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Rossana Morabito, Roberta Costa, Valentina Rizzo, Alessia Remigante, Charity Nofziger, Giuseppa La Spada, Angela Marino, Markus Paulmichl, Silvia Dossena
Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous and abundant jellyfish of the Mediterranean Sea and possesses a venom with hemolytic and cytolytic activity for which the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of mammalian cells to crude venom from the nematocysts of P. noctiluca profoundly alters the ion conductance of the plasma membrane, therefore affecting homeostatic functions such as the regulation and maintenance of cellular volume...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ana Muñoz-Vera, Jose Matías Peñas Castejón, Gregorio García
The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012...
September 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mar Bosch-Belmar, Charaf M'Rabet, Raouf Dhaouadi, Mohamed Chalghaf, Mohamed Néjib Daly Yahia, Verónica Fuentes, Stefano Piraino, Ons Kéfi-Daly Yahia
Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms...
2016: PloS One
Dalia Ponce, Diane L Brinkman, Jeremy Potriquet, Jason Mulvenna
Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors...
April 5, 2016: Toxins
H F Swift, L Gómez Daglio, M N Dawson
Evolutionary inference can be complicated by morphological crypsis, particularly in open marine systems that may rapidly dissipate signals of evolutionary processes. These complications may be alleviated by studying systems with simpler histories and clearer boundaries, such as marine lakes-small bodies of seawater entirely surrounded by land. As an example, we consider the jellyfish Mastigias spp. which occurs in two ecotypes, one in marine lakes and one in coastal oceanic habitats, throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP)...
June 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Stefano Martellos, Luca Ukosich, Massimo Avian
Identification of organisms is traditionally based on the use of "classic" identification keys, normally printed on paper. These keys have several drawbacks: they are mainly based on the systematics, requiring identification of orders, families and genera at first; they are written by experts for other experts, in a specific scientific jargon; they have a "frozen" structure (sequence of theses/antitheses); once published, they cannot be changed or updated without printing a new edition. Due to the use of computers, it is now possible to build new digital identification tools, which: 1) can be produced automatically, if the characters are stored in a database; 2) can be freed from the traditional systematics, giving priority to easy-to-observe characters, incl...
2016: ZooKeys
Jinru He, Lianming Zheng, Wenjing Zhang, Yuanshao Lin
The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae...
2015: PloS One
Min-Jung Pyo, Hyunkyoung Lee, Seong Kyong Bae, Yunwi Heo, Indu Choudhary, Won Duk Yoon, Changkeun Kang, Euikyung Kim
Even though jellyfish sting is common today, its first aid guideline has never been clear enough in a scientific point of view and the use of vinegar appears to be not accepted in common throughout the world. In the present study, to develop rational first aid guidelines for the stings of Nemopilema nomurai (scyphozoa) and Carybdea mora (cubozoa), the modulatory effects of various kinds of rinsing solutions have been assessed on nematocyst discharge and human skin tests. Among the solutions tested, vinegar (4% acetic acid) immediately caused significant nematocyst discharge in N...
January 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Nurçin Gülşahin
Nematocyst types of Cassiopea andromeda were investigated. Medusae samples were taken from Güllük Bay, Muğla, Turkey. Nematocyst samples from oral arms of C. andromeda were observed on light microscope and photographed. Birhopaloid and a-isorhiza nematocyst types were found in C. andromeda. Moreover, it was seen that nematocyst sizes increased with increasing the bell diameters of the individuals. Also, the venom of the species was isolated and injected intramuscularly to Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Signs of partial paralysis, raking, and immobilized fins were observed in the juveniles consequently...
2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Felipe Zapata, Freya E Goetz, Stephen A Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H Church, Steven M Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S McFadden, Scott C France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G Collins, Steven H D Haddock, Casey W Dunn, Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages...
2015: PloS One
Tiago Parracho, Zilda Morais
BACKGROUND: More than 200 Scyphozoa species have been described, but few have been properly studied regarding their chemical and genetic characteristics. Catostylus tagi, an edible Scyphozoa and the sole European Catostylidae, occurs in summer at Tagus and Sado estuaries. Neither a systematic comparison between the two Catostylus communities nor a chemical approach on their nematocytes had been carried out yet. METHODS: In order to achieve these purposes, optimisation of DNA extraction and of histochemical staining procedures were developed...
2015: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Dalia Ponce, Diane L Brinkman, Karen Luna-Ramírez, Christine E Wright, Juan José Dorantes-Aranda
The venoms of jellyfish cause toxic effects in diverse biological systems that can trigger local and systemic reactions. In this study, the cytotoxic and cytolytic effects of Chrysaora quinquecirrha and Chironex fleckeri venoms were assessed and compared using three in vitro assays. Venoms from both species were cytotoxic to fish gill cells and rat cardiomyocytes, and cytolytic in sheep erythrocytes. Both venoms decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner; however, the greatest difference in venom potencies was observed in the fish gill cell line, wherein C...
November 2015: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Ana Muñoz-Vera, Gregorio García, Antonio García-Sánchez
Coastal lagoons are ecosystems highly vulnerable to human impacts because of their situation between terrestrial and marine environment. Mar Menor coastal lagoon is one of the largest lagoons of the Mediterranean Sea, placed in SE Spain and subjected to major human impacts, in particular the mining of metal sulphides. As a consequence, metal concentration in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, the present study has assessed the ability of Cotylorhiza tuberculata for bioaccumulating metals from sea water...
December 2015: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Antonella Leone, Raffaella Marina Lecci, Miriana Durante, Federica Meli, Stefano Piraino
Jellyfish are recorded with increasing frequency and magnitude in many coastal areas and several species display biological features comparable to the most popular Asiatic edible jellyfish. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of wild gelatinous biomasses, in terms of nutritional and nutraceutical values, are still largely unexplored. In this paper, three of the most abundant and commonly recorded jellyfish species (Aurelia sp.1, Cotylorhiza tuberculata and Rhizostoma pulmo) in the Mediterranean Sea were subject to investigation...
August 2015: Marine Drugs
Sho Toshino, Hiroshi Miyake, Susumu Ohtsuka, Aya Adachi, Yusuke Kondo, Shoma Okada, Takeshi Hirabayashi, Tatsuya Hiratsuka
Both sexes of the Japanese giant box jellyfish Morbakka virulenta were collected from the Seto Inland Sea, western Japan in December 2011, in order to observe the developmental processes from polyps to medusae. The medusa production in M. virulenta is up to now a unique process in cubozoans in that it exhibits a form of monodisc strobilation where the polyp is regenerated before the medusa detaches. This mode of medusa production was previously thought to be exclusive to scyphozoans. The general shape of young medusae resembles that of other cubozoans such as Alatina moseri and Copula sivickisi, but is differentiated from these by the short capitate tentacles and the lack of gastric filaments in the stomach...
July 2015: Evolution & Development
Congbo Xie, Meng Fan, Xin Wang, Ming Chen
A two-state life history model governed by ODEs is formulated to elucidate the population dynamics of jellyfish and to illuminate the triggering mechanism of its blooms. The polyp-medusa model admits trichotomous global dynamic scenarios: extinction, polyps survival only, and both survival. The population dynamics sensitively depend on several biotic and abiotic limiting factors such as substrate, temperature, and predation. The combination of temperature increase, substrate expansion, and predator diminishment acts synergistically to create a habitat that is more favorable for jellyfishes...
2015: PloS One
Johanna E M Kraus, David Fredman, Wei Wang, Konstantin Khalturin, Ulrich Technau
BACKGROUND: The metagenesis of sessile polyps into pelagic medusae in cnidarians represents one of the most ancient complex life cycles in animals. Interestingly, scyphozoans and hydrozoans generate medusae by apparently fundamentally different processes. It is therefore unclear whether medusa formation has evolved independently in different medusozoans. To this end, a thorough understanding of the correspondence of polyp and medusa is required. RESULTS: We monitored the expression patterns of conserved developmental genes in developing medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) and found that developing medusae and polyps share similarities in their morphology and developmental gene expression...
2015: EvoDevo
Rebecca R Helm, Stefano Tiozzo, Martin K S Lilley, Fabien Lombard, Casey W Dunn
BACKGROUND: Simple life cycles arise from complex life cycles when one or more developmental stages are lost. This raises a fundamental question - how can an intermediate stage, such as a larva, be removed, and development still produce a normal adult? To address this question, we examined the development in several species of pelagiid jellyfish. Most members of Pelagiidae have a complex life cycle with a sessile polyp that gives rise to ephyrae (juvenile medusae); but one species within Pelagiidae, Pelagia noctiluca, spends its whole life in the water column, developing from a larva directly into an ephyra...
2015: EvoDevo
A V Kotova, O I Podgornaia, L S Adonin
The medusa, Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa, Cnidaria), is considered to be a cosmopolitan species with a worldwide distribution in most seas from the poles to the tropics. Cnidarian is thought to possess two tissue layers: endoderm (gastroderm) and ectoderm, which are separated by huge mesoglea in medusa. The basic morphology of medusa is similar in different populations. Previously we have determined a new protein "mesoglein" as one of the main components of mesoglea. Deduced amino acid sequence of mesoglein contains Zona Pellucida (ZP) domain...
2015: Tsitologiia
Joel Shurkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 7, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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