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Tropical infection

Marcelo Arantes Levenhagen, Hélio Conte, Julia Maria Costa-Cruz
Strongyloides stercoralis is a helminth parasite that can infect millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions with poor sanitation. Several aspects of epidemiology, biology and host-parasite interactions of S. stercoralis have been studied, and substantial knowledge has been acquired; however, very few studies on immunotherapeutic control strategies to prevent infection and disease in humans have been conducted. Therefore, this article reviews the current progress and targets toward vaccine and passive immunization approaches for Strongyloides spp...
October 18, 2016: Immunology Letters
Eiji Matsuura, Yoshimi Enose-Akahata, Karen Yao, Unsong Oh, Yuetsu Tanaka, Hiroshi Takashima, Steven Jacobson
Pathology of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/Tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is believed to be the result of "bystander damage" involving effector CD8 (+) T lymphocytes (CTLs) killing of virus infected cells. But the specific cellular events leading up to tissue injury are still unclear. Here, we developed the Microscopy Imaging of Cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay with Fluorescence emission (MI-CaFé), an optimized visualization analysis to explore the interactions between CTLs and virus infected or viral antigen presenting target cells...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmunology
Daniel Lordelo San Martin, Dislene Nascimento Dos Santos, Abrahão Fontes Baptista
OBJECTIVE: To describe the pain in patients infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, clinically and epidemiologically. METHODS: This systematic review was based on The PRISMA Statement. Four reviewers searched PUBMED, SciELO, LILACS and BIREME for data from observational studies and clinical trials (n≥30) regarding pain prevalence, characteristics, and associated factors in patients with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. No limits on publication date or language were established...
October 18, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Youmna M'ghirbi, Marwa Bèji, Beatriz Oporto, Fatma Khrouf, Ana Hurtado, Ali Bouattour
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne diseases caused by Anaplasma species put serious constraints on the health and production of domestic cattle in tropical and sub-tropical regions. After recovering from a primary infection, cattle typically become persistent carriers of pathogens and play a critical role in the epidemiology of the disease, acting as reservoirs of the Anaplasma spp. METHODS: In this study a duplex PCR assay was used for the simultaneous detection of Anaplasma marginale and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in cattle using two primer pairs targeting msp4 and msp2 genes, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Sutas Suttiprapa, Gabriel Rinaldi, Isheng J Tsai, Victoria H Mann, Larisa Dubrovsky, Hong-Bin Yan, Nancy Holroyd, Thomas Huckvale, Caroline Durrant, Anna V Protasio, Tatiana Pushkarsky, Sergey Iordanskiy, Matthew Berriman, Michael I Bukrinsky, Paul J Brindley
Schistosomiasis is the most important helminthic disease of humanity in terms of morbidity and mortality. Facile manipulation of schistosomes using lentiviruses would enable advances in functional genomics in these and related neglected tropical diseases pathogens including tapeworms, and including their non-dividing cells. Such approaches have hitherto been unavailable. Blood stream forms of the human blood fluke, Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of the hepatointestinal schistosomiasis, were infected with the human HIV-1 isolate NL4-3 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Essowè Palanga, Denis Filloux, Darren P Martin, Emmanuel Fernandez, Daniel Gargani, Romain Ferdinand, Jean Zabré, Zakaria Bouda, James Bouma Neya, Mahamadou Sawadogo, Oumar Traore, Michel Peterschmitt, Philippe Roumagnac
Cowpea, (Vigna unguiculata L. (Walp)) is an annual tropical grain legume. Often referred to as "poor man's meat", cowpea is one of the most important subsistence legumes cultivated in West Africa due to the high protein content of its seeds. However, African cowpea production can be seriously constrained by viral diseases that reduce yields. While twelve cowpea-infecting viruses have been reported from Africa, only three of these have so-far been reported from Burkina Faso. Here we use a virion-associated nucleic acids (VANA)-based metagenomics method to screen for the presence of cowpea viruses from plants collected from the three agro-climatic zones of Burkina Faso...
2016: PloS One
B Mishra, B Behera
Until now, known as the demure cousin of dengue virus (DENV) inhabiting Africa, Zika virus (ZIKV) has reinvented itself to cause explosive epidemics captivating the Western hemisphere. The outbreak causing potential for ZIKV was realized when it made its way from Africa to Yap Island Micronesia in 2007, and in French Polynesia in 2013. From there, it moved on to Brazil in 2015. Now ZIKV has infected people in more than 33 countries in Central and South America and the Caribbean. Moreover the epidemiological and subsequent virological association with microcephaly cases in Brazil has prompted the World Health Organization to declare a public health emergency of International Concern...
October 2016: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
Hudson Alves Pinto, Vitor Luis Tenà Rio Mati, Diego Florencio Pujoni, Alan Lane de Melo
The trematodes belonging to the genus Platynosomum are biliary parasites of birds and mammals (domestic and wildlife) in tropical and subtropical areas of the globe. Despite several reports on platynosomosis in captive nonhuman primates, mainly in South America, the taxonomy of species of Platynosomum that infect these hosts remains confused, and it is not clear whether the species found in cats is the same that infects nonhuman primates. Because a detailed morphological study of Platynosomum from nonhuman primates is lacking, in this study we analyzed specimens of Platynosomum recovered from the biliary system of Callithrix penicillata kept in captivity in an animal facility...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Parasitology
U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
October 19, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Sofia Sousa, Jorma Määttä
This overview addresses the recent research developments in the role of tumour-associated macrophages (TAM) in bone metastasis biology and management of breast and prostate cancer as well as in primary and lung metastatic osteosarcoma. Immunosuppressive M2-type TAMs have been shown to associate with poor prognosis. Throughout their life cycle, macrophages (Macs) can adapt to environmental cues and influence the surroundings by secreting different cytokines and enzymes crucial to matrix remodelling, infection fighting, immune regulation and/or inflammation...
September 2016: Journal of Bone Oncology
Samseh Abdullah Noradilah, Ii Li Lee, Tengku Shahrul Anuar, Fatmah Md Salleh, Siti Nor Azreen Abdul Manap, Noor Shazleen Husnie Mohd Mohtar, Syed Muhamad Azrul, Wan Omar Abdullah, Norhayati Moktar
In the tropics, there are too few studies on isolation of Blastocystis sp. subtypes from water sources; in addition, there is also an absence of reported studies on the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in water during different seasons. Therefore, this study was aimed to determine the occurrence of Blastocystis sp. subtypes in river water and other water sources that drained aboriginal vicinity of highly endemic intestinal parasitic infections during wet and dry seasons. Water samples were collected from six sampling points of Sungai Krau (K1-K6) and a point at Sungai Lompat (K7) and other water sources around the aboriginal villages...
2016: PeerJ
Yang Cheng, Feng Lu, Bo Wang, Jian Li, Jin-Hee Han, Daisuke Ito, Deok-Hoon Kong, Lubin Jiang, Jian Wu, Kwon-Soo Ha, Eizo Takashima, Jetsumon Sattabongkot, Jun Cao, Myat Htut Nyunt, Myat Phone Kyaw, Sanjay A Desai, Louis H Miller, Takafumi Tsuboi, Eun-Taek Han
Plasmodium vivax, a major agent of malaria in both temperate and tropical climates, has been thought to be unable to infect humans lacking the Duffy (Fy) blood group antigen because this receptor is critical for erythrocyte invasion. Recent surveys in various endemic regions, however, have reported P. vivax infections in Duffy-negative individuals, suggesting that the parasite may utilize alternative receptor-ligand pairs to complete the erythrocyte invasion. Here, we identified and characterized a novel parasite ligand, Plasmodium vivax GPI-anchored micronemal antigen (PvGAMA), that bound human erythrocytes regardless of Duffy antigen status...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
J E Truscott, H C Turner, S H Farrell, R M Anderson
Infections caused by soil-transmitted helminthias (STHs) affect over a billion people worldwide, causing anaemia and having a large social and economic impact through poor educational outcomes. They are identified in the World Health Organization (WHO) 2020 goals for neglected tropical diseases as a target for renewed effort to ameliorate their global public health burden through mass drug administration (MDA) and water and hygiene improvement. In this chapter, we review the underlying biology and epidemiology of the three causative intestinal nematode species that are mostly considered under the STH umbrella term...
2016: Advances in Parasitology
D Creemers-Schild, P J J van Genderen, L G Visser, J J van Hellemond, P J Wismans
BACKGROUND: Amebic liver abscess is a rare disease in high-income countries. Recurrence of amebic liver abscess is even rarer with only a few previous reports. Here we present a patient who developed three subsequent amebic liver abscesses over a sixteen-year period. CASE PRESENTATION: A Caucasian male developed recurrent amebic liver abscesses, when aged 23, 27 and 39 years. Only on the first occasion did this coincide with a recent visit to the tropics. The patient received adequate treatment during each episode...
October 18, 2016: BMC Research Notes
Fred Wabwire-Mangen, Derrick E Mimbe, Bernard Erima, Edison A Mworozi, Monica Millard, Hannah Kibuuka, Luswa Lukwago, Josephine Bwogi, Jocelyn Kiconco, Titus Tugume, Sophia Mulei, Christine Ikomera, Sharon Tsui, Stephen Malinzi, Simon Kasasa, Rodney Coldren, Denis K Byarugaba
INTRODUCTION: Influenza surveillance was conducted in Uganda from October 2008 to December 2014 to identify and understand the epidemiology of circulating influenza strains in out-patient clinic attendees with influenza-like illness and inform control strategies. METHODOLOGY: Surveillance was conducted at five hospital-based sentinel sites. Nasopharyngeal and/or oropharyngeal samples, epidemiological and clinical data were collected from enrolled patients. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to identify and subtype influenza strains...
2016: PloS One
Silvana Opp, Thomas Fricke, Caitlin Shepard, Dmytro Kovalskyy, Akash Bhattacharya, Frank Herkules, Dmitri N Ivanov, Kim Baek, Jose Valle-Casuso, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The small molecule 6-(tert-butyl)-4-phenyl-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1H,3H-1,3,5-triazin-2-one (3G11) inhibits HIV-1 replication in the human T cell line MT-2. Here we showed that 3G11 specifically and potently blocks HIV-1 infection. By contrast, 3G11 did not block other retroviruses such as HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVmac ), bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), B-tropic murine leukemia virus (B-MLV) and Moloney murine leukemia virus (Mo-MLV)...
October 17, 2016: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Vishnu Kaniyarakkal, Shabana Orvankundil, Saradadevi Karunakaran Lalitha, Raji Thazhethekandi, Jahana Thottathil
Chromobacterium violaceum is a gram negative oxidase positive bacillus that causes human infections infrequently. It is a normal inhabitant of soil and stagnant water of the tropical and subtropical areas. In humans, it can cause infections ranging from life threatening sepsis with metastatic abscesses to skin infections and urinary tract infections. The organism is notoriously resistant to most cephalosporins and Ampicillin. Fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides show good in vitro susceptibility. High mortality rates associated with these infections necessitate prompt diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial therapy...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
Marta Díaz-Menéndez, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Dolores Montero, Eugenia Antolín, Ana Vazquez, Marta Arsuaga, Elena Trigo, Silvia García-Bujalance, María de la Calle, Paz Sánchez Seco, Fernando de Ory, Jose Ramón Arribas
INTRODUCTION: A considerable increase of imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been reported in Europe in the last year. This is the result of the large outbreak of the disease in the Americas, along with the increase in the numbers of travellers and immigrants arriving from ZIKV endemic areas. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted in the Tropical Medicine Unit of Hospital La Paz-Carlos III in Madrid on travellers returning from an endemic area for ZIKV from January to April 2016...
October 12, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
María Isabel Pacheco-Tenza, José Antonio Ruiz-Maciá, María Navarro-Cots, Joan Gregori-Colomé, José María Cepeda-Rodrigo, Jara Llenas-García
INTRODUCTION: Strongyloides stercoralis infection is more prevalent in tropical regions but autochthonous cases have been reported in Spain, mainly in La Safor (Valencia). The objective is to describe the strongyloidiasis cases registered in a regional hospital of Alicante province (Spain) and to determine if they were autochthonous cases. METHODS: Retrospective study of all diagnosed cases of strongyloidiasis in Vega Baja Hospital (Orihuela, Alicante) between January 1999 and March 2016...
October 12, 2016: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
Alfonso J Rodriguez-Morales, Maria Leonor Galindo-Marquez, Carlos Julian García-Loaiza, Juan Alejandro Sabogal-Roman, Santiago Marin-Loaiza, Andrés F Ayala, Guillermo J Lagos-Grisales, Carlos O Lozada-Riascos, Esteban Parra-Valencia, Jorge H Rojas-Palacios, Eduardo López, Pío López, Martin P Grobusch
OBJECTIVE: Geographical information systems (GIS) use for development of epidemiological maps in tropical diseases is increasingly frequently utilized. Here, we apply this technique to map the current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Colombia. METHODS: Surveillance cases data of the ongoing epidemic of ZIKV in Valle del Cauca department and its capital, Cali (2015-2016), were used to estimate cumulated incidence rates (cases/100,000 population) to develop the first maps in the department and it municipalities...
October 14, 2016: Infection
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