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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149474/interventions-for-old-world-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#1
REVIEW
Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Begoña Monge-Maillo, Mariona Pinart, Patricia Lopez Pereira, Emely Garcia-Carrasco, Pedro Campuzano Cuadrado, Ana Royuela, Irene Mendez Roman, Rogelio López-Vélez
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis, caused by a parasitic infection, is considered one of the most serious skin diseases in many low- and middle-income countries. Old World cutaneous leishmaniasis (OWCL) is caused by species found in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, and India. The most commonly prescribed treatments are antimonials, but other drugs have been used with varying success. As OWCL tends to heal spontaneously, it is necessary to justify the use of systemic and topical treatments...
November 17, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148889/lack-of-detection-of-avian-influenza-newcastle-disease-and-west-nile-viruses-in-wild-birds-of-northeastern-brazil
#2
Camile Lugarini, Renata Hurtado, Jansen de Araujo, Tatiana Ometto, Luciano Thomazelli, Marina de Seixas, Edison Durigon, Jean Carlos Silva
We tested 529 wild birds captured in northeastern Brazil for infection by avian influenza, Newcastle disease, and West Nile. Viruses were not detected by real-time PCR with the exception of one Tropical Gnatcatcher (Polioptila plumbea) positive for influenza virus, but this could not be confirmed by viral isolation or gene sequencing.
November 17, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147722/-dengue-fever-symptoms-epidemiology-entomology-pathogen-diagnosis-and-prevention
#3
D Wiemer, H Frickmann, A Krüger
Dengue infections are among the most frequent causes of febrile disease in tropical climates. Infections are caused by a flavivirus transmitted by the Aedes mosquito. Aedes aegypti mosquitos are the main transmitters of Dengue viruses. Since these insects are both diurnal and container breeders, particular prevention and control measures are required. Symptom severity varies and can range from a mild, flu-like clinical picture to severe hemorrhage and shock. The most common symptoms experienced by travelers include fever, muscular pain, headaches and skin rash...
November 16, 2017: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143232/assessment-of-gastrointestinal-nematode-infection-anthelmintic-usage-and-husbandry-practices-on-two-small-scale-goat-farms-in-malaysia
#4
Flora Wong, Neil Sargison
Haemonchosis is a common problem on goat farms in tropical countries such as Malaysia. Prevention of production losses generally depends on the use of anthelmintic drugs, but is threatened by the emergence of anthelmintic resistance. This study investigates anthelmintic efficacy on small-scale Malaysian goat farms and describes putative risk factors. Adult goats had moderate to high pre-treatment faecal trichostrongyle egg counts, despite being housed on slatted floors and fed on cut-and-carry forage, raising questions about the source of nematode infection...
November 15, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142079/laboratory-diagnosis-of-parasites-from-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#5
REVIEW
Lynne S Garcia, Michael Arrowood, Evelyne Kokoskin, Graeme P Paltridge, Dylan R Pillai, Gary W Procop, Norbert Ryan, Robyn Y Shimizu, Govinda Visvesvara
This Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology document on the laboratory diagnosis of parasites from the gastrointestinal tract provides practical information for the recovery and identification of relevant human parasites. The document is based on a comprehensive literature review and expert consensus on relevant diagnostic methods. However, it does not include didactic information on human parasite life cycles, organism morphology, clinical disease, pathogenesis, treatment, or epidemiology and prevention...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141761/leptospirosis-cases-infected-with-uncommon-serogroups-puerto-rico-2013-2015
#6
Hector Gorbea, Enid J Garcia-Rivera, Hilda Torres, Olga D Lorenzi, Aidsa Rivera, Renee L Galloway, Tyler M Sharp
Leptospirosis is an emerging bacterial zoonosis that is endemic but underrecognized throughout the tropics. Through prospective surveillance for acute febrile illness (AFI) among patients who presented to the emergency department of a hospital located in an urban region of Puerto Rico, four patients with laboratory-confirmed leptospirosis were identified. All patients had signs and symptoms of AFI, including fever, headache, and dehydration. Three patients had leukocytosis with thrombocytopenia and were admitted to the hospital...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141633/genome-modification-of-cxcr4-by-staphylococcus-aureus-cas9-renders-cells-resistance-to-hiv-1-infection
#7
Qiankun Wang, Shuliang Chen, Qiaoqiao Xiao, Zhepeng Liu, Shuai Liu, Panpan Hou, Li Zhou, Wei Hou, Wenzhe Ho, Chunmei Li, Li Wu, Deyin Guo
BACKGROUND: The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for genome editing in mammalian cells. CXCR4 is a co-receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) entry, and loss of CXCR4 function can protect cells from CXCR4 (X4)-tropic HIV-1 infection, making CXCR4 an important target for HIV-1 gene therapy. However, the large size of the CRISPR/SpCas9 system presents an obstacle to its efficient delivery into primary CD4(+) T cells. Recently, a small Staphylococcus aureus Cas9 (SaCas9) has been developed as a genome editing tool can address this question...
November 15, 2017: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140407/targeted-treatment-of-yaws-with-household-contact-tracing-how-much-do-we-miss
#8
Louise Dyson, Michael Marks, Oliver M Crook, Oliver Sokana, Anthony W Solomon, Alex Bishop, David C W Mabey, T Déirdre Hollingsworth
Yaws is a disabling bacterial infection primarily found in warm and humid tropical areas. The World Health Organisation strategy mandates an initial round of total community treatment (TCT) with single-dose azithromycin followed either by further TCT or active case finding and treatment of cases and their contacts (the Morges strategy). We wish to investigate the effectiveness of the Morges strategy. We employ a stochastic household model to study the transmission of infection using data collected from a pre-TCT survey conducted in the Solomon Islands...
November 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140110/il-21-therapy-controls-immune-activation-and-maintains-antiviral-cd8-t-cell-responses-in-acute-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#9
Gema Méndez-Lagares, Ding Lu, David Merriam, Christopher A Baker, François Villinger, Koen K A Van Rompay, Joseph M McCune, Dennis J Hartigan-O'Connor
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replicate during acute infection in lymphocytes of the gastrointestinal tract, before disseminating systemically. Localized replication and associated loss of gut-resident CD4(+) T cells occur regardless of the portal of entry of the virus (e.g., intravenous vs. rectal). Thus, HIV and SIV are tropic for gut tissue, and their pathogenesis requires the special environment of the intestine. T helper 17 (Th17) cells are important contributors to microbial defense in the gut that are vulnerable to HIV infection and whose loss is associated with translocation of microbial products to the systemic circulation, leading to chronic immune activation and disease progression...
November 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138663/toluidine-blue-rapid-and-simple-malaria-parasite-screening-and-species-identification
#10
Rupali Awale, Ratnaprabha Maji, Parag Patil, Raghavendra Lingiah, Ashok Kumar Mukhopadhyay, Subhadra Sharma
Malaria, a febrile illness mostly confined to the tropical countries is transmitted by bite of infected female Anopheles mosquito. In 2015 alone, 88% of the malaria burden and 90% deaths due to malaria were confined to the African and Asian countries. Although number of tests are available for rapid diagnosis and screening for malaria, peripheral blood smear examination remains the gold standard. Leishman stain is recommended by WHO however herein we evaluate one of the alternative methods of staining which is simple and rapid...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137971/clearance-of-schistosome-parasites-by-resistant-genotypes-at-a-single-genomic-region-in-biomphalaria-glabrata-snails-involves-cellular-components-of-the-hemolymph
#11
Euan R O Allan, Benjamin Gourbal, Camila B Dores, Anais Portet, Christopher J Bayne, Michael S Blouin
Schistosomiasis is one of the most detrimental neglected tropical diseases. Controlling the spread of this parasitic illness requires effective sanitation, access to chemotherapeutic drugs, and control over populations of the freshwater snails, such as Biomphalaria glabrata, that are essential intermediate hosts for schistosomes. Effectively controlling this disease, while minimizing ecological implications of such control, will require an extensive understanding of the immunological interactions between schistosomes and their molluscan intermediate hosts...
November 11, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137399/molecular-characteristics-and-serodiagnostic-potential-of-chitinase-like-protein-from-sarcoptes-scabiei
#12
Ran He, Nengxing Shen, Haojie Zhang, Yongjun Ren, Manli He, Jing Xu, Cheng Guo, Yue Xie, Xiaobin Gu, Weimin Lai, Xuerong Peng, Guangyou Yang
Scabies, caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is an allergic skin disease that affects millions of people and other mammals worldwide. This highly contagious parasitic disease is among the top 50 epidemic disease and is regarded as a neglected tropical disease. Diagnosis of scabies is difficult in the early stage, and the pathogenesis of scabies is not currently clear. Here, we expressed, identified and located the chitinase-like protein of S. scabiei (SsCLP), and evaluated its potential as an early-stage diagnostic antigen for rabbit scabies...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135342/invisible-parasites-and-their-implications-for-coexisting-water-fleas
#13
Tara Elizabeth Stewart, Mark Torchin, Carla Cáceres
The top-down effects of consumers, like predators, are known to affect abundances, size structure, and species composition in aquatic ecosystems. Parasites are also important in shaping the ecology of free-living species, however, their effects are often overlooked because parasites can be difficult to detect. Parasites can be particularly challenging to observe in zooplankton hosts because of their small size and ephemeral infection periods. To overcome these challenges, we used a quarantine approach combined with high magnification microscopy to increase detection of parasites of the tropical Cladoceran, Ceriodaphnia cornuta, in Lake Gatun, Panamá...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133118/functional-characterization-of-a-serine-protease-inhibitor-modulated-in-the-infection-of-the-aedes-aegypti-with-dengue-virus
#14
Tatiane Sanches Soares, Boris Luis Rodriguez Gonzalez, Ricardo José Soares Torquato, Francisco Jose Alves Lemos, André L Costa-da-Silva, Margareth de Lara Capurro Guimarães, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka
During feeding with blood meal, female Aedes aegypti can transmit infectious agents, such as dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Zika viruses. Dengue virus causes human mortality in tropical regions of the world, and there is no specific treatment or vaccine with maximum efficiency being used for these infections. In the vector-virus interaction, the production of several molecules is modulated by both mosquitoes and invading agents. However, little information is available about these molecules in the Ae...
November 10, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133029/host-genetics-and-dengue-fever
#15
REVIEW
Caroline Xavier de Carvalho, Cynthia Chester Cardoso, Fernanda de Souza Gomes Kehdy, Antonio Guilherme Pacheco, Milton Ozório Moraes
Dengue is a major worldwide problem in tropical and subtropical areas; it is caused by four different viral serotypes, and it can manifest as asymptomatic, mild, or severe. Many factors interact to determine the severity of the disease, including the genetic profile of the infected patient. However, the mechanisms that lead to severe disease and eventually death have not been determined, and a great challenge is the early identification of patients who are more likely to progress to a worse health condition...
November 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132993/re-evaluating-the-effect-of-favipiravir-treatment-on-rabies-virus-infection
#16
Ashley C Banyard, Karen L Mansfield, Guanghui Wu, David Selden, Leigh Thorne, Colin Birch, Penelope Koraka, Albert D M E Osterhaus, Anthony R Fooks
There is no antiviral treatment available once clinical disease following rabies virus infection has initiated. Considered a neglected tropical disease, >60,000 human rabies deaths are estimated each year despite the availability of pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis for pre-immunisation or administration following a potential exposure before the onset of clinical disease. Such post-exposure treatments include administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) and vaccination at a distant site to prime a humoral immune response...
November 10, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132978/intensive-care-in-severe-malaria-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#17
REVIEW
Dilip R Karnad, Mohd Basri Mat Nor, Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Severe malaria is common in tropical countries in Africa, Asia, Oceania and South and Central America. It may also occur in travelers returning from endemic areas. Plasmodium falciparum accounts for most cases, although P vivax is increasingly found to cause severe malaria in Asia. Cerebral malaria is common in children in Africa, manifests as coma and seizures, and has a high morbidity and mortality. In other regions, adults may also develop cerebral malaria but neurological sequelae in survivors are rare...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132306/rna-seq-analysis-of-resistant-and-susceptible-sub-tropical-maize-lines-reveals-a-role-for-kauralexins-in-resistance-to-grey-leaf-spot-disease-caused-by-cercospora-zeina
#18
Jacqueline Meyer, Dave K Berger, Shawn A Christensen, Shane L Murray
BACKGROUND: Cercospora zeina is a foliar pathogen responsible for maize grey leaf spot in southern Africa that negatively impacts maize production. Plants use a variety of chemical and structural mechanisms to defend themselves against invading pathogens such as C. zeina, including the production of secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In maize, a variety of biotic and abiotic stressors induce the accumulation of the terpenoid phytoalexins, zealexins and kauralexins. RESULTS: C...
November 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129539/leptospirosis-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#19
REVIEW
Juan Ignacio Silesky Jiménez, Jorge Luis Hidalgo Marroquin, Guy A Richards, Pravin Amin
Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by a gram negative aerobic spirochete of the genus Leptospira. It is acquired by contact with urine or reproductive fluids from infected animals, or by inoculation from contaminated water or soil. The disease has a global distribution, mainly in tropical and subtropical regions that have a humid, rainy climate and is also common in travelers returning from these regions. Clinical suspicion is critical for the diagnosis and it should be included in the differential diagnosis of any patient with a febrile hepatorenal syndrome in, or returning from endemic regions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128378/ebola-virus-disease-report-from-the-task-force-on-tropical-diseases-by-the-world-federation-of-societies-of-intensive-and-critical-care-medicine
#20
REVIEW
Guy A Richards, Tim Baker, Pravin Amin
Ebola virus is a filovirus that can cause fatal hemorrhagic fever (HF) and five distinct species exist that vary in terms of geographical distribution and virulence. Once the more virulent forms enter the human population, transmission occurs primarily through direct contact with infected body fluids and may result in significant outbreaks. The devastating has been the recent West African outbreak. Clinically, signs and symptoms are similar to those of the other VHFs [4]. The incubation period is 2-21days, followed by fever, headache, myalgia, diarrhoea, vomiting and dehydration; thereafter, there may be recovery or deterioration with collapse, neurological manifestations and bleeding, that can lead to a fatal outcome...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
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