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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920429/nitric-oxide-no-mediates-the-inhibition-of-form-deprivation-myopia-by-atropine-in-chicks
#1
Brittany J Carr, William K Stell
Myopia is the most common childhood refractive disorder. Atropine inhibits myopia progression, but its mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that myopia-prevention by atropine requires production of nitric oxide (NO). Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced in week-old chicks by diffusers over the right eye (OD); the left eye (OS) remained ungoggled. On post-goggling days 1, 3, and 5, OD received intravitreally 20 µL of phosphate-buffered saline (vehicle), or vehicle plus: NO source: L-arginine (L-Arg, 60-6,000 nmol) or sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 10-1,000 nmol); atropine (240 nmol); NO inhibitors: L-NIO or L-NMMA (6 nmol); negative controls: D-Arg (10 µmol) or D-NMMA (6 nmol); or atropine plus L-NIO, L-NMMA, or D-NMMA; OS received vehicle...
December 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916366/rubus-occidentalis-analgesic-effect-in-a-rat-model-of-incisional-pain
#2
Geun Joo Choi, Hyun Kang, Won Joong Kim, Ji Wung Kwon, Beom Gyu Kim, Yoo Shin Choi, Young Joo Cha, Jin Soo Ko
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Rubus occidentalis extract (ROE) in a rat model of incisional pain. The involved mechanisms and proinflammatory cytokine response were also examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To investigate the analgesic effect, rats were intraperitoneally administered with normal saline or various doses of ROE before or after a plantar incision. To evaluate the involved mechanism, rats were intraperitoneally administered yohimbine, dexmedetomidine, prazosin, naloxone, atropine, or mecamylamine after a plantar incision; ROE was then administered intraperitoneally...
November 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905700/use-of-ozone-depleting-substances-direct-final-rule
#3
(no author information available yet)
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA, the Agency, or we) is amending its regulation on uses of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), to remove the designation for certain products as "essential uses" under the Clean Air Act. Essential-use products are exempt from the ban by FDA on the use of CFCs and other ODS propellants in FDA-regulated products and from the ban by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the use of ODSs in pressurized dispensers. The products that will no longer constitute an essential use are: Sterile aerosol talc administered intrapleurally by thoracoscopy for human use and metered-dose atropine sulfate aerosol human drugs administered by oral inhalation...
October 26, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899232/expression-of-muscarinic-acetylcholine-receptors-in-hepatocytes-from-rat-fibrotic-liver
#4
Lin Luo, Tingting Xu, Pengbo Wang, Liuliu Mao, Chenghao Xi, Jinhua Huang, Wei Zhang
The pathological changes of parasympathetic nerve are considered as an independent prognostic factor of the survival rate of patients with chronic liver disease. The non-selective muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAchR) agonists and antagonists can affect the proliferation of hepatocytes and hepatic stellate cells, but the subtypes of mAchR expressions in HCs are still uncertain. Here, we investigate the expression of mAchR in hepatic fibrosis on rats. 3ml/kg 40% carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) was given to induce hepatic fibrosis on rats and the hepatocytes were isolated...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898446/topical-atropine-in-the-control-of-myopia
#5
Donald Tan, Su Ann Tay, Kai-Lyn Loh, Audrey Chia
Efforts to reduce myopia progression in childhood are driven by the increasing incidence of high myopia and its attendant health risks. Interventional approaches to reduce myopia progression in childhood have included the use of spectacles, contact lens, and pharmacological methods, of which the latter appear to be most promising. We review the use of topical atropine eye drops in the retardation of myopia progression in children and discuss the efficacy and safety profiles when used at different concentrations (1...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898441/epidemiology-of-myopia
#6
Pei-Chang Wu, Hsiu-Mei Huang, Hun-Ju Yu, Po-Chiung Fang, Chueh-Tan Chen
Myopia is not a simple refractive error, but an eyesight-threatening disease. There is a high prevalence of myopia, 80% to 90%, in young adults in East Asia; myopia has become the leading cause of blindness in this area. As the myopic population increases globally, the severity of its impact is predicted. Approximately one fifth of the myopic population has high myopia (≥-6 diopters), which results in irreversible vision loss such as retinal detachment, choroidal neovascularization, cataracts, glaucoma, and macular atrophy...
November 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896325/utilization-of-plasmapheresis-for-organophosphate-intoxication-a-case-report
#7
Nezihat Rana Disel, Ayca Acikalin, Zeynep Kekec, Ahmet Sebe
Organophosphate (OP) compounds are extremely toxic chemicals that may be absorbed via skin, conjunctiva, gastrointestinal and respiratory systems. Treatment of OP poisoning is a critical and aggressive process which includes decontamination, antidote administration (atropin and oximes), mechanical ventilation support and extracorporeal elimination procedures if needed. Here we present a young female patient who was unintentionally poisoned by an OP (trichlorfon) after using it to moisture her skin. The importance of this patient is the dermal disease that makes her unprotective to dermal exposure of chemicals and application of plasmapheresis to treat her poisoning...
June 2016: Turkish Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895421/carbon-monoxide-contributes-to-the-constipating-effects-of-granisetron-in-rat-colon
#8
Carmela Nacci, Margherita Fanelli, Maria Assunta Potenza, Valentina Leo, Monica Montagnani, Maria Antonietta De Salvia
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS: For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891405/complete-heart-block-in-pregnancy-a-report-of-emergency-caesarean-section-in-a-parturient-without-pacemaker
#9
Vandana Mohapatra, Aparajita Panda, Satyanarayan Behera, Jagadish Chandra Behera
Management of women with Complete Heart Block (CHB) presenting without pacing, during pregnancy and labour is debatable. Temporary pacemakers have been routinely inserted for labour and birth probably to withstand any haemodynamic variations. However, due to lack of large scale prospective studies, the necessity of this procedure has not been objectively assessed. Also, the most appropriate anaesthetic technique for caesarean section in women with CHB is yet to be clarified. We report herein the case of a pregnant woman with CHB who had uneventful emergency caesarean delivery under spinal anaesthesia without temporary pacing...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879184/-myopia-a-growing-health-problem
#10
J W L Tideman, J R Polling, A van der Schans, V J M Verhoeven, C C W Klaver
- Myopia is the eye disorder with the most rapid increase in prevalence worldwide. It develops in childhood, with a peak incidence between the ages of 13 to 15 years. - Especially high myopia, i.e. a refractive error of -6 diopters or more, increases the risk of permanent visual impairment during adulthood due to structural abnormalities of the retina and optic nerve.- The cause of myopia is complex. Lifestyle factors in childhood, such as limited time spent outdoors and close work - such as reading and smartphone usage - are risk factors...
2016: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875053/pharmacological-reversal-agents-in-dental-practice-keys-to-patient-safety
#11
Mark Donaldson, Jason H Goodchild
Though uncommon, medical emergencies in the dental office are harrowing occurrences that can be the result of adverse drug reactions. Pharmacological antagonists have been developed for administration as reversal agents in emergency situations in which patients may have an untoward effect, typically caused by too much medication. Dental practitioners should be familiar with these agents to keep patients safe and help mitigate drug-induced medical emergencies. This article reviews the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles of pharmacological antagonists; it emphasizes six specific reversal agents as they relate to the clinical practice of dentistry: naloxone, flumazenil, epinephrine, diphenhydramine, phentolamine, and atropine...
November 2016: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872944/-multiple-eccrine-hidrocystomas-on-the-lower-forehead-and-nose-of-a%C3%A2-60-year-old-man
#12
J K Winkler, W Hartschuh, A Enk, F Toberer
Multiple eccrine hidrocystomas are benign cystic skin lesions which originate from the sweat gland ducts and typically affect women's midfacial area. Sweating may lead to an increase in size of the translucent papules. In some cases hidrocystomas are associated with other diseases such as Parkinson's disease. Treatment options include laser, topical and systemic anticholinergic drugs (glycopyrrolate, clonidine, atropine, and oxybutynin), whereby therapeutic success is limited in most cases.
November 21, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871607/highly-sensitive-determination-of-atropine-using-cobalt-oxide-nanostructures-influence-of-functional-groups-on-the-signal-sensitivity
#13
Razium Ali Soomro, Ayman Nafady, Keith Richard Hallam, Sana Jawaid, Abdullah Al Enizi, Syed Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Sirajuddin, Zafar Hussain Ibupoto, Magnus Willander
This study describes sensitive determination of atropine using glassy carbon electrodes (GCE) modified with Co3O4 nanostructures. The as-synthesised nanostructures were grown using cysteine (CYS), glutathione (GSH) and histidine (HYS) as effective templates under hydrothermal action. The obtained morphologies revealed interesting structural features, including both cavity-based and flower-shaped structures. The as-synthesised morphologies were noted to actively participate in electro-catalysis of atropine (AT) drug where GSH-assisted structures exhibited the best signal response in terms of current density and over-potential value...
December 15, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871593/atropine-and-glycopyrrolate-do-not-support-bacterial-growth-safety-and-economic-considerations
#14
Balazs Ittzes, Zsolt Weiling, Istvan Zoard Batai, Monika Kerenyi, Istvan Batai
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of bacterial growth in atropine and glycopyrrolate. DESIGN: Laboratory investigation. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Standard microbiological methods were used to evaluate the impact of atropine and glycopyrrolate on the growth of Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli. Bacterial count was checked at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 24 hours. MAIN RESULTS: Atropine or glycopyrrolate did not support the growth of the above bacteria at any examined time at room temperature...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871510/anticholinergic-premedication-to-prevent-bradycardia-in-combined-spinal-anesthesia-and-dexmedetomidine-sedation-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#15
Eun Jin Ahn, Jun Ha Park, Hyo Jin Kim, Kyung Woo Kim, Hey Ran Choi, Si Ra Bang
OBJECTIVE: When dexmedetomidine is used in patients undergoing spinal anesthesia, high incidence of bradycardia in response to parasympathetic activation is reported. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of atropine premedication for preventing the incidence of bradycardia and the hemodynamic effect on patients undergoing spinal anesthesia with sedation by dexmedetomidine. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Operating room...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854111/the-risk-of-hypotension-and-seizures-in-patients-receiving-prophylactic-anti-epileptic-drugs-for-supratentorial-craniotomy
#16
Julius Höhne, Karl M Schebesch, Christian Ott, Alexander Brawanski, Max Lange
BACKGROUND: Perioperative seizure prophylaxis with antiepileptic drugs (AED) has been advocated in patients undergoing supratentorial craniotomy. The practice remains controversial. The reasoning presupposes that the possibility of an adverse drug reaction from the AED is lower than the probability of harm from a seizure. Even short periods of hypotension during the operation can lead to acute kidney and myocardial injury. We retrospectively evaluated cardiovascular effects and tolerability of Levetiracetam (LEV) alone, LEV and Lacosamid (LCM) as compared to Phenytoin (PHT)...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843084/-the-effects-of-cycloplegic-eyedrops-on-corneal-tomography
#17
T Kalezic, I Vukovic, M Andjelkovic, M Gajic, J Potic, M Stojkovic
PURPOSE: Whether cycloplegics affect standard keratorefractometric and tomographic measurements is unknown. The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of cycloplegics (cyclopentolate and atropine) on corneal shape and refractive power of the eye. METHODS: This study was performed on 84 eyes of 49 study participants. Patients were randomized into two groups: atropine 1% (32 eyes) and cyclopentolate 1% (52 eyes). Corneal tomography was performed with the Orbscan IIz...
November 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843001/wide-qrs-complex-tachycardia-after-atropine-eye-drop-instillation-as-the-first-manifestation-of-steinert-disease
#18
Jesús Olmedo Llanes, Raúl López Salguero, Antonio Ruiz Serrato, Antonio Cordero Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 11, 2016: Revista Española de Cardiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837267/-biological-mechanisms-of-myopia
#19
F Schaeffel
Recent studies have confirmed that the prevalence of myopia has increased in most countries, that the increase must be due to environmental factors and that myopia is closely linked to the level of education. Extensive close-up work with short viewing distances, little outdoor activity and continuous exposure to low illumination are currently considered the major factors. It remains unknown how close-up work can stimulate eye growth. Animal models provide the possibility to manipulate visual experiences and to observe subsequent changes in eye growth...
November 11, 2016: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830420/organophosphate-hydrolyzing-enzymes-as-first-line-of-defence-against-nerve-agent-poisoning-perspectives-and-the-road-ahead
#20
REVIEW
A R Satvik Iyengar, Abhay H Pande
Nerve agents (NAs) are extremely neurotoxic synthetic organophosphate (OP) compounds exploited as weapons of mass destruction in terrorist attacks and chemical warfare. Considering the current world scenario, there is a persistent threat of NA-exposure to military personals and civilians. Various prophylactic and post-exposure treatments (such as atropine and oximes) available currently for NA-poisoning are inadequate and unsatisfactory and suffer from severe limitations. Hence, developing safe and effective treatment(s) against NA-poisoning is a critical necessity...
December 2016: Protein Journal
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