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Zhijun Dong, Tingting Sun, Lei Wang
Blooms of the moon jellyfish Aurelia coerulea frequently occur in coastal waters. The increased availability of substrates for the settlement and proliferation of polyps due to the expansion of artificial structures in coastal areas has been proposed as a possible contributing factor in jellyfish blooms. This paper investigates whether a marine artificial lake (Fenghuang Lake) provides additional substrates for A. coerulea polyps and contributes to jellyfish blooms. High densities of A. coerulea ephyrae were discovered in this lake, with a mean density of 41 individuals/m3 and a maximum measured density of 128 individuals/m3 ...
April 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Alessia Remigante, Roberta Costa, Rossana Morabito, Giuseppa La Spada, Angela Marino, Silvia Dossena
Cnidaria include the most venomous animals of the world. Among Cnidaria, Scyphozoa (true jellyfish) are ubiquitous, abundant, and often come into accidental contact with humans and, therefore, represent a threat for public health and safety. The venom of Scyphozoa is a complex mixture of bioactive substances-including thermolabile enzymes such as phospholipases, metalloproteinases, and, possibly, pore-forming proteins-and is only partially characterized. Scyphozoan stings may lead to local and systemic reactions via toxic and immunological mechanisms; some of these reactions may represent a medical emergency...
March 23, 2018: Toxins
Rebecca R Helm
Scyphozoan jellyfish, or scyphomedusae, are conspicuous members of many ocean ecosystems, and have large impacts on human health and industry. Most scyphomedusae are the final stage in a complex life cycle that also includes two intermediate stages: the larval planula and benthic polyp. In species with all three life-cycle stages, the metamorphosis of a polyp into a juvenile scyphomedusa (ephyra) is termed strobilation, and polyps can produce one ephyra (termed monodisc strobilation) or many ephyrae (termed polydisc strobilation)...
May 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
M D Powell, Å Åtland, T Dale
Jellyfish-induced gill pathology relies upon occasional diagnostic observations yet the extent and impact of jellyfish blooms on aquaculture may be significant. Idiopathic gill lesions are often observed in apparently healthy fish. This study exposed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolts to macerated Cyanea capillata at 2.5 and 5 g/L for 2 hr under controlled laboratory conditions. Blood chemistry and gill histopathology were examined over a subsequent 4-week period. Fish showed an acute response to the presence of jellyfish, including characteristic external "whiplash" discoloration of the skin and acute increases in blood electrolytes and CO2 concentration; however, these were resolved within 4 days after exposure...
May 2018: Journal of Fish Diseases
Rebecca R Helm, Casey W Dunn
Many animals go through one or more metamorphoses during their lives, however, the molecular underpinnings of metamorphosis across diverse species are not well understood. Medusozoa (Cnidaria) is a clade of animals with complex life cycles, these life cycles can include a polyp stage that metamorphoses into a medusa (jellyfish). Medusae are produced through a variety of different developmental mechanisms-in some species polyps bud medusae (Hydrozoa), in others medusae are formed through polyp fission (Scyphozoa), while in others medusae are formed through direct transformation of the polyp (Cubozoa)...
2017: PloS One
Kathy M Dunlop, Daniel O B Jones, Andrew K Sweetman
Here we provide empirical evidence of the presence of an energetic pathway between jellyfish and a commercially important invertebrate species. Evidence of scavenging on jellyfish carcasses by the Norway lobster (Nephrops norvegicus) was captured during two deployments of an underwater camera system to 250-287 m depth in Sognefjorden, western Norway. The camera system was baited with two Periphylla periphylla (Scyphozoa) carcasses to simulate the transport of jellyfish detritus to the seafloor, hereby known as jelly-falls...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Nathan Hubot, Cathy H Lucas, Stefano Piraino
Polyps of two moon jellyfish species, Aurelia coerulea and A. relicta, from two Adriatic Sea coastal habitats were incubated under multiple combinations of temperature (14, 21°C), salinity (24, 37 ppt) and food regime (9.3, 18.6, 27.9 μg C ind-1 week-1) to comparatively assess how these factors may influence major asexual reproduction processes in the two species. Both species exhibited a shared pattern of budding mode (Directly Budded Polyps: DBP; Stolonal Budded Polyps: SBP), with DBP favoured under low food supply (9...
2017: PloS One
Luna Yamamori, Kazuya Okuizumi, Chika Sato, Shuhei Ikeda, Haruhiko Toyohara
Scyphozoa, Cubozoa and Hydrozoa are classes in the phylum Cnidaria that undergo metagenesis involving a dramatic morphological transition. In Scyphozoa and Cubozoa, when exposed to species- or strain-specific transition-inducing stimuli, asexually reproducing benthic polyps transform into sexually reproducing planktonic medusae. In Hydrozoa, exposure to species- or strainspecific transition-inducing stimuli causes formation of medusa buds in the polyp's body. In Aurelia aurita (Linnaeus, 1758) (Scyphozoa, Semaeostomeae), polyp-to-jellyfish transition is induced by some simple indole compounds...
June 2017: Zoological Science
Séverine Martini, Steven H D Haddock
The capability of animals to emit light, called bioluminescence, is considered to be a major factor in ecological interactions. Because it occurs across diverse taxa, measurements of bioluminescence can be powerful to detect and quantify organisms in the ocean. In this study, 17 years of video observations were recorded by remotely operated vehicles during surveys off the California Coast, from the surface down to 3,900 m depth. More than 350,000 observations are classified for their bioluminescence capability based on literature descriptions...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
Rossana Morabito, Roberta Costa, Valentina Rizzo, Alessia Remigante, Charity Nofziger, Giuseppa La Spada, Angela Marino, Markus Paulmichl, Silvia Dossena
Cnidarians may negatively impact human activities and public health but concomitantly their venom represents a rich source of bioactive substances. Pelagia noctiluca is the most venomous and abundant jellyfish of the Mediterranean Sea and possesses a venom with hemolytic and cytolytic activity for which the mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of mammalian cells to crude venom from the nematocysts of P. noctiluca profoundly alters the ion conductance of the plasma membrane, therefore affecting homeostatic functions such as the regulation and maintenance of cellular volume...
January 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ana Muñoz-Vera, Jose Matías Peñas Castejón, Gregorio García
The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012...
September 15, 2016: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Mar Bosch-Belmar, Charaf M'Rabet, Raouf Dhaouadi, Mohamed Chalghaf, Mohamed Néjib Daly Yahia, Verónica Fuentes, Stefano Piraino, Ons Kéfi-Daly Yahia
Jellyfish are of particular concern for marine finfish aquaculture. In recent years repeated mass mortality episodes of farmed fish were caused by blooms of gelatinous cnidarian stingers, as a consequence of a wide range of hemolytic, cytotoxic, and neurotoxic properties of associated cnidocytes venoms. The mauve stinger jellyfish Pelagia noctiluca (Scyphozoa) has been identified as direct causative agent for several documented fish mortality events both in Northern Europe and the Mediterranean Sea aquaculture farms...
2016: PloS One
Dalia Ponce, Diane L Brinkman, Jeremy Potriquet, Jason Mulvenna
Jellyfish venoms are rich sources of toxins designed to capture prey or deter predators, but they can also elicit harmful effects in humans. In this study, an integrated transcriptomic and proteomic approach was used to identify putative toxins and their potential role in the venom of the scyphozoan jellyfish Chrysaora fuscescens. A de novo tentacle transcriptome, containing more than 23,000 contigs, was constructed and used in proteomic analysis of C. fuscescens venom to identify potential toxins. From a total of 163 proteins identified in the venom proteome, 27 were classified as putative toxins and grouped into six protein families: proteinases, venom allergens, C-type lectins, pore-forming toxins, glycoside hydrolases and enzyme inhibitors...
April 5, 2016: Toxins
H F Swift, L Gómez Daglio, M N Dawson
Evolutionary inference can be complicated by morphological crypsis, particularly in open marine systems that may rapidly dissipate signals of evolutionary processes. These complications may be alleviated by studying systems with simpler histories and clearer boundaries, such as marine lakes-small bodies of seawater entirely surrounded by land. As an example, we consider the jellyfish Mastigias spp. which occurs in two ecotypes, one in marine lakes and one in coastal oceanic habitats, throughout the Indo-West Pacific (IWP)...
June 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Stefano Martellos, Luca Ukosich, Massimo Avian
Identification of organisms is traditionally based on the use of "classic" identification keys, normally printed on paper. These keys have several drawbacks: they are mainly based on the systematics, requiring identification of orders, families and genera at first; they are written by experts for other experts, in a specific scientific jargon; they have a "frozen" structure (sequence of theses/antitheses); once published, they cannot be changed or updated without printing a new edition. Due to the use of computers, it is now possible to build new digital identification tools, which: 1) can be produced automatically, if the characters are stored in a database; 2) can be freed from the traditional systematics, giving priority to easy-to-observe characters, incl...
2016: ZooKeys
Jinru He, Lianming Zheng, Wenjing Zhang, Yuanshao Lin
The genus Aurelia is one of the major contributors to jellyfish blooms in coastal waters, possibly due in part to hydroclimatic and anthropogenic causes, as well as their highly adaptive reproductive traits. Despite the wide plasticity of cnidarian life cycles, especially those recognized in certain Hydroza species, the known modifications of Aurelia life history were mostly restricted to its polyp stage. In this study, we document the formation of polyps directly from the ectoderm of degenerating juvenile medusae, cell masses from medusa tissue fragments, and subumbrella of living medusae...
2015: PloS One
Min-Jung Pyo, Hyunkyoung Lee, Seong Kyong Bae, Yunwi Heo, Indu Choudhary, Won Duk Yoon, Changkeun Kang, Euikyung Kim
Even though jellyfish sting is common today, its first aid guideline has never been clear enough in a scientific point of view and the use of vinegar appears to be not accepted in common throughout the world. In the present study, to develop rational first aid guidelines for the stings of Nemopilema nomurai (scyphozoa) and Carybdea mora (cubozoa), the modulatory effects of various kinds of rinsing solutions have been assessed on nematocyst discharge and human skin tests. Among the solutions tested, vinegar (4% acetic acid) immediately caused significant nematocyst discharge in N...
January 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
Nurçin Gülşahin
Nematocyst types of Cassiopea andromeda were investigated. Medusae samples were taken from Güllük Bay, Muğla, Turkey. Nematocyst samples from oral arms of C. andromeda were observed on light microscope and photographed. Birhopaloid and a-isorhiza nematocyst types were found in C. andromeda. Moreover, it was seen that nematocyst sizes increased with increasing the bell diameters of the individuals. Also, the venom of the species was isolated and injected intramuscularly to Cyprinus carpio juveniles. Signs of partial paralysis, raking, and immobilized fins were observed in the juveniles consequently...
2016: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Felipe Zapata, Freya E Goetz, Stephen A Smith, Mark Howison, Stefan Siebert, Samuel H Church, Steven M Sanders, Cheryl Lewis Ames, Catherine S McFadden, Scott C France, Marymegan Daly, Allen G Collins, Steven H D Haddock, Casey W Dunn, Paulyn Cartwright
Cnidaria, the sister group to Bilateria, is a highly diverse group of animals in terms of morphology, lifecycles, ecology, and development. How this diversity originated and evolved is not well understood because phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages are unclear, and recent studies present contrasting phylogenetic hypotheses. Here, we use transcriptome data from 15 newly-sequenced species in combination with 26 publicly available genomes and transcriptomes to assess phylogenetic relationships among major cnidarian lineages...
2015: PloS One
Tiago Parracho, Zilda Morais
BACKGROUND: More than 200 Scyphozoa species have been described, but few have been properly studied regarding their chemical and genetic characteristics. Catostylus tagi, an edible Scyphozoa and the sole European Catostylidae, occurs in summer at Tagus and Sado estuaries. Neither a systematic comparison between the two Catostylus communities nor a chemical approach on their nematocytes had been carried out yet. METHODS: In order to achieve these purposes, optimisation of DNA extraction and of histochemical staining procedures were developed...
2015: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
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