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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358214/identification-of-jellyfish-neuropeptides-that-act-directly-as-oocyte-maturation-inducing-hormones
#1
Noriyo Takeda, Yota Kon, Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas, Pascal Lapébie, Carine Barreau, Osamu Koizumi, Takeo Kishimoto, Kazunori Tachibana, Evelyn Houliston, Ryusaku Deguchi
Oocyte meiotic maturation is crucial for sexually reproducing animals, and its core cytoplasmic regulators are highly conserved between species. By contrast, the few known maturation-inducing hormones (MIHs) that act on oocytes to initiate this process are highly variable in their molecular nature. Using the hydrozoan jellyfish species Clytia and Cladonema, which undergo oocyte maturation in response to dark-light and light-dark transitions, respectively, we deduced amidated tetrapeptide sequences from gonad transcriptome data and found that synthetic peptides could induce maturation of isolated oocytes at nanomolar concentrations...
January 22, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345317/an-orientation-independent-dic-microscope-allows-high-resolution-imaging-of-epithelial-cell-migration-and-wound-healing-in-a-cnidarian-model
#2
J E Malamy, M Shribak
Epithelial cell dynamics can be difficult to study in intact animals or tissues. Here we use the medusa form of the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, which is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells, to test the efficacy of an orientation-independent differential interference contrast microscope for in vivo imaging of wound healing. Orientation-independent differential interference contrast provides an unprecedented resolution phase image of epithelial cells closing a wound in a live, nontransgenic animal model...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303477/a-gonad-expressed-opsin-mediates-light-induced-spawning-in-the-jellyfish-clytia
#3
Gonzalo Quiroga Artigas, Pascal Lapébie, Lucas Leclère, Noriyo Takeda, Ryusaku Deguchi, Gáspár Jékely, Tsuyoshi Momose, Evelyn Houliston
Across the animal kingdom, environmental light cues are widely involved in regulating gamete release, but the molecular and cellular bases of the photoresponsive mechanisms are poorly understood. In hydrozoan jellyfish, spawning is triggered by dark-light or light-dark transitions acting on the gonad, and is mediated by oocyte maturation-inducing neuropeptide hormones (MIHs) released from the ectoderm. We determined in Clytia hemisphaerica that blue-cyan light triggers spawning in isolated gonads. A candidate opsin (Opsin9) was found co-expressed with MIH within specialised ectodermal cells...
January 5, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258421/in-vivo-imaging-of-epithelial-wound-healing-in-the-cnidarian-clytia-hemisphaerica-demonstrates-early-evolution-of-purse-string-and-cell-crawling-closure-mechanisms
#4
Zach Kamran, Katie Zellner, Harry Kyriazes, Christine M Kraus, Jean-Baptiste Reynier, Jocelyn E Malamy
BACKGROUND: All animals have mechanisms for healing damage to the epithelial sheets that cover the body and line internal cavities. Epithelial wounds heal either by cells crawling over the wound gap, by contraction of a super-cellular actin cable ("purse string") that surrounds the wound, or some combination of the two mechanisms. Both cell crawling and purse string closure of epithelial wounds are widely observed across vertebrates and invertebrates, suggesting early evolution of these mechanisms...
December 19, 2017: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245604/benthic-hydroids-cnidaria-hydrozoa-from-bathyal-and-abyssal-depths-of-the-northeast-atlantic-held-in-the-modern-i-discovery-i-i-collections-i
#5
Álvaro L Peña Cantero, Tammy Horton
The deep-sea benthic hydroid fauna remains poorly known, in part because of less frequent sampling than the shelf fauna, in part owing to the immense study area, and partly also because available samples have been little studied by experts. In order to correct this, deep-sea benthic hydroid material from the modern Discovery Collections has been studied. Samples come from localities in the North-East Atlantic including the Porcupine Seabight, Porcupine Abyssal Plain, Rockall Trough, Rockall Bank, and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge...
November 10, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197505/a-safer-urea-based-in-situ-hybridization-method-improves-detection-of-gene-expression-in-diverse-animal-species
#6
Chiara Sinigaglia, Daniel Thiel, Andreas Hejnol, Evelyn Houliston, Lucas Leclère
In situ hybridization is a widely employed technique allowing spatial visualization of gene expression in fixed specimens. It has greatly advanced our understanding of biological processes, including developmental regulation. In situ protocols are today routinely followed in numerous laboratories, and although details might change, they all include a hybridization step, where specific antisense RNA or DNA probes anneal to the target nucleic acid sequence. This step is generally carried out at high temperatures and in a denaturing solution, called hybridization buffer, commonly containing 50% (v/v) formamide - a hazardous chemical...
December 8, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861964/unanimous-model-for-describing-the-fast-bioluminescence-kinetics-of-ca-2-regulated-photoproteins-of-different-organisms
#7
Elena V Eremeeva, Sergey I Bartsev, Willem J H van Berkel, Eugene S Vysotski
Upon binding their metal ion cofactors, Ca(2+) -regulated photoproteins display a rapid increase of light signal, which reaches its peak within milliseconds. In the present study, we investigate bioluminescence kinetics of the entire photoprotein family. All five recombinant hydromedusan Ca(2+) -regulated photoproteins-aequorin from Aequorea victoria, clytin from Clytia gregaria, mitrocomin from Mitrocoma cellularia and obelins from Obelia longissima and Obelia geniculata-demonstrate the same bioluminescent kinetics pattern...
March 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639479/phylogenetic-relationships-of-proboscoida-broch-1910-cnidaria-hydrozoa-are-traditional-morphological-diagnostic-characters-relevant-for-the-delimitation-of-lineages-at-the-species-genus-and-family-levels
#8
Amanda F Cunha, Allen G Collins, Antonio C Marques
Overlapping variation of morphological characters can lead to misinterpretation in taxonomic diagnoses and the delimitation of different lineages. This is the case for hydrozoans that have traditionally been united in the family Campanulariidae, a group known for its wide morphological variation and complicated taxonomic history. In a recently proposed phylogenetic classification of leptothecate hydrozoans, this family was restricted to a more narrow sense while a larger clade containing most species traditionally classified in Campanulariidae, along with members of Bonneviellidae, was established as the suborder Proboscoida...
January 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531602/sex-polyps-and-medusae-determination-and-maintenance-of-sex-in-cnidarians
#9
REVIEW
Stefan Siebert, Celina E Juliano
Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g., gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa...
February 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26900447/comparative-study-of-hippo-pathway-genes-in-cellular-conveyor-belts-of-a-ctenophore-and-a-cnidarian
#10
Alicia Coste, Muriel Jager, Jean-Philippe Chambon, Michaël Manuel
BACKGROUND: The Hippo pathway regulates growth rate and organ size in fly and mouse, notably through control of cell proliferation. Molecular interactions at the heart of this pathway are known to have originated in the unicellular ancestry of metazoans. They notably involve a cascade of phosphorylations triggered by the kinase Hippo, with subsequent nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of Yorkie localisation, preventing its binding to the transcription factor Scalloped, thereby silencing proliferation genes...
2016: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26626073/identification-of-amino-acid-residues-responsible-for-high-initial-luminescence-intensity-in-a-calcium-binding-photoprotein-clytin-ii
#11
Satoshi Inouye, Yuiko Sahara-Miura
Clytin-II (CL-II) is an isotype of the calcium-binding photoprotein clytin-I (CL-I) from Clytia gregaria. CL-II shows approximately 4.5-fold higher initial luminescence intensity than CL-I with the same luminescence capacity, and is a potential candidate for a G-protein-coupled receptor assay among photoproteins. To investigate the high initial luminescence intensity of CL-II, the chimeric proteins between CL-I and CL-II were prepared and the responsible amino acid residues in CL-II were identified by site-specific mutagenesis of CL-I...
January 8, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26508209/semisynthetic-photoprotein-reporters-for-tracking-fast-ca-2-transients
#12
Natalia P Malikova, Aren J Borgdorff, Eugene S Vysotski
Changes in the intracellular concentration of free ionized calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control a host of cellular processes as varied as vision, muscle contraction, neuronal signal transmission, proliferation, apoptosis etc. The disturbance in Ca(2+)-signaling causes many severe diseases. To understand the mechanisms underlying the control by calcium and how disorder of this regulation relates to pathological conditions, it is necessary to measure [Ca(2+)]i. The Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins which are responsible for bioluminescence of marine coelenterates have been successfully used for this purpose over the years...
December 2015: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26249487/the-hydrozoan-fauna-cnidaria-hydrozoa-from-the-peaks-of-the-ormonde-and-gettysburg-seamounts-gorringe-bank-ne-atlantic
#13
Carlos J Moura
Twenty-seven species of hydroids were collected from the peaks (35-42 meters depth) of the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic) during the oceanographic campaign 'LusoExpedição Olympus 2008'. Twenty-one of these species are new for the Gorringe Bank that now has published records for a total of 37 hydroid species. Lafoeina tenuis, Sertularella ellisii and Clytia hemisphaerica were the most abundant hydroid species collected. Results revealed spatial differences in the composition of species assemblages along the summits of the Gorringe, as only 14 of the species sampled were found both in the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts...
June 11, 2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236112/psp-toxin-levels-and-plankton-community-composition-and-abundance-in-size-fractionated-vertical-profiles-during-spring-summer-blooms-of-the-toxic-dinoflagellate-alexandrium-fundyense-in-the-gulf-of-maine-and-on-georges-bank-2007-2008-and-2010-2-plankton-community
#14
Christian M Petitpas, Jefferson T Turner, Jonathan R Deeds, Bruce A Keafer, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Peter J Milligan, Vangie Shue, Kevin D White, Donald M Anderson
As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26075050/adoption-of-conserved-developmental-genes-in-development-and-origin-of-the-medusa-body-plan
#15
Johanna E M Kraus, David Fredman, Wei Wang, Konstantin Khalturin, Ulrich Technau
BACKGROUND: The metagenesis of sessile polyps into pelagic medusae in cnidarians represents one of the most ancient complex life cycles in animals. Interestingly, scyphozoans and hydrozoans generate medusae by apparently fundamentally different processes. It is therefore unclear whether medusa formation has evolved independently in different medusozoans. To this end, a thorough understanding of the correspondence of polyp and medusa is required. RESULTS: We monitored the expression patterns of conserved developmental genes in developing medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) and found that developing medusae and polyps share similarities in their morphology and developmental gene expression...
2015: EvoDevo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25661429/the-non-siphonophoran-hydrozoa-cnidaria-of-salento-italy-with-notes-on-their-life-cycles-an-illustrated-guide
#16
Cinzia Gravili, Doris De Vito, Cristina Gioia Di Camillo, Luis Martell, Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero
The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database. For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography...
January 15, 2015: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25340197/some-shallow-water-hydroids-cnidaria-hydrozoa-from-the-central-east-coast-of-florida-usa
#17
Dale R Calder
This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum...
2013: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25233086/differential-responses-to-wnt-and-pcp-disruption-predict-expression-and-developmental-function-of-conserved-and-novel-genes-in-a-cnidarian
#18
Pascal Lapébie, Antonella Ruggiero, Carine Barreau, Sandra Chevalier, Patrick Chang, Philippe Dru, Evelyn Houliston, Tsuyoshi Momose
We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins...
September 2014: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25012352/characterization-of-hydromedusan-ca-2-regulated-photoproteins-as-a-tool-for-measurement-of-ca-2-concentration
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Natalia P Malikova, Ludmila P Burakova, Svetlana V Markova, Eugene S Vysotski
Calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger, performing this function in many eukaryotic cells. To understand calcium regulation mechanisms and how disturbances of these mechanisms are associated with disease states, it is necessary to measure calcium inside cells. Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins have been successfully used for this purpose for many years. Here we report the results of comparative studies on the properties of recombinant aequorin from Aequorea victoria, recombinant obelins from Obelia geniculata and Obelia longissima, recombinant mitrocomin from Mitrocoma cellularia, and recombinant clytin from Clytia gregaria as intracellular calcium indicators in a set of identical in vitro and in vivo experiments...
September 2014: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24718596/an-endogenous-green-fluorescent-protein-photoprotein-pair-in-clytia-hemisphaerica-eggs-shows-co-targeting-to-mitochondria-and-efficient-bioluminescence-energy-transfer
#20
Cécile Fourrage, Karl Swann, Jose Raul Gonzalez Garcia, Anthony K Campbell, Evelyn Houliston
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms)...
2014: Open Biology
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