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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331922/minimum-alveolar-concentration-key-concepts-and-a-review-of-its-pharmacological-reduction-in-dogs-part-1
#1
REVIEW
Rachel Reed, Thomas Doherty
OBJECTIVE: To outline the major components of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and review the literature in regard to pharmacological manipulation of the MAC of halothane, isoflurane, sevoflurane, enflurane, and desflurane in dogs. The pharmacologic agents included are alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, propofol, maropitant, opioids, lidocaine, acepromazine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, and NMDA antagonists. Part 1 will focus on summarizing the relevance, measurement, and mechanisms of MAC and review the effects of alpha-2 agonists, benzodiazepines, and propofol on MAC...
January 9, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325538/influence-of-isoflurane-exposure-in-pregnant-rats-on-the-learning-and-memory-of-offsprings
#2
Wei Huang, Yunxia Dong, Guangyi Zhao, Yuan Wang, Jingjing Jiang, Ping Zhao
BACKGROUND: About 2% of pregnant women receive non-obstetric surgery under general anesthesia each year. During pregnancy, general anesthetics may affect brain development of the fetus. This study aimed to investigate safe dosage range of isoflurane. METHODS: Forty-eight SpragueDawley (SD) pregnant rats were randomly divided into 3 groups and inhaled 1.3% isoflurane (the Iso1 group), 2.0% isoflurane (the Iso2 group) and 50% O2 alone (the control group) for 3 h, respectively...
January 11, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323914/path-to-the-desensitized-state-of-ligand-gated-ion-channels-why-are-inhibitory-and-excitatory-receptors-different
#3
Robert S Cantor
The family of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels (pLGICs) includes both inhibitory and excitatory receptors. Electrophysiological methods have explored the time-dependent ion currents induced by their neurotransmitter agonists. Kinetic modeling requires a minimum of three conformational states: resting, active, and desensitized. However, current traces of inhibitory and excitatory pLGICs differ substantially. Reproducing their basic features requires different state connectivity: whether the desensitized state is accessed from the resting or active state...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316032/optimum-time-for-intravenous-cannulation-after-induction-with-sevoflurane-oxygen-and-nitrous-oxide-in-children-without-any-premedication
#4
Abm Kamrul Hasan, Raman Sivasankar, Salil G Nair, Wamia U Hasan, Zulaidi Latif
BACKGROUND: Intravenous cannulation is usually done in children after inhalational induction with volatile anesthetic agents. The optimum time for safe intravenous cannulation after induction with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide has been studied in premedicated children, but there is no information for the optimum time for cannulation with inhalational induction in children without premedication. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the optimum time for intravenous cannulation after the induction of anesthesia with sevoflurane, oxygen, and nitrous oxide in children without any premedication...
January 8, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284860/effect-of-locally-administered-dexmedetomidine-as-adjuvant-to-levobupivacaine-in-supraclavicular-brachial-plexus-block-double-blind-controlled-study
#5
Bikash Bisui, Swastika Samanta, Sumanta Ghoshmaulik, Amit Banerjee, Tirtha R Ghosh, Suman Sarkar
Context: Brachial plexus block is effective with good postoperative analgesia in upper limb surgery has gained importance as it safe, low cost, and maintains stable hemodynamics intraoperatively. To decrease the onset time and prolong the duration of nerve block bicarbonate, opioids (morphine, fentanyl, etc.), sympathomimetic agents (epinephrine, phenylephrine, etc.), α-2 agonists (clonidine and dexmedetomidine), calcium channel blocker (verapamil), magnesium sulfate, etc., were studied with local anesthetics and their isomers...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284842/randomized-comparison-of-isoflurane-versus-sevoflurane-and-desflurane-for-maintenance-of-ambulatory-anesthesia
#6
Pranjali Kurhekar, Krishnagopal Vinod, J Shesha Dhiviya Krishna, M Sethuraman Raghuraman
Background: Ambulatory surgeries demand safe anesthesia with faster recovery which makes it expensive due to the cost of inhalational anesthetic agents such as sevoflurane and desflurane. Isoflurane is inexpensive agent but can cause delayed recovery. The aim of this study was to evaluate cost-benefit ratio of all three agent with respect to recovery and safety profile. Materials and Methods: Patients posted for elective ambulatory surgeries were divided into three groups...
October 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251003/the-physiology-and-toxicology-of-acute-inhalation-phosphine-poisoning-in-conscious-male-rats
#7
Benjamin Wong, Rebecca Lewandowski, Justin Tressler, Katherine Sherman, Jaclynn Andres, Jennifer Devorak, Cristin Rothwell, Tracey Hamilton, Heidi Hoard-Fruchey, Alfred M Sciuto
Phosphine (PH3) is a toxidrome-spanning chemical that is widely used as an insecticide and rodenticide. Exposure to PH3 causes a host of target organ and systemic effects, including oxidative stress, cardiopulmonary toxicity, seizure-like activity and overall metabolic disturbance. A custom dynamic inhalation gas exposure system was designed for the whole-body exposure of conscious male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g) to PH3. An integrated plethysmography system was used to collect respiratory parameters in real-time before, during and after PH3 exposure...
December 18, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245345/incidence-of-malignant-hyperthermia-in-patients-undergoing-general-anesthesia-protocol-for-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Junyong In, Eun Jin Ahn, Dong Kyu Lee, Hyun Kang
BACKGROUND: Malignant hyperthermia (MH) continues to be of potential concern for clinicians whenever inhalational anesthetic agents or succinylcholine are used, because MH is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder. METHODS: A systematic and comprehensive search will be performed using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar, for studies published up to November 2017. Peer-reviewed prospective cohort studies, retrospective cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies or reports issued by government organizations reporting the incidence or prevalence of MH will be eligible for inclusion...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240018/allergic-reaction-caused-by-a-lip-balm-flavored-facemask-used-during-inhalational-induction-a-case-report
#9
Youngok J Park, Priti G Dalal, Monique Mostert, Tracy Fausnight
Flavoring a facemask with a lip balm for inhalational induction in children is a common practice. However, most anesthesia providers are unaware of potential complications and the management of allergic reactions caused by lip balm. We describe the occurrence of allergic reaction to lip balm-flavored facemask in a child who underwent an inhalational anesthetic induction. The facial rash resolved completely without complications after administration of an antihistamine and steroid.This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4...
December 11, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239956/the-anesthesia-workstation-quo-vadis
#10
Jan F A Hendrickx, Andre M De Wolf
Ensuring adequate ventilation and oxygenation and delivering inhaled anesthetic agent to the patient remain core responsibilities of the anesthesia provider during general anesthesia. Because of the emphasis placed on physiology, pharmacology, clinical sciences, and administrative duties, the stellar anesthesia workstation technology may be underutilized by the anesthesia community. Target-controlled O2 and agent delivery and automated end-expired CO2 control have entered the clinical arena, with only cost, luddism, and administrative hurdles preventing their more widespread use...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227315/inhaled-anesthetics-in-acute-lung-injury
#11
Ameeka Pannu, Brian O'Gara
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: International Anesthesiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224711/-risk-factors-associated-with-anesthesia-emergence-delirium-in-children-undergoing-outpatient-surgery
#12
Ana Carolina Tavares Paes Barreto, Ana Carolina Rangel da Rocha Paschoal, Carolina Barbosa Farias, Paulo Sérgio Gomes Nogueira Borges, Rebeca Gonelli Albanez da Cunha Andrade, Flávia Augusta de Orange
INTRODUCTION: Anesthesia emergence delirium (AED) is a self-limiting clinical phenomenon very common in children. Although pathophysiology is still uncertain, some factors seem to be involved, such as rapid awakening in an unknown environment, agitation during anesthetic induction, preoperative anxiety, environmental disorders, use of preanesthetic medication, use of inhalational anesthetics, and postoperative pain. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with AED in children undergoing outpatient surgery...
December 7, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224407/quantification-of-regional-aerosol-deposition-patterns-as-a-function-of-aerodynamic-particle-size-in-rhesus-macaques-using-pet-ct-imaging
#13
P A Dabisch, Z Xu, J A Boydston, J Solomon, J K Bohannon, J J Yeager, J R Taylor, R J Reeder, P Sayre, J Seidel, D J Mollura, M C Hevey, P B Jahrling, M G Lackemeyer
Aerosol aerodynamic particle size is known to affect deposition patterns of inhaled aerosol particles, as well as the virulence of inhaled bioaerosol particles. While a significant amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract, only a limited amount of work has been performed to describe the deposition of aerosol particles in the respiratory tract of nonhuman primates, an animal model commonly utilized in pharmacological and toxicological studies, especially in the biodefense field...
December 11, 2017: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221728/emulsified-isoflurane-induces-release-of-cytochrome-c-in-human-neuroblastoma-shsy-5y-cells-via-jnk-c-jun-n-terminal-kinases-signaling-pathway
#14
Zeyong Yang, Jingjing Lv, Xianfu Lu, Xingxing Li, Xiaohu An, Jianwei Wang, Hao Weng, Yuanhai Li
A large number of studies have demonstrated that inhalation anesthetic isoflurane induced neural cell death by apoptosis in various cell and animal models. Emulsified isoflurane (EIso) is a new type of intravenous preparation of isoflurane that attracts increasing research attention as a promising clinical agent due to its both advantages as an intravenous and inhalation anesthetics medication. However, its safety and underlying molecular mechanism of neurotoxicity largely remain unknown. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate the safety of EIso and to further elucidate its mechanism of anesthetic neurotoxicity...
December 5, 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207062/sevoflurane-inhibits-the-malignant-potential-of-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma-via-activating-the-hypoxia%C3%A2-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-signaling-pathway-in-vitro
#15
Yaqiong Yang, Rong Hu, Jia Yan, Zhifeng Chen, Yi Lu, Jue Jiang, Hong Jiang
Sevoflurane, an inhalational anesthetic, is extensively used during oral cancer surgery. However, the effect of sevoflurane on head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of sevoflurane on the proliferation, apoptosis and invasion in HNSCC cell lines and the underlying molecular mechanism. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cell invasion was evaluated using the Transwell invasion assay...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200367/anesthetic-management-in-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-a-case-report
#16
Toru Yamamoto, Noriko Miyazawa, Shinichi Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kawahara
We report on a morbidly obese 16-year-old boy (weight, 116 kg; height, 176 cm; body mass index, 35.5 kg/m2) with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy and a history of cerebral infarction, epilepsy, and severe mental retardation. The patient was scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia for multiple dental caries and entropion of the left eye. Preoperative examination results, including an electrocardiogram, were normal. No obvious cardiac function abnormalities were observed on echocardiography. Midazolam (10 mg) was administered orally as premedication 30 minutes before transfer to the operating room; however, the patient was uncooperative, and his body movements were difficult to control upon entering the operating room...
2017: Anesthesia Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198958/inhalation-anaesthetic-isoflurane-inhibits-the-muscarinic-cation-current-and-carbachol-induced-gastrointestinal-smooth-muscle-contractions
#17
Dariia Dryn, Jialie Luo, Mariia Melnyk, Alexander Zholos, Hongzhen Hu
Gastrointestinal tract motility may be demoted significantly after surgery operations at least in part due to anaesthetic agents, but there is no comprehensive explanation of the molecular mechanism(s) of such adverse effects. Anesthetics are known to interact with various receptors and ion channels including several subtypes of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Two members of the canonical subfamily of TRP channels (TRPC), TRPC4 and TRPC6 are Ca2+-permeable cation channels involved in visceral smooth muscle contractility induced by acetylcholine, the primary excitatory neurotransmitter in the gut...
November 30, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181002/the-effect-of-propofol-vs-isoflurane-anesthesia-on-postoperative-changes-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-cytokine-levels-results-from-a-randomized-trial
#18
Miles Berger, Vikram Ponnusamy, Nathaniel Greene, Mary Cooter, Jacob W Nadler, Allan Friedman, David L McDonagh, Daniel T Laskowitz, Mark F Newman, Leslie M Shaw, David S Warner, Joseph P Mathew, Michael L James
Introduction: Aside from direct effects on neurotransmission, inhaled and intravenous anesthetics have immunomodulatory properties. In vitro and mouse model studies suggest that propofol inhibits, while isoflurane increases, neuroinflammation. If these findings translate to humans, they could be clinically important since neuroinflammation has detrimental effects on neurocognitive function in numerous disease states. Materials and methods: To examine whether propofol and isoflurane differentially modulate neuroinflammation in humans, cytokines were measured in a secondary analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients prospectively randomized to receive anesthetic maintenance with propofol vs...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176298/smaller-effect-of-propofol-than-sevoflurane-anesthesia-on-dopamine-turnover-induced-by-methamphetamine-and-nomifensine-in-the-rat-striatum-an-in-vivo-microdialysis-study
#19
Saori Taharabaru, Maiko Satomoto, Takahiro Tamura, Yushi U Adachi
Volatile anesthetics accelerate dopamine turnover in the brain, especially when used in conjunction with psychotropic agents such as methamphetamine and nomifensine. The effect of intravenous propofol anesthesia on the extracellular dopamine concentrations is unclear. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of two anesthetics on the extracellular concentrations of dopamine and metabolites using an in vivo microdialysis model. Male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with a microdialysis probe into the right striatum...
November 23, 2017: Experimental Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169225/a-comparison-of-the-effects-of-isoflurane-versus-propofol-remifentanil-anesthesia-on-oxygen-delivery-during-thoracoscopic-lung-lobectomy-with-one-lung-ventilation-in-dogs
#20
Jiyoung Park, Hae-Beom Lee, Seong Mok Jeong
This study compared effects of isoflurane inhalation (ISO) and propofol-remifentanil combined total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) on oxygenation during thoracoscopic lung lobectomy with 30-minute one-lung ventilation (1LV). Thoracoscopic right middle lung lobectomy was performed in ten dogs divided into ISO and TIVA group and cardiopulmonary parameters were measured with blood gas analysis. Throughout the study, isoflurane was inhaled up to 1.5%, and the infusion rates of propofol and remifentanil were 0.2~0...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Science
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