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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331926/two-hump-shaped-angular-distributions-of-neutrons-and-soft-x-rays-in-a-small-plasma-focus-device
#1
Morteza Habibi
Angular distributions of soft X-rays (SXRs) and neutrons emitted by a small plasma focus device (PFD) were investigated simultaneously using TLD-100 dosimeters and Geiger-Muller activation counters, respectively. The distributions represented two humps with a small dip at the angular position 0° and reduced from the angles of ± 15° and ± 30° for the neutrons and SXRs, respectively. The maximum yield of 2.98 × 108 neutrons per shot of the device was obtained at 13.5kV and 6.5mbar. A time of flight (TOF) of 75...
December 28, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314051/water-equivalent-presage%C3%A2-for-synchrotron-radiation-therapy-dosimetry
#2
Frank M Gagliardi, Liam Day, Christopher M Poole, Rick D Franich, Moshi Geso
PURPOSE: Synchrotron Radiation Therapy techniques are currently being trialled and commissioned at synchrotrons around the world. The patient treatment planning systems (TPS) developed for these treatments use simulated data of the synchrotron x-ray beam to produce the dosimetry in the treatment plan. The purpose of this study was to investigate a water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeter capable of 3D dosimetry over an energy range suitable for synchrotron x-ray beams. METHODS: Water equivalent PRESAGE® dosimeters were fabricated with a radiological effective atomic number similar to water over an energy range of 10 keV to 10 MeV...
January 3, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310230/effect-of-salinity-and-ph-on-the-calibration-of-the-extraction-of-pharmaceuticals-from-water-by-passil
#3
Hanna Męczykowska, Piotr Stepnowski, Magda Caban
High salinity and a relatively high pH are two factors characterizing the marine water environment, which is one of the main final reservoirs receiving pharmaceutical residues. The same factors have an undeniable impact on the extraction efficiency and kinetics of uptakes of polar analytes from water by sorbent-based passive sampling techniques. Recently, we presented a novel passive sampling technique, in which ionic liquids are applied as receiving phases for pharmaceutical monitoring in water (the Passive Sampling with Ionic Liquids technique)...
March 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306641/testicular-seminoma-scattered-radiation-dose-to-the-contralateral-testis-in-the-modern-era
#4
Hester Lieng, Peter Chung, Tony Lam, Padraig Warde, Tim Craig
PURPOSE: Limited data exist on testicular dose measurements using modern radiation treatment techniques and volumes for testicular seminoma. The aim of this study was to report the testicular dose using in vivo measurements in men with testicular seminoma receiving abdominopelvic radiation therapy (APRT) and a modified dog-leg field with and without gonadal shielding. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Men with histologically confirmed testicular seminoma, either newly diagnosed stage II disease or isolated retroperitoneal relapse on surveillance for stage I disease, treated with APRT had testicular dose measurements recorded using MOSFET dosimeters...
January 3, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306585/radiation-safety-for-pregnant-workers-at-a-proton-facility
#5
Genevieve Maquilan, Marc R Bussière, Joseph McCormack, Tara Medich, Andrzej Niemierko, Helen A Shih
PURPOSE: To quantify radiation exposure of radiation therapy technologists (RTTs) in a proton treatment facility in comparison with a photon therapy facility, to inform and establish these specialized occupational safety guidelines. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Two groups of RTTs, consisting of 12 full-time passive scattering proton RTTs and 18 full-time conventional photon RTTs, wore an additional dosimetry badge at the waist for a period of 14 weeks. The 2 groups of RTTs were given identical instructions on the proper use of the badges...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305204/radiation-exposure-to-the-urologist-using-an-over-couch-radiation-source-compared-to-an-under-couch-radiation-source-in-contemporary-urology-practice
#6
Andrew M Harris
OBJECTIVE: To compare radiation dosage to the Urologist using an over-couch system, X-ray tube over table, and an under-couch system, X-ray tube under table. Urologist continue to perform more endoscopic surgery requiring fluoroscopy. Fluoroscopy, or electromagnetic radiation, can cause cellular damage when passing through tissue. These systems are compared with respect to radiation dosage to the urologist. METHODS: A single urologic surgeon utilized a dosimeter badge while using an over-couch system...
January 2, 2018: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303547/hydrogel-nanosensors-for-colorimetric-detection-and-dosimetry-in-proton-beam-radiotherapy
#7
Sahil Inamdar, Karthik Pushpavanam, Jarrod Lentz, Martin Bues, Aman Anand, Kaushal Rege
Proton beam therapy (PBT) is a state-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment approach that uses focused proton beams for tumor ablation.[1] A key advantage of this approach over conventional photon radiotherapy (XRT) is the unique dose deposition characteristics of protons, resulting in superior healthy tissue sparing. This results in fewer unwanted side effects and improved outcomes for patients. Current available dosimeters are intrinsic, complex and expensive; hence cannot be used to determine the dose delivered to the tumor routinely...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303367/radiation-dose-from-x-ray-examinations-of-impacted-canines-cone-beam-computed-tomography-vs-two-dimensional-imaging
#8
Nils Kadesjö, Randi Lynds, Mats Nilsson, Xie-Qi Shi
OBJECTIVES: To compare the radiation dose to children examined for impacted canines, using two-dimensional examinations (panoramic and periapical radiographs) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). METHODS: Organ doses were determined using an anthropomorphic 10-year child phantom. Two CBCT devices, a ProMax3D and a NewTom5G, were examined using thermoluminescent dosimeters. For the panoramic radiograph, a Promax device was used and for periapical radiographs, a Prostyle device with a ProSensor digital sensor was used...
January 5, 2018: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296035/grid-block-design-based-on-monte-carlo-simulated-dosimetry-the-linear-quadratic-and-hug-kellerer-radiobiological-models
#9
Somayeh Gholami, Hassan Ali Nedaie, Francesco Longo, Mohammad Reza Ay, Sharifeh A Dini, Ali S Meigooni
Purpose: The clinical efficacy of Grid therapy has been examined by several investigators. In this project, the hole diameter and hole spacing in Grid blocks were examined to determine the optimum parameters that give a therapeutic advantage. Methods: The evaluations were performed using Monte Carlo (MC) simulation and commonly used radiobiological models. The Geant4 MC code was used to simulate the dose distributions for 25 different Grid blocks with different hole diameters and center-to-center spacing...
October 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290555/-experimental-determination-of-correction-factors-of-four-detectors-used-in-small-field-radiotherapy
#10
L Ben Salem, A Essadok, I Saidani, M Mahdouani, M Benna, K Mahjoubi, M Besbes, F Benna
PURPOSE: The aim of this work is to determine experimentally the correction factors [Formula: see text] for four active commercial dosimeters: two microchambers and two diode detectors based on the output factor measured with radiochromic film for a radiotherapy linear accelerator equipped with circular cones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initially, a radiochromic film dosimetry measurement protocol with an accuracy of 2% was developed to approach the "reference output factor"...
December 28, 2017: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290547/the-influence-of-noise-on-the-vocal-dose-in-women
#11
Alessandra Terra Vasconcelos Rabelo, Juliana Nunes Santos, Bárbara Oliveira Souza, Ana Cristina Côrtes Gama, Max de Castro Magalhães
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate if noise interferes with the vocal dose in women without vocal complaints. STUDY DESIGN: This is an experimental and comparative study. METHODS: Data were collected on 27 women between 22 and 50 years of age without vocal complaints in a university classroom. Speech-language pathology evaluation was performed employing auditory-perceptual analysis and a vocal symptom questionnaire. The acoustics of the classroom were evaluated via both observation of the characteristics of the room and the quantification of background noise and reverberation time...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277407/skin-cancer-interventions-across-the-cancer-control-continuum-review-of-technology-environment-and-theory
#12
REVIEW
Jennifer M Taber, Barbra A Dickerman, Jean-Phillip Okhovat, Alan C Geller, Laura A Dwyer, Anne M Hartman, Frank M Perna
The National Cancer Institute's Skin Cancer Intervention across the Cancer Control Continuum model was developed to summarize research and identify gaps concerning skin cancer interventions. We conducted a mapping review to characterize whether behavioral interventions addressing skin cancer prevention and control from 2000 to 2015 included (1) technology, (2) environmental manipulations (policy and/or built environment), and (3) a theoretical basis. We included 85 studies with a randomized controlled or quasi-experimental design that targeted behavioral intervention in skin cancer for children and/or adults; seven of these were dissemination or implementation studies...
December 22, 2017: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276635/individual-fit-testing-of-hearing-protection-devices-based-on-microphone-in-real-ear
#13
Azam Biabani, Mohsen Aliabadi, Rostam Golmohammadi, Maryam Farhadian
Background: Labeled noise reduction (NR) data presented by manufacturers are considered one of the main challenging issues for occupational experts in employing hearing protection devices (HPDs). This study aimed to determine the actual NR data of typical HPDs using the objective fit testing method with a microphone in real ear (MIRE) method. Methods: Five available commercially earmuff protectors were investigated in 30 workers exposed to reference noise source according to the standard method, ISO 11904-1...
December 2017: Safety and Health At Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245152/operator-pelvic-radiation-exposure-during-percutaneous-coronary-procedures
#14
Alessandro Sciahbasi, Emanuela Piccaluga, Alessandro Sarandrea, Giacomo Nucci, Nicola Caretto, Stefano Rigattieri, Silvio Fedele, Silvio Romano, Maria Penco
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate operator pelvic radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary procedures. BACKGROUND: During percutaneous coronary procedures, the operator's pelvic region is close to the x-ray source and is probably exposed to more radiation than the operator's thorax. However, no data are available on the pelvic radiation exposure of interventional cardiologists. METHODS: The RADIANT study (NCT01974453) is a prospective, single-center, observational study evaluating operator radiation exposure during percutaneous coronary procedures using electronic dosimeters placed at thorax level...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Invasive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237961/assessment-the-accuracy-of-dose-calculation-in-build-up-region-for-two-radiotherapy-treatment-planning-systems
#15
Bagher Farhood, Mohammad Taghi Bahreyni Toossi, Mahdi Ghorbani, Elahe Salari, Courtney Knaup
AIM: Our objective is to quantify dose calculation accuracy in the build-up region using TiGRT and Prowess Panther treatment planning systems (TPSs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thermoluminescent dosimeter-100 chips were used in a phantom for dose measurement. TiGRT Version 1.2 (LinaTech, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) and Prowess Panther version 5.1 (Prowess Inc., Concord, CA, USA) TPSs were also used for dose calculations. Finally, the confidence limit values obtained to quantify dose calculation accuracy of the TPSs at build-up region for different field sizes and various gantry angles...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237950/occupational-doses-of-cardiologists-in-cath-labs-and-simulation-method
#16
REVIEW
Reza Fardid, Fatemeh Mirzadeh, Hadi Rezaei
In recent years, using the ionizing radiation in the interventional cardiology has been increased; this is because of the rapid growth of the number of interventional procedures and the high levels of radiation dose in these examinations. Therefore, it is necessary to develop procedures for managing the use of fluoroscopy radiation to ensure that patients and personnel are not exposed to excessive levels of radiation. It seems that by the new generation devices of fluoroscopy that are equipped with a real dosimeters or dose area product (DAP)-meter which are able to record the produced dose rate in the area of patient's body in each procedure, it is possible to calculate the cardiologist dose with simulation...
October 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235452/comparison-of-external-doses-between-radio-contaminated-areas-and-areas-with-high-natural-terrestrial-background-using-the-individual-dosimeter-d-shuttle-75-months-after-the-fukushima-daiichi-nuclear-power-plant-accident
#17
Masaharu Tsubokura, Shuhei Nomura, Izumi Yoshida, Toyoaki Sawano, Makoto Miyazaki, Satoru Tomita, Tomoyoshi Oikawa, Masami Watanabe
After the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, the air dose gradually decreases every year due to the physical decay of radioactive materials and environmental changes as well as countermeasures. However, there is little information on personal behavioral patterns and individual dose from external exposure among the inhabitants around the nuclear power plant. To evaluate the dose from external exposure in Minamisoma city and compare the differences with outside of Fukushima, we started the external dose assessment project in cooperation with city officials in Minamisoma as well as other three cities in Japan, where the natural terrestrial background radiation level is relatively high...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232400/biological-characterization-of-a-novel-in-vitro-cell-irradiator
#18
Tyler L Fowler, Michael M Fisher, Alison M Bailey, Bryan P Bednarz, Randall J Kimple
To evaluate the overall robustness of a novel cellular irradiator we performed a series of well-characterized, dose-responsive assays to assess the consequences of DNA damage. We used a previously described novel irradiation system and a traditional 137Cs source to irradiate a cell line. The generation of reactive oxygen species was assessed using chloromethyl-H2DCFDA dye, the induction of DNA DSBs was observed using the comet assay, and the initiation of DNA break repair was assessed through γH2AX image cytometry...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230093/tld-and-osld-dosimetry-systems-for-remote-audits-of-radiotherapy-external-beam-calibration
#19
P Alvarez, S F Kry, F Stingo, D Followill
The Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core QA Center in Houston (IROC-H) performs remote dosimetry audits of more than 20,000 megavoltage photon and electron beams each year. Both a thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD-100) and optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter (OSLD; nanoDot) system are commissioned for this task, with the OSLD system being predominant due to the more time-efficient read-out process. The measurement apparatus includes 3 TLD or 2 OSLD in an acrylic mini-phantom, which are irradiated by the institution under reference geometry...
November 2017: Radiation Measurements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227874/selecting-passive-dosimetry-technologies-for-measuring-the-external-dose-of-terrestrial-wildlife
#20
REVIEW
Phakphum Aramrun, Nicholas A Beresford, Michael D Wood
Dosimeters attached to wild animals can be used to validate regulatory assessment approaches and models for estimating radiation exposure of wild animals. Such measurements are also necessary to ensure that robust dose-effect relationships can be developed from the results of field research programmes. This paper presents the first comprehensive evaluation of the different dosimetry technologies available for specifically measuring the external exposure of wildlife. Guidance is provided on the selection of appropriate passive dosimetry approaches for directly measuring external exposure of terrestrial wildlife under field conditions...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
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