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Amanda F Cunha, Allen G Collins, Antonio C Marques
Overlapping variation of morphological characters can lead to misinterpretation in taxonomic diagnoses and the delimitation of different lineages. This is the case for hydrozoans that have traditionally been united in the family Campanulariidae, a group known for its wide morphological variation and complicated taxonomic history. In a recently proposed phylogenetic classification of leptothecate hydrozoans, this family was restricted to a more narrow sense while a larger clade containing most species traditionally classified in Campanulariidae, along with members of Bonneviellidae, was established as the suborder Proboscoida...
September 14, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Stefan Siebert, Celina E Juliano
Mechanisms of sex determination vary greatly among animals. Here we survey what is known in Cnidaria, the clade that forms the sister group to Bilateria and shows a broad array of sexual strategies and sexual plasticity. This observed diversity makes Cnidaria a well-suited taxon for the study of the evolution of sex determination, as closely related species can have different mechanisms, which allows for comparative studies. In this review, we survey the extensive descriptive data on sexual systems (e.g. gonochorism and hermaphroditism) and the plasticity of sex in various cnidarian taxa...
August 17, 2016: Molecular Reproduction and Development
Alicia Coste, Muriel Jager, Jean-Philippe Chambon, Michaël Manuel
BACKGROUND: The Hippo pathway regulates growth rate and organ size in fly and mouse, notably through control of cell proliferation. Molecular interactions at the heart of this pathway are known to have originated in the unicellular ancestry of metazoans. They notably involve a cascade of phosphorylations triggered by the kinase Hippo, with subsequent nuclear to cytoplasmic shift of Yorkie localisation, preventing its binding to the transcription factor Scalloped, thereby silencing proliferation genes...
2016: EvoDevo
Satoshi Inouye, Yuiko Sahara-Miura
Clytin-II (CL-II) is an isotype of the calcium-binding photoprotein clytin-I (CL-I) from Clytia gregaria. CL-II shows approximately 4.5-fold higher initial luminescence intensity than CL-I with the same luminescence capacity, and is a potential candidate for a G-protein-coupled receptor assay among photoproteins. To investigate the high initial luminescence intensity of CL-II, the chimeric proteins between CL-I and CL-II were prepared and the responsible amino acid residues in CL-II were identified by site-specific mutagenesis of CL-I...
January 8, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Natalia P Malikova, Aren J Borgdorff, Eugene S Vysotski
Changes in the intracellular concentration of free ionized calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) control a host of cellular processes as varied as vision, muscle contraction, neuronal signal transmission, proliferation, apoptosis etc. The disturbance in Ca(2+)-signaling causes many severe diseases. To understand the mechanisms underlying the control by calcium and how disorder of this regulation relates to pathological conditions, it is necessary to measure [Ca(2+)]i. The Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins which are responsible for bioluminescence of marine coelenterates have been successfully used for this purpose over the years...
December 2015: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Carlos J Moura
Twenty-seven species of hydroids were collected from the peaks (35-42 meters depth) of the Gorringe Bank (NE Atlantic) during the oceanographic campaign 'LusoExpedição Olympus 2008'. Twenty-one of these species are new for the Gorringe Bank that now has published records for a total of 37 hydroid species. Lafoeina tenuis, Sertularella ellisii and Clytia hemisphaerica were the most abundant hydroid species collected. Results revealed spatial differences in the composition of species assemblages along the summits of the Gorringe, as only 14 of the species sampled were found both in the Ormonde and Gettysburg seamounts...
2015: Zootaxa
Christian M Petitpas, Jefferson T Turner, Jonathan R Deeds, Bruce A Keafer, Dennis J McGillicuddy, Peter J Milligan, Vangie Shue, Kevin D White, Donald M Anderson
As part of the Gulf of Maine Toxicity (GOMTOX) project, we determined Alexandrium fundyense abundance, paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxin levels in various plankton size fractions, and the community composition of potential grazers of A. fundyense in plankton size fractions during blooms of this toxic dinoflagellate in the coastal Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank in spring and summer of 2007, 2008, and 2010. PSP toxins and A. fundyense cells were found throughout the sampled water column (down to 50 m) in the 20-64 μm size fractions...
May 2014: Deep-sea Research. Part II, Topical Studies in Oceanography
Johanna E M Kraus, David Fredman, Wei Wang, Konstantin Khalturin, Ulrich Technau
BACKGROUND: The metagenesis of sessile polyps into pelagic medusae in cnidarians represents one of the most ancient complex life cycles in animals. Interestingly, scyphozoans and hydrozoans generate medusae by apparently fundamentally different processes. It is therefore unclear whether medusa formation has evolved independently in different medusozoans. To this end, a thorough understanding of the correspondence of polyp and medusa is required. RESULTS: We monitored the expression patterns of conserved developmental genes in developing medusae of Clytia hemisphaerica (Hydrozoa) and Aurelia aurita (Scyphozoa) and found that developing medusae and polyps share similarities in their morphology and developmental gene expression...
2015: EvoDevo
Cinzia Gravili, Doris De Vito, Cristina Gioia Di Camillo, Luis Martell, Stefano Piraino, Ferdinando Boero
The majority of Hydrozoa is represented by not readily noticeable, small species. In recent decades, however, taxonomic knowledge of the group has increased worldwide, with a significant number of investigations focused on the Mediterranean Sea. Over more than two decades, 115 species of hydrozoans were recorded from coastal waters along nearly 300 km of the Salento Peninsula (Apulia, Italy). For each species, records from different collections were merged into single sheets of a general database. For each species, the following information is reported: description, cnidome, biology, occurrence in Salento, worldwide distribution, and bibliography...
2015: Zootaxa
Dale R Calder
This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum...
2013: Zootaxa
Pascal Lapébie, Antonella Ruggiero, Carine Barreau, Sandra Chevalier, Patrick Chang, Philippe Dru, Evelyn Houliston, Tsuyoshi Momose
We have used Digital Gene Expression analysis to identify, without bilaterian bias, regulators of cnidarian embryonic patterning. Transcriptome comparison between un-manipulated Clytia early gastrula embryos and ones in which the key polarity regulator Wnt3 was inhibited using morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (Wnt3-MO) identified a set of significantly over and under-expressed transcripts. These code for candidate Wnt signaling modulators, orthologs of other transcription factors, secreted and transmembrane proteins known as developmental regulators in bilaterian models or previously uncharacterized, and also many cnidarian-restricted proteins...
September 2014: PLoS Genetics
Natalia P Malikova, Ludmila P Burakova, Svetlana V Markova, Eugene S Vysotski
Calcium ion is a ubiquitous intracellular messenger, performing this function in many eukaryotic cells. To understand calcium regulation mechanisms and how disturbances of these mechanisms are associated with disease states, it is necessary to measure calcium inside cells. Ca(2+)-regulated photoproteins have been successfully used for this purpose for many years. Here we report the results of comparative studies on the properties of recombinant aequorin from Aequorea victoria, recombinant obelins from Obelia geniculata and Obelia longissima, recombinant mitrocomin from Mitrocoma cellularia, and recombinant clytin from Clytia gregaria as intracellular calcium indicators in a set of identical in vitro and in vivo experiments...
September 2014: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Cécile Fourrage, Karl Swann, Jose Raul Gonzalez Garcia, Anthony K Campbell, Evelyn Houliston
Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) and calcium-activated photoproteins of the aequorin/clytin family, now widely used as research tools, were originally isolated from the hydrozoan jellyfish Aequora victoria. It is known that bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) is possible between these proteins to generate flashes of green light, but the native function and significance of this phenomenon is unclear. Using the hydrozoan Clytia hemisphaerica, we characterized differential expression of three clytin and four GFP genes in distinct tissues at larva, medusa and polyp stages, corresponding to the major in vivo sites of bioluminescence (medusa tentacles and eggs) and fluorescence (these sites plus medusa manubrium, gonad and larval ectoderms)...
2014: Open Biology
Christophe Lechauve, Muriel Jager, Laurent Laguerre, Laurent Kiger, Gaëlle Correc, Cédric Leroux, Serge Vinogradov, Mirjam Czjzek, Michael C Marden, Xavier Bailly
Neuroglobins, previously thought to be restricted to vertebrate neurons, were detected in the brain of a photosymbiotic acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis, and in neurosensory cells of the jellyfish Clytia hemisphaerica. For the neuroglobin of S. roscoffensis, a member of a lineage that originated either at the base of the bilateria or of the deuterostome clade, we report the ligand binding properties, crystal structure at 2.3 Å, and brain immunocytochemical pattern. We also describe in situ hybridizations of two neuroglobins specifically expressed in differentiating nematocytes (neurosensory cells) and in statocytes (ciliated mechanosensory cells) of C...
March 8, 2013: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tsuyoshi Momose, Yulia Kraus, Evelyn Houliston
Functional and morphological planar cell polarity (PCP) oriented along the oral-aboral body axis is clearly evident in the ectoderm of torpedo-shaped planula larvae of hydrozoan cnidarians such as Clytia hemisphaerica. Ectodermal epithelial cells bear a single motile cilium the beating of which is coordinated between cells, causing directional swimming towards the blunt, aboral pole. We have characterised PCP during Clytia larval development and addressed its molecular basis. PCP is first detectable in ectodermal cells during gastrulation as coordinated basal body positioning, the ciliary root becoming consistently positioned on the oral side of the apical surface of the cell...
December 1, 2012: Development
Lucas Leclère, Muriel Jager, Carine Barreau, Patrick Chang, Hervé Le Guyader, Michaël Manuel, Evelyn Houliston
The separation of the germ line from the soma is a classic concept in animal biology, and depending on species is thought to involve fate determination either by maternally localized germ plasm ("preformation" or "maternal inheritance") or by inductive signaling (classically termed "epigenesis" or "zygotic induction"). The latter mechanism is generally considered to operate in non-bilaterian organisms such as cnidarians and sponges, in which germ cell fate is determined at adult stages from multipotent stem cells...
April 15, 2012: Developmental Biology
Maxim S Titushin, Yingang Feng, John Lee, Eugene S Vysotski, Zhi-Jie Liu
In this review we summarize the progress made towards understanding the role of protein-protein interactions in the function of various bioluminescence systems of marine organisms, including bacteria, jellyfish and soft corals, with particular focus on methodology used to detect and characterize these interactions. In some bioluminescence systems, protein-protein interactions involve an "accessory protein" whereby a stored substrate is efficiently delivered to the bioluminescent enzyme luciferase. Other types of complexation mediate energy transfer to an "antenna protein" altering the color and quantum yield of a bioluminescence reaction...
December 2011: Protein & Cell
Muriel Jager, Eric Quéinnec, Hervé Le Guyader, Michaël Manuel
BACKGROUND: The Sox genes are important regulators of animal development belonging to the HMG domain-containing class of transcription factors. Studies in bilaterian models have notably highlighted their pivotal role in controlling progression along cell lineages, various Sox family members being involved at one side or the other of the critical balance between self-renewing stem cells/proliferating progenitors, and cells undergoing differentiation. RESULTS: We have investigated the expression of 10 Sox genes in the cnidarian Clytia hemisphaerica...
2011: EvoDevo
Natalia P Malikova, Nina V Visser, Arie van Hoek, Victor V Skakun, Eugene S Vysotski, John Lee, Antonie J W G Visser
Green-fluorescent protein (GFP) is the origin of the green bioluminescence color exhibited by several marine hydrozoans and anthozoans. The mechanism is believed to be Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) within a luciferase-GFP or photoprotein-GFP complex. As the effect is found in vitro at micromolar concentrations, for FRET to occur this complex must have an affinity in the micromolar range. We present here a fluorescence dynamics investigation of the recombinant bioluminescence proteins from the jellyfish Clytia gregaria, the photoprotein clytin in its Ca(2+)-discharged form that is highly fluorescent (λ(max) = 506 nm) and its GFP (cgreGFP; λ(max) = 500 nm)...
May 24, 2011: Biochemistry
Cécile Fourrage, Sandra Chevalier, Evelyn Houliston
Poc1 (Protein of Centriole 1) proteins are highly conserved WD40 domain-containing centriole components, well characterized in the alga Chlamydomonas, the ciliated protazoan Tetrahymena, the insect Drosophila and in vertebrate cells including Xenopus and zebrafish embryos. Functions and localizations related to the centriole and ciliary axoneme have been demonstrated for Poc1 in a range of species. The vertebrate Poc1 protein has also been reported to show an additional association with mitochondria, including enrichment in the specialized "germ plasm" region of Xenopus oocytes...
2010: PloS One
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