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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937823/optic-disc-parameters-of-myopic-children-with-atropine-treatment
#1
Li-Wei Chan, Yi-Ting Hsieh, Wei-Cherng Hsu, Han-Chih Cheng, Elizabeth P Shen
PURPOSE: To characterize optic disc parameters, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT), and the intraocular pressure (IOP) of myopic children under continual topical 0.25% atropine treatment. METHODS: From October 1, 2010 to September 31, 2011, 67 eyes of 35 myopic children were recruited. The children were treated with 0.25% atropine nightly for myopia control. Visual acuity, refraction, IOP, axial length (AL, IOL Master), RNFLT, and optic disc parameters (Stratus OCT) were measured at enrollment and every 2 months...
September 22, 2017: Current Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935564/antinociception-induced-by-a-novel-%C3%AE-2a-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-in-rodents-acute-and-chronic-pain-models
#2
Roberto Takashi Sudo, Rachel Vieiralves do Amaral, Carlos Eduardo da Silva Monteiro, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Maria do Carmo Lima, Guilherme Carneiro Montes, Douglas Gordon Ririe, Kenichiro Hayashida, Gisele Zapata-Sudo
The mechanisms and antinociceptive effects of a novel α2A adrenoceptor agonist, 3-(2-chloro-6-fluorobenzil)-imidazolinide-2,4-dione (PT-31) were investigated using animal models of acute and chronic pain. The effects of PT-31 on pain responses were examined using hot plate and formalin tests in mice and spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced hyperalgesia in rats. The effects of antagonists acting on α adrenoceptor were assessed to investigate the interaction of these pathways upon PT-31 induced antinociception...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929435/neuroprotective-effects-of-galantamine-on-nerve-agent-induced-neuroglial-and-biochemical-changes
#3
RamaRao Golime, Meehir Palit, J Acharya, D K Dubey
Neuroprotection from nerve agent such as soman-induced neural damage is a major challenge for existing drugs. Nerve agent exposure can cause many neural effects in survivors arising mainly due to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition or death within minutes. Unraveling the mechanisms underlying the nerve agent-induced multiple neurological effects is useful to develop better and safe drugs. The present study aimed to understand the molecular response during soman exposure and to evaluate the neuroprotective efficacy of galantamine on nerve agent-induced neurotoxic changes...
September 19, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928560/age-based-local-anesthetic-dosing-in-pediatric-spinal-anesthesia-evaluation-of-a-new-formula-a-pilot-study-in-indian-patients
#4
S Parthasarathy, T Senthilkumar
BACKGROUND: Spinal anesthesia is a safe alternative to general anesthesia and often the anesthetic technique of choice in many lower abdominal and lower limb surgeries in children. As the vertebral column and spinal cord grows variedly with age and not weight, we planned to administer an age-based dosing schedule of hyperbaric bupivacaine in the intra-thecal space in select infra umbilical surgeries in children. The aim was to find out the efficacy and complications associated with this dosage...
July 2017: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927495/preventing-myopia
#5
Wolf A Lagrèze, Frank Schaeffel
BACKGROUND: Nearsightedness (myopia) has become more common around the world recently, mainly because of changes in visual, educational, and recreational behavior. The question arises how the risk of myopia and its progression can be reduced. This would lessen the prevalence and severity of myopia and also lower the risk of secondary diseases that impair visual acuity. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was selectively searched for pertinent literature. RESULTS: The risk of myopia is lowered by exposure to daylight and increased by activities performed at short visual distances (close-up work)...
September 4, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913501/acute-poisoning-due-to-ingestion-of-datura-stramonium-a-case-report
#6
Sebastian Daniel Trancă, Robert Szabo, Mihaela Cociş
Datura stramonium (DS) is a widespread annual plant, containing atropine, hyoscyamine, and scopolamine, which can produce poisoning with a severe anticholinergic syndrome. Teenagers ingest the roots, seeds or the entire plant to obtain its hallucinogenic and euphoric effects. We presented the case of a 22 year old male who was admitted to the Emergency Room in a coma after consuming Datura stramonium, 2 hours earlier. The patient presented with fever, tachycardia with right bundle branch block, and urinary retention...
April 2017: Rom J Anaesth Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911287/effect-of-sugammadex-versus-neostigmine-atropine-combination-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-after-elective-surgery
#7
C Batistaki, M Riga, F Zafeiropoulou, G Lyrakos, G Kostopanagiotou, P Matsota
This study aimed to assess the effects of sugammadex and neostigmine/atropine on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in adult patients after elective surgery. A randomised, double-blind controlled trial was carried out on 160 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I to III patients who were >40 years. The Mini-Mental State Evaluation, clock-drawing test and the Isaacs Set test were used to assess cognitive function at three timepoints: 1) preoperatively, 2) one hour postoperatively, and 3) at discharge...
September 2017: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910474/atropine-eye-drops-a-proposed-field-expedient-substitute-in-the-absence-of-atropine-autoinjectors
#8
Christopher J Calvano, Robert W Enzenauer, Derek L Eisnor, Robert A Mazzoli
Nerve agents are a threat to military and civilian health. The antidote, atropine sulfate, is delivered by autoinjector, which is a limited resource. We propose the use of 1% atropine ophthalmic solution (supplied commercially in 5mL or 15 mL bottles) via oral, ocular, and intranasal administration as an expedient substitute in austere environments.
2017: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904524/prevalence-circumstances-and-management-of-acute-pesticide-poisoning-in-hospitals-in-kampala-city-uganda
#9
Charles Ssemugabo, Abdullah Ali Halage, Ruth Mubeezi Neebye, Victoria Nabankema, Massy Moses Kasule, Deogratius Ssekimpi, Erik Jørs
This study was aimed at assessing prevalence, circumstance, and management of acute pesticide poisoning in hospitals in Kampala. It was a retrospective cross-sectional study that involved reviewing of 739 poisoning patient records from 5 hospitals in Kampala. Of the 739 patients, 212 were due to pesticide poisoning resulting in a prevalence of 28.8%. About 91.4% (191/210) of the cases were due to organophosphate poisoning, 63.3% (133/210) were intentional, and 98.1% (206/210) were exposed through ingestion...
2017: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903494/optimization-of-the-ocular-treatment-following-organophosphate-nerve-agent-insult
#10
Inbal Egoz, Uri Nili, Ettie Grauer, Ariel Gore
Eye exposure to organophosphate (OP) irreversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, results in long-term miosis and impaired visual function. The aim of this study was to find an anticholinergic antidote, which would counteract miosis and visual impairment induced by the nerve agents sarin and VX with minimal untoward side-effects. Rat pupil width and light reflex were evaluated from 15 min up to 2 weeks following topical OP exposure with or without topical ocular treatment of atropine or homatropine or with a combined intramuscular treatment of trimedoxime (TMB-4) and atropine (TA)...
September 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901462/role-of-ghrelin-in-small-intestinal-motility-following-pediatric-intracerebral-hemorrhage-in-mice
#11
Jieyu Zan, Lei Song, Jiejie Wang, Rong Zou, Fei Hong, Jinhua Zhao, Yijun Cheng, Ming Xu
Small intestinal motility (SIM) disorder is a common complication following pediatric intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), leading to a poor prognosis in patients. Previous studies have shown that ghrelin is involved in SIM in various diseases; however, the role of ghrelin in pediatric ICH‑induced SIM disorder remains to be elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the association between ghrelin and SIM post‑ICH, and to examine the effect of exogenous ghrelin administration on SIM in vivo...
September 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887902/atropinic-anticholinergic-burden-in-antipsychotic-treated-patients
#12
François Montastruc, Justine Benevent, Anthony Touafchia, Leila Chebane, Mélanie Araujo, Emmanuelle Guitton-Bondon, Geneviève Durrieu, Christophe Arbus, Laurent Schmitt, Bernard Begaud, Jean-Louis Montastruc
Antipsychotic drugs possess side atropinic (anticholinergic) properties that may induce several adverse drug reactions (ADRs), such as memory loss or cognitive impairment. The aim of the present study was investigating anticholinergic burden in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs. All ADR reports including at least one antipsychotic and registered between 2000 and 2015 in the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance Database were extracted and analyzed using the Anticholinergic Duran's list. The primary objective of this cross-sectional study was to calculate anticholinergic burden in antipsychotic-treated patients; the secondary one was to investigate associated factors...
September 9, 2017: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880711/curcumin-alleviates-the-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-of-mice-in-vivo
#13
Jing Yu, Wen-Hua Xu, Wei Sun, Yi Sun, Zhi-Li Guo, Xiao-Ling Yu
Curcumin is a natural polyphenol extracted from the turmeric rhizome, which has a wide range of biological activities, but until now the effects of curcumin on the gastrointestinal peristalsis have not been fully understood. In vivo study, we observed the effects of curcumin on gastric emptying and intestinal propulsion rates of mice in normal state and in delayed state by atropine (ATR) or nitric oxide precursor L-arginine (L-Arg). An in vitro study explored the direct effects of curcumin on the intestinal contractility, but were studied through measuring spontaneous contraction of isolated jejunum of mice...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879155/cylindrocarpon-lichenicola-keratomycosis-in-nigeria-the-challenge-of-limited-access-to-effective-antimicrobials
#14
Emmanuel O Irek, Temitope O Obadare, Patrick A Udonwa, Olajumoke Laoye, Oyekola V Abiri, Adenike O Adeoye, Aaron O Aboderin
INTRODUCTION: We report a rare cause of keratitis, due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola, in a farmer with keratomycosis. Despite the acknowledged virulence of this fungus, a suitable antifungal for its management was not accessible. CASE PRESENTATION: A 67-year-old farmer presented with a two-week history of pain, mucopurulent discharge, redness and a corneal ulcer with a visual acuity of hand movement in the right eye. With a working diagnosis of infective keratitis, corneal scrapings were taken under a slit lamp biomicroscope for microbiological testing...
2017: African Journal of Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876572/haemoperitoneum-secondary-to-snake-bite
#15
S Rahim
BACKGROUND: Literature supports that very rarely the venom of "Hemotoxic Snake" (Russell's Vipers) affect haemostasis by secreting thrombin-like enzyme which promotes formation of unstable clots. Such clots could lead to fibrin deposition in micro circulation that in turn consume platelets and coagulation factors (consumption coagulopathy). Clinical presentation is mainly spontaneous bleeding and coagulopathy. In this case the significant effects of altered coagulation were observed in retropetitoneum and the patient presented in casuality as acute abdomen...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876363/dipyrone-in-association-with-atropine-inhibits-the-effect-on-gastric-emptying-induced-by-hypoglycemia-in-rats
#16
E F Collares, A M Vinagre, C B Collares-Buzato
Atropine (AT) and dipyrone (Dp) induce a delay of gastric emptying (GE) of liquids in rats by inhibiting muscarinic receptors and activating β2-adrenergic receptors, respectively. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of pretreatment with AT and Dp, given alone or in combination, on the effect of hypoglycemia in the liquid GE in rats. Male Wistar adult rats (280-310 g) were pretreated intravenously with AT, Dp, AT plus Dp or their vehicle and then treated 30 min later with iv insulin or its vehicle (n=8-10 animals/group)...
August 31, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873551/are-tropane-alkaloids-present-in-organic-foods-detection-of-scopolamine-and-atropine-in-organic-buckwheat-fagopyron-esculentum-l-products-by-uhplc-ms-ms
#17
Martina Cirlini, Teresa M Demuth, Alberto Biancardi, Michael Rychlik, Chiara Dall'Asta, Renato Bruni
A closer monitoring of tropane alkaloids (TA) in foods is now recommended by the European Commission, following a series of alerts related to the contamination of buckwheat with weeds of the genus Datura. A novel, accurate UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the rapid detection of scopolamine and atropine in buckwheat foods. A suitable extraction protocol was set up to maximize recoveries and detection limits in different raw, processed and baked foods. The method offers good performances in terms of sensitivity, accuracy and precision, with LOQs at 0...
January 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870544/multi-analysis-determination-of-tropane-alkaloids-in-cereals-and-solanaceaes-seeds-by-liquid-chromatography-coupled-to-single-stage-exactive-orbitrap
#18
Jesús Marín-Sáez, Roberto Romero-González, Antonia Garrido Frenich
Tropane alkaloids are a wide group of substances that comprises more than 200 compounds occurring especially in the Solanaceae family. The main aim of this study is the development of a method for the analysis of the principal tropane alkaloids as atropine, scopolamine, anisodamine, tropane, tropine, littorine, homatropine, apoatropine, aposcopolamine, scopoline, tropinone, physoperuvine, pseudotropine and cuscohygrine in cereals and related matrices. For that, a simple solid-liquid extraction was optimized and a liquid chromatographic method coupled to a single stage Exactive-Orbitrap was developed...
August 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862480/national-characteristics-of-emergency-medical-services-responses-for-older-adults-in-the-united-states
#19
Hieu V Duong, Lauren Nicholas Herrera, Justin Xavier Moore, John Donnelly, Karen E Jacobson, Jestin N Carlson, N Clay Mann, Henry E Wang
OBJECTIVE: Older adults, those aged 65 and older, frequently require emergency care. However, only limited national data describe the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) care provided to older adults. We sought to determine the characteristics of EMS care provided to older adults in the United States. METHODS: We used data from the 2014 National Emergency Medical Services Information System (NEMSIS), encompassing EMS response data from 46 States and territories. We excluded EMS responses for children <18 years, interfacility transports, intercepts, non-emergency medical transports, and standby responses...
September 1, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862317/is-prolongation-of-corrected-qt-interval-associated-with-seizures-induced-by-electroconvulsive-therapy-reduced-by-atropine-sulfate
#20
Yoko Suzuki, Miho Miyajima, Katsuya Ohta, Noriko Yoshida, Rie Omoya, Mayo Fujiwara, Takafumi Watanabe, Masaki Okumura, Hiroaki Yamazaki, Masayuki Shintaku, Issei Murata, Shigeru Ozaki, Takeshi Sasaki, Mitsuru Nakamura, Hiroshi Suwa, Tetsuo Sasano, Tokuhiro Kawara, Masato Matsuura, Eisuke Matsushima
BACKGROUND: Electrocardiogram abnormalities have been reported during electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). A corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation indicates delayed ventricular repolarization, which can trigger ventricular arrhythmias such as torsade de pointes (TdP). We examined the QTc changes during generalized tonic-clonic seizures induced by ECT, and the effects of atropine sulfate on these QTc changes. METHODS: We analyzed heart rate, QT interval, and QTc in 32 patients with depression who underwent ECT (25 women, 67...
September 1, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
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