser frequency can be locked to any point within the range of the spectra...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
S Kobayashi, S Ohshima, H Matsuda, X X Lu, D Kokubu, K Ida, T Kobayashi, M Yoshinuma, S Kado, T Oishi, K Nagasaki, H Okada, T Minami, S Yamamoto, Y Nakamura, A Ishizawa, N Kenmochi, Y Otani, S Konoshima, T Mizuuchi
This paper describes the development study of the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) for the turbulent transport study in Heliotron J. Modification of the sightlines (10 × 4 for edge and 10 × 2 for edge) enables us to obtain 2-dimensional BES imaging. The cooling effect on the reduction in the electrical noise of avalanche photodiode (APD) assembly has been investigated using a refrigerant cooling system. When the temperature of the APD element has set to be -20 °C, the electrical noise can be reduced more than 50%...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P Shi, J Chen, L Gao, Y Liu, H Liu, Y N Zhou, G Zhuang
The multi-channel three-wave polarimeter-interferometer system on J-TEXT tokamak has been exploited to measure far-forward collective scattering from electron density fluctuations. The diagnostic utilizes far infrared lasers operated at 432 μm with 17-channel vertical chords (3 cm chord spacing), covering the entire cross section of plasma. Scattering laser power is measured using a high-sensitivity Schottky planar diode mixer which can also detect polarimetric and interferometric phase simultaneously. The system provides a line-integrated measurement of density fluctuations with maximum measurable wave number: k⊥max ≤ 2 cm(-1) and time response up to 350 kHz...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
P S Datte, M Eckart, A S Moore, W Thompson, G Vergel de Dios
Neutron-induced visible scintillation in neutron time of flight (NToF) diagnostics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is measured with 40 mm single stage micro-channel plate photomultipliers and a 40 mm vacuum photodiode, outside the neutron line of sight. In NIF experiments with 14 MeV neutron yields above Y > 10 × 10(15) these tubes are configured to deliver of order 1 nC of charge in the nominally 5 ns NToF into a 50 Ω load. We have examined a number of 40 mm tubes manufactured by Photek Ltd. of St...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Kunito Fukuda, Naoki Asakawa
A straightforward method for a variable frequency electron spin resonance/electrically detected magnetic resonance (ESR/EDMR) spectroscopy using a C-band microwave cavity equipped with waveguide windows is presented. The method enables us to perform quasi-continuous multiple resonance frequency (MF-ESR/EDMR) experiments for electronic devices. The C-band microwave circuitry was selected because of larger available sample volume than that for conventional X-band one. All the measurements were performed using a combined sample of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl/ pn-junction Si diode...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Michael H Gold, Julie Biron, Liora Levi, Whitney Sensing
BACKGROUND: The aging process is often associated with undesirable effects on facial skin such as skin redundancy, reduction of elasticity, and increased wrinkling. Radiofrequency (RF) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are widely used, clinically proven technologies for skin rejuvenation. STUDY OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and usage compliance of the home-use device, utilizing RF and LED energies, for self-treatment of periorbital wrinkles and improvement of skin appearance...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Ana Luiza Sereia, Renata Longhini, Gisely Cristiny Lopes, João Carlos Palazzo de Mello
INTRODUCTION: The tree Trichilia catigua, popularly known as "catuaba", shows several biological activities and has emerged as a potential source of new drugs. Considering that more than 10 species are known under the same popular name, regulatory agencies require more rigorous quality control of this medicinal plant. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a methodology using capillary electrophoresis (CE) with ultraviolet (UV) detection for analysing polyphenols in the ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) of Trichilia catigua...
December 2, 2016: Phytochemical Analysis: PCA
Robert H James, Robert J Landry, Bennett N Walker, Ilko K Ilev
The authors evaluated the potential for ocular damage from optical radiation emitted by Light Emitting Diode (LED) based lamps used for general illumination. Ten LED lamps were randomly selected off the shelf from a local home improvement store. The LEDs were behind diffusers in half of these lamps, while in the other half, the LEDs were clearly visible. In addition, a battery powered LED lantern having a LED source behind a diffuser was measured. The optical radiation emissions from two common incandescent lamps were also measured to compare the relative hazards of LED and incandescent lamps...
January 2017: Health Physics
Linus Pithan, Paul Beyer, Laura Bogula, Anton Zykov, Peter Schäfer, Jonathan Rawle, Chris Nicklin, Andreas Opitz, Stefan Kowarik
A novel strategy for direct photoalignment of molecular materials using optothermal re-orientation is introduced. Photoalignment for molecular materials such as the organic semiconductor tetracene is shown, without relying on additional photoreactive dopants or alignment layers. Patterning and polarized light emission, e.g., for polarized organic light emitting diodes is demonstrated.
December 1, 2016: Advanced Materials
Young-Sam Park, Kyung-Hoon Han, Jehan Kim, Doo-Hee Cho, Jonghee Lee, Yoonjay Han, Jong Tae Lim, Nam Sung Cho, Byounggon Yu, Jeong-Ik Lee, Jang-Joo Kim
To date, all deposition equipment has been developed to produce planar films. Thus lens arrays with a lens diameter of <1 mm have been manufactured by combining deposition with other technologies, such as masks, surface treatment, molding etc. Furthermore, a nano-lens array (NLA) with a sufficiently small lens diameter (<1 μm) is necessary to avoid image quality degradation in high resolution displays. In this study, an organic NLA made using a conventional deposition technique - without combining with other techniques - is reported...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Huihua Li, Juan Song, Linlin Wang, Xiaomiao Feng, Ruiqing Liu, Wenjin Zeng, Zhendong Huang, Yanwen Ma, Lianhui Wang
Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are crucial to meet the growing needs for portable electronic devices such as foldable phones and wearable electronics. As promising candidates for pseudocapacitor electrode materials, polyaniline (PANI) orderly nanotube arrays are prepared via a simple template electrodeposition method. The structures of the final product were characterized using various characterization techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
December 1, 2016: Nanoscale
Ramon Springer, Byoung Yeop Kang, Raju Lampande, Dae Hyun Ahn, Simone Lenk, Sebastian Reineke, Jang Hyuk Kwon
This paper demonstrates 2-stack and 3-stack white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with fluorescent blue and phosphorescent yellow emissive units. The 2-stack and 3-stack WOLED comprises blue-yellow and blue-blue-yellow (blue-yellow-blue) combinations. The position of the yellow emitter and possible cavity lengths in different stack architectures are theoretically and experimentally investigated to reach Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates of near (0.333/0.333). Here, a maximum external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 23...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
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