Read by QxMD icon Read


Lesley W Chan, Daniel E Morse, Michael J Gordon
Near- and sub-wavelength photonic structures are used by numerous organisms (e.g., insects, cephalopods, fish, birds) to create vivid and often dynamically-tunable colors, as well as create, manipulate, or capture light for vision, communication, crypsis, photosynthesis, and defense. This review introduces the physics of moth eye (ME)-like, biomimetic nanostructures and discusses their application to reduce optical losses and improve efficiency of various optoelectronic devices, including photodetectors, photovoltaics, imagers, and light emitting diodes...
March 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Paulo V Mezzaroba, Dalton M Pessôa Filho, Alessandro M Zagatto, Fabiana Andrade Machado
This study aimed to investigate the effect of prior LED sessions on the responses of cardiorespiratory parameters during the running incremental step test. Twenty-six healthy, physically active, young men, aged between 20 and 30 years, took part in this study. Participants performed two incremental load tests after placebo (PLA) and light-emitting diode application (LED), and had their gas exchange, heart rate (HR), blood lactate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) monitored during all tests. The PLA and LED conditions were compared using the dependent Student t test with significance set at 5%...
March 15, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Clizia Guccione, Maria Camilla Bergonzi, Khaled M Awada, Vieri Piazzini, Anna Rita Bilia
The aim of this study was the development and characterization of lipid nanocarriers using food grade components for oral delivery of Serenoa repens CO2 extract, namely microemulsions (MEs) and self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDSs) to improve the oral absorption. A commercial blend (CB) containing 320 of S. repens CO2 extract plus the aqueous soluble extracts of nettle root and pineapple stem was formulated in two MEs and two SMEDDSs. The optimized ME loaded with the CB (CBM2) had a very low content of water (only 17...
March 15, 2018: Planta Medica
Tanya Moutray, Jennifer R Evans, Noemi Lois, David J Armstrong, Tunde Peto, Augusto Azuara-Blanco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a chronic progressive disease of the retinal microvasculature associated with prolonged hyperglycaemia. Proliferative DR (PDR) is a sight-threatening complication of DR and is characterised by the development of abnormal new vessels in the retina, optic nerve head or anterior segment of the eye. Argon laser photocoagulation has been the gold standard for the treatment of PDR for many years, using regimens evaluated by the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS)...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Xiaoyong Huang, Shaoying Wang, Bin Li, Qi Sun, Heng Guo
In this work, we reported on high-brightness Eu3+ -activated Ca3 Lu(AlO)3 (BO3 )4 (CLAB) red-emitting phosphors. Under 397 nm excitation, the CLAB:Eu3+ phosphors showed intense red emissions at around 621 nm with CIE coordinates of (0.657, 0.343). The optimal doping concentration of Eu3+ ions was found to be 30 mol. %, and the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ sample possessed high-color purity of 93% and ultra-high internal quantum efficiency as great as 98.5%. Importantly, the CLAB:0.3Eu3+ also had good thermal stability. Finally, a white-light-emitting diode (WLED) lamp with good color-rendering index was fabricated by using a 365 nm ultraviolet chip and the phosphor blends of CLAB:0...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
N K Stevenson, C T A Brown, J-M Hopkins, M D Dawson, C Kränkel, A A Lagatsky
We report on the first demonstration, to the best of our knowledge, of a diode-pumped Tm:LuScO3 laser. Efficient and broadly tunable continuous wave operation in the 1973-2141 nm region and femtosecond mode-locking through the use of an ion-implanted InGaAsSb quantum-well-based semiconductor saturable absorber mirror are realized. When mode-locked, near-transform-limited pulses as short as 170 fs were generated at 2093 nm with an average output power of 113 mW and a pulse repetition frequency of 115.2 MHz...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Haizhou Huang, Jianhong Huang, Yan Ge, Hui Zheng, Wen Weng, Hongchun Wu, Wenxiong Lin
We realize Ho laser operation in a composite Tm/Ho:YAG gain medium for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, which was integrated via diffusion bonding the Tm-doped and Ho-doped crystals into a single bulk structure. A maximum output power around 6 W was obtained with a slope efficiency of 40.1% and conversion efficiency (CE) of 33.6% from the absorbed 785 nm laser diode to 2122 nm Ho laser, which is comparable with CE in 1.9 μm LD pumped Ho lasers. Such a scheme is demonstrated to be another valid way for Ho laser generation here, which is of significance to be adopted in other host media or waveguide structures for an assessable, compact, and efficient Ho laser...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rong Ma, Wei Liu, Zhongzhong Qin, Xiaolong Su, Xiaojun Jia, Junxiang Zhang, Jiangrui Gao
Using a nondegenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) process based on a double-Λ scheme in hot cesium vapor, we demonstrate a compact diode-laser-pumped quantum light source for the generation of quantum correlated twin beams with a maximum squeezing of 6.5 dB. The squeezing is observed at a Fourier frequency in the audio band down to 0.7 kHz which, to the best of our knowledge, is the first observation of sub-kilohertz intensity-difference squeezing in an atomic system so far. A phase-matching condition is also investigated in our system, which confirms the spatial-multi-mode characteristics of the FWM process...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Y K Lin, Q H Wu, S Z Wang, A H Wu, L B Su, L H Zheng, J F Chen, Z P Qin, G Q Xie, X D Xu, Q S Song, Q H Yang
The Nd3+ -doped Bi4 Ge3 O12 (BGO) single-crystal fiber (SCF) was successfully grown by the micro-pulling-down method with the resistance heating system. The fluorescence spectrum and transmission spectrum of the Nd:BGO SCF were measured. Excited by a continuous-wave 808-nm laser diode, a fluorescence peak around 1064 nm was observed. At an absorbed pump power of 15.25 W, the Nd:BGO SCF laser delivered a power of 3.37 W with a slope efficiency of 31.2%.
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Michael Kolano, Benedict Gräf, Stefan Weber, Daniel Molter, Georg von Freymann
We demonstrate a polarization-multiplexed, single-laser system for terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy without an external delay line. The fiber laser emits two pulse trains with independently adjustable repetition rates, utilizing only one laser-active section and one pump diode. With a standard fiber-coupled THz setup and a polarization-multiplexed optical amplifier, we are able to measure transients with a spectral bandwidth of 1.5 THz and a dynamic range of 50 dB in a measurement time of 1 s. Based on the novel laser architecture, we call this new approach single-laser polarization-controlled optical sampling, or SLAPCOPS...
March 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Rugang Geng, Ram C Subedi, Hoang M Luong, Minh T Pham, Weichuan Huang, Xiaoguang Li, Kunlun Hong, Ming Shao, Kai Xiao, Lawrence A Hornak, Tho D Nguyen
Hyperfine interaction (HFI), originating from the coupling between spins of charge carriers and nuclei, has been demonstrated to strongly influence the spin dynamics of localized charges in organic semiconductors. Nevertheless, the role of charge localization on the HFI strength in organic thin films has not yet been experimentally investigated. In this study, the statistical relation hypothesis that the effective HFI of holes in regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) is proportional to 1/N^{0.5} has been examined, where N is the number of the random nuclear spins within the envelope of the hole wave function...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Juan Zhao, Zhihe Chi, Zhan Yang, Xiaojie Chen, Michael S Arnold, Yi Zhang, Jiarui Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Matthew P Aldred
Truly stretchable electronics, wherein all components themselves permit elastic deformation as the whole devices are stretched, exhibit unique advantages over other strategies, such as simple fabrication process, high integrity of entire components and intimate integration with curvilinear surfaces. In contrast to the stretchable devices using stretchable interconnectors to integrate with rigid active devices, truly stretchable devices are realized with or without intentionally employing structural engineering (e...
March 15, 2018: Nanoscale
Ji Yong Choi, Cheol Young Choi
This study was conducted to identify the possible effect of recombinant vertebrate ancient long (VAL) opsin as a non-visual "photoreceptor" in the deep brain of goldfish, Carassius auratus. In addition, we investigated the effects of green-wavelength light on the predictable reproductive function of VAL-opsin as a green-sensitive pigment in the deep brain. To determine this, we quantified changes in gonadotropin hormone (GTH) [GTHα, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH)] and estrogen receptor (ER; ERα and ERβ) mRNA expression levels associated with goldfish reproduction as well as changes in plasma FSH, LH, and 17β-estradiol (E2 ) activities after injection of recombinant VAL-opsin protein in two concentrations (0...
March 14, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Alina Keller, Piotr Bialecki, Torsten Johannes Wilhelm, Marcus Klaus Vetter
Significant numbers of liver biopsies fail to yield representative tissue samples. This study was conducted to evaluate the ability of LED-based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to discriminate tumors from liver parenchyma. Ex vivo spectra were acquired from malignant lesions and liver parenchyma of 32 patients who underwent liver resection using a white light source and several LEDs. Integrated spectra of two combined LEDs with emission peaks at 470 nm and 515 nm were classified with 98.4% sensitivity and 99...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Shuhei Okuyama, Tadanobu Nagaya, Kazuhide Sato, Fusa Ogata, Yasuhiro Maruoka, Peter L Choyke, Hisataka Kobayashi
Near-infrared photoimmunotherapy (NIR-PIT), a promising cancer therapy utilizing an antibody-photoabsorber conjugate (APC) and NIR light, which induces rapid necrotic cell death only in APC-bound cells. Effective NIR-PIT in mouse models has been achieved using superficial light illumination (SLI) with light emitting diodes (LEDs) or lasers, but in the clinical setting, fiber optic diffusers have been employed to deliver light to deeper tumors. However, the performance of NIR light in tissue delivered by fiber optic diffusers is poorly understood...
February 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Michael Schwake, Andrei Nemes, Jana Dondrop, Juliane Schroeteler, Stephanie Schipmann, Volker Senner, Walter Stummer, Christian Ewelt
BACKGROUND: Light irradiation (635 nm) of cells containing protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) after 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) pretreatment causes cell death via different pathways including apoptosis and necrosis, as previously demonstrated for malignant glioma cells. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether various malignant pediatric brain tumors, which have been shown to accumulate PPIX, would also be susceptible to photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: Medulloblastoma (DAOY, UW228), pNET (PFSK-1), and rhabdoid tumor (BT16) cell lines were incubated with 5-ALA in variable concentrations for 4 h...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Trinh Do Van Nga, Dinh-Toi Chu, Le Quynh Anh
Hemophilia-a bleeding disorder due to the lack of clotting factors-is mostly induced by genetic factors. Its most common type is hemophilia A. Hemorrhage in hemophilia A may occur in several different sites of the body, including those inside the oral cavity, such as mucous membrane and gum. However, only a few studies and case reports on dental issues of hemophilia A patients have been conducted. In clinical dentistry, treatment procedures are invasive, possibly leading to more severe bleeding, especially in hemophilia A cases...
March 14, 2018: Special Care in Dentistry
Yinqi Luo, Tiancheng Yu, Li Nian, Linlin Liu, Fei Huang, Zengqi Xie, Yuguang Ma
Cathode interlayer is of crucial importance for efficient electron injection in inverted polymer light-emitting diodes (PLEDs) to realize high electroluminescence efficiency. Here, a novel photoconductive cathode interlayer based on organic dye doped ZnO (ZnO:PBI-H) is applied as cathode buffer layer in PLEDs, and dramatically enhanced device performance is obtained. The photo doping of ZnO may greatly promote the electron injection ability under the device working conditions, which increases the electron-hole recombination efficiency when using P-PPV as the light emitting material...
March 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hadi Keivan, Daryoush Shahbazi-Gahrouei, Ahmad Shanei, Alireza Amouheidari
Background: Dosimetric accuracy in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is the main part of quality assurance program. Improper beam modeling of small fields by treatment planning system (TPS) can lead to inaccuracy in treatment delivery. This study aimed to evaluate of the dose delivery accuracy at small segments of IMRT technique using two-dimensional (2D) array as well as evaluate the capability of two TPSs algorithm in modeling of small fields. Methods: Irradiation were performed using 6 MV photon beam of Siemens Artiste linear accelerator...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Keyvan Jabbari, Fakhereh Pashaei, Mohammad R Ay, Alireza Amouheidari, Mohammad B Tavakoli
Background: MapCHECK2 is a two-dimensional diode arrays planar dosimetry verification system. Dosimetric results are evaluated with gamma index. This study aims to provide comprehensive information on the impact of various factors on the gamma index values of MapCHECK2, which is mostly used for IMRT dose verification. Methods: Seven fields were planned for 6 and 18 MV photons. The azimuthal angle is defined as any rotation of collimators or the MapCHECK2 around the central axis, which was varied from 5 to -5°...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Signals and Sensors
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"