keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Colon capsule

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#1
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill(®) wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151395/tziminema-unachi-n-gen-n-sp-nematoda-strongylidae-strongylinae-parasite-of-baird-s-tapir-tapirus-bairdii-from-mexico
#2
D M Güiris-Andrade, A Oceguera-Figueroa, D Osorio-Sarabia, M E Pérez-Escobar, M G Nieto-López, N M Rojas-Hernández, L García-Prieto
A new genus and species of nematode, Tziminema unachi n. gen., n. sp. is described from the caecum and colon of Baird's tapir Tapirus bairdii (Gill, 1865), found dead in the Reserva de la Biósfera El Triunfo, Chiapas State, in the Neotropical realm of Mexico. Tziminema n. gen. differs from the other nine genera included in the Strongylinae by two main characteristics: having 7-9 posteriorly directed tooth-like structures at the anterior end of the buccal capsule, and the external surface of the buccal capsule being heavily striated...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142523/steroid-refractory-extensive-enteritis-complicated-by-ulcerative-colitis-successfully-treated-with-adalimumab
#3
Shinji Okabayashi, Taku Kobayashi, Tomohisa Sujino, Ryo Ozaki, Satoko Umeda, Takahiko Toyonaga, Eiko Saito, Masaru Nakano, Maria Carla Tablante, Shojiroh Morinaga, Toshifumi Hibi
Extracolonic involvement of the gastrointestinal tract is extremely uncommon in ulcerative colitis (UC) and rarely found in the upper gastrointestinal tract or in postoperative cases since it typically responds to steroids. Here we report a case of UC complicated by extensive ileal inflammation that was refractory to steroids. A 20-year-old man was diagnosed with UC of typical pancolitis without ileal involvement and started treatment with pH-dependent mesalazine and oral prednisolone. Although his symptoms transiently resolved, the condition flared when the steroid dose was tapered down...
October 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130395/pneumococcal-whole-cell-and-protein-based-vaccines-changing-the-paradigm
#4
Michael E Pichichero
Epidemiologic evaluations of Streptococcus pneumoniae nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization and pneumococcal disease suggest that newer serotypes in future formulations of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are needed and there may need to be continued reformulations because there are many new emerging serotypes expressed by pneumococci. Areas covered: Mechanisms of protection by next-generation whole-cell vaccine (WCV) and/or multi-component pneumococcal purified protein vaccines (PPVs) in development for prevention of pneumococcal infections...
December 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066548/genome-wide-discovery-of-genes-required-for-capsule-production-by-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#5
Kelvin G K Goh, Minh-Duy Phan, Brian M Forde, Teik Min Chong, Wai-Fong Yin, Kok-Gan Chan, Glen C Ulett, Matthew J Sweet, Scott A Beatson, Mark A Schembri
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a major cause of urinary tract and bloodstream infections and possesses an array of virulence factors for colonization, survival, and persistence. One such factor is the polysaccharide K capsule. Among the different K capsule types, the K1 serotype is strongly associated with UPEC infection. In this study, we completely sequenced the K1 UPEC urosepsis strain PA45B and employed a novel combination of a lytic K1 capsule-specific phage, saturated Tn5 transposon mutagenesis, and high-throughput transposon-directed insertion site sequencing (TraDIS) to identify the complement of genes required for capsule production...
October 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064714/gated-mesoporous-silica-nanocarriers-for-a-two-step-targeted-system-to-colonic-tissue
#6
Marta Gonzalez-Alvarez, Carmen Coll, Isabel González-Álvarez, Cristina Gimenez, Elena Aznar, M Carmen Martínez-Bisbal, Isabel Lozoya-Agullo, Marival Bermejo, Ramon Martinez-Manez, Felix Sancenón
Colon targeted drug delivery is highly relevant not only to treat colonic local diseases, but also for systemic therapies. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been demonstrated as useful systems for controlled drug release given their biocompatibility and the possibility of designing gated systems able to release cargo only upon the presence of certain stimuli. We report herein the preparation of three gated MSNs able to deliver their cargo triggered by different stimuli (redox ambient (S1), enzymatic hydrolysis (S2) and a surfactant or being in contact with cell membrane (S3)), and their performance in solution and in vitro with Caco-2 cells...
October 24, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063769/-current-application-and-future-perspectives-of-capsule-colonoscopy
#7
M Voška, M Zavoral, Š Suchánek
Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a noninvasive technique for diagnostic imaging of the colon that does not require air insufflation or sedation. CCE can be used in average-risk patients, in patients with incomplete colonoscopy and in patients with contraindications for conventional colonoscopy. In this paper, we review the technical characteristics, current application and possible future development of CCE.Key words: colorectal cancer - screening colon capsule endoscopy.
2017: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043605/liquid-nanosize-emulsion-filled-enteric-coated-capsules-for-colon-delivery-of-immunosuppressant-peptide
#8
Sumit Sharma, Vivek Ranjan Sinha
Present study aims at solubilizing slightly water-soluble peptide into a nanosize emulsion which is filled into a hard gelatin capsule in the form of preconcentrate. Further, liquid-filled capsule was dip-coated with ethyl cellulose and Eudragit S100 for colon targeting. An in vitro release profile was studied for selected formulations, i.e., Formulation A (5 mg ethyl cellulose and 40 mg Eudragit S100), Formulation B (10 mg ethyl cellulose and 30 mg Eudragit S100), and Formulation C (10 mg ethyl cellulose and 20 mg Eudragit S100)...
October 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030884/how-does-dietary-particle-size-affect-carnivore-gastrointestinal-transit-a-dog-model
#9
A De Cuyper, M Hesta, S Tibosch, C Wanke, M Clauss, G P J Janssens
The effect of dietary particle size on gastrointestinal transit in carnivores has not been studied and might offer more insight into their digestive physiology. This study evaluated the effect of two dietary particle sizes (fine = 7.8 mm vs. coarse = 13 mm) of chunked day-old chicks on transit parameters in dogs. Six beagle dogs were fed both dietary treatments in a crossover design of 7 days with transit testing on the fifth day. Transit parameters were assessed using two markers, that is a wireless motility capsule (IntelliCap(®) ) and titanium oxide (TiO2 )...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026659/emergence-and-genomic-diversification-of-a-virulent-serogroup-w-st-2881-cc175-neisseria-meningitidis-clone-in-the-african-meningitis-belt
#10
Araceli Lamelas, Julia Hauser, Jean-Pierre Dangy, Abdul-Wahab M Hamid, Katharina Röltgen, Mohamad R Abdul Sater, Abraham Hodgson, Ali Sie, Thomas Junghanss, Simon R Harris, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Gerd Pluschke
Countries of the African 'meningitis belt' are susceptible to meningococcal meningitis outbreaks. While in the past major epidemics have been primarily caused by serogroup A meningococci, W strains are currently responsible for most of the cases. After an epidemic in Mecca in 2000, W:ST-11 strains have caused many outbreaks worldwide. An unrelated W:ST-2881 clone was described for the first time in 2002, with the first meningitis cases caused by these bacteria reported in 2003. Here we describe results of a comparative whole-genome analysis of 74 W:ST-2881 strains isolated within the framework of two longitudinal colonization and disease studies conducted in Ghana and Burkina Faso...
August 2017: Microbial Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989013/development-of-a-modified-release-formulation-of-lovastatin-targeted-to-intestinal-methanogens-implicated-in-irritable-bowel-syndrome-with-constipation
#11
Steven Hubert, Alan Chadwick, Vince Wacher, Olivia Coughlin, John Kokai-Kun, Andrew Bristol
There is growing evidence that methane production, predominantly by Methanobrevibacter smithii, in the intestines is a cause of constipation, pain, and bloating in irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C). M smithii resides primarily in the large intestine but can also colonize the small intestine. In vitro studies found that the prodrug lactone form of lovastatin, found in cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibited methane production in stool samples from patients with IBS-C. However, the cholesterol-lowering lovastatin β-hydroxyacid was ineffective at inhibiting methane production in this system...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986322/formulation-development-of-syn-004-ribaxamase-oral-solid-dosage-form-a-%C3%AE-lactamase-to-prevent-intravenous-antibiotic-associated-dysbiosis-of-the-colon
#12
Andrew Bristol, Steven Hubert, Felix Hofmann, Hans Baer
SYN-004 (ribaxamase) delayed release drug product is a multi-particulate, hard capsule for oral delivery of a recombinant β-lactamase enzyme designed to degrade β-lactam antibiotics administered intravenously, and thus prevent colon dysbiosis. Here we describe the development of the SYN-004 enteric coated pellet formulation, which has been tested in multiple clinical trials. Since the SYN-004 drug substance is a buffered liquid, several binder excipients in different ratios were tested to facilitate binding of SYN-004 to sugar spheres...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985317/manipulation-of-gut-microbiota-reveals-shifting-community-structure-shaped-by-host-developmental-windows-in-amphibian-larvae
#13
Robin W Warne, Lucas Kirschman, Lydia Zeglin
Exploration of the importance of developmental windows for microbial colonization in diverse animal taxa, and tests of how these shape both animal microbiomes as well as host phenotypes promise to shed needed light on host-microbe interactions. The aims of this study were to explore how gut microbiota diversity of larval amphibians varies among species and across ontogeny, and to test if manipulation of gut colonization can reveal how microbiomes develop. We found that gut microbiomes differ among species and change across larval ontogeny, with distinctive differences between larvae, metamorphic animals, and juvenile frogs...
July 26, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966055/a-subset-of-polysaccharide-capsules-in-the-human-symbiont-bacteroides-thetaiotaomicron-promote-increased-competitive-fitness-in-the-mouse-gut
#14
Nathan T Porter, Pablo Canales, Daniel A Peterson, Eric C Martens
Capsular polysaccharides (CPSs) play multiple roles in protecting bacteria from host and environmental factors, and many commensal bacteria can produce multiple capsule types. To better understand the roles of different CPSs in competitive intestinal colonization, we individually expressed the eight different capsules of the human gut symbiont Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron. Certain CPSs were most advantageous in vivo, and increased anti-CPS immunoglobulin A correlated with increased fitness of a strain expressing one particular capsule, CPS5, suggesting that it promotes avoidance of adaptive immunity...
October 11, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957388/prolonged-intestinal-transit-and-diarrhea-in-patients-with-an-activating-gucy2c-mutation
#15
Hilde L von Volkmann, Ingeborg Brønstad, Odd Helge Gilja, Rune R Tronstad, Dag Andre Sangnes, Ragnar Nortvedt, Trygve Hausken, Georg Dimcevski, Torunn Fiskerstrand, Kim Nylund
INTRODUCTION: Increased intestinal hydration by activation of the epithelial enzyme linked receptor guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) is a pharmacological principle for treating constipation. Activating mutations in the GUCY2C gene encoding GC-C cause Familial GUCY2C diarrhea syndrome (FGDS) which has been diagnosed with severe dysmotility. AIM: To investigate gut motility and hormones before and after a meal in FGDS patients and compare with healthy controls (HC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Bristol stool chart and stool frequency was assessed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947363/role-of-capsule-endoscopy-and-fecal-biomarkers-in-small-bowel-crohn-s-disease-to-assess-remission-and-predict-relapse
#16
Vipul Aggarwal, Andrew S Day, Susan Connor, Steven T Leach, Gregor Brown, Rajvinder Singh, Antony Friedman, Amany Zekry, Philip I Craig
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Capsule endoscopy (CE) is the most sensitive test to diagnose small-bowel Crohn's disease (CD). Conventional parameters poorly assess CD remission and although fecal biomarkers assess colonic activity, their role in assessing remission is uncertain. We report CE findings in small-bowel CD patients in clinical remission compared with fecal biomarkers and standard clinical tools to determine mucosal remission and predict relapses. METHODS: 43 adult small-bowel CD patients in clinical remission (Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI] <150) were prospectively enrolled at 4 academic centers and followed clinically for 12 months...
September 22, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940818/retrograde-colon-capsule-endoscopy-with-the-self-propelling-capsule-endoscope-the-first-human-trial-with-videos
#17
Sadaharu Nouda, Kazuhiro Ota, Kazuhide Higuchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932274/the-impact-of-panenteric-capsule-endoscopy-on-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Rami Eliakim
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory disease, in most patients involving the small and large bowel. In recent years, with the use of small bowel video capsule endoscopy (SBCE), it has become clear that in 50% or more of adults with established CD there is not only distal but also proximal small bowel involvement that suggests poor prognosis. A great deal of effort has been put into early diagnosis and stratification of patients into low versus high risk, thus directing treatment from step-up, or accelerated step-up, to top-down therapies...
September 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932211/strain-level-streptococcus-colonization-patterns-during-the-first-year-of-life
#19
Meredith S Wright, Jamison McCorrison, Andres M Gomez, Erin Beck, Derek Harkins, Jyoti Shankar, Stephanie Mounaud, Edelwisa Segubre-Mercado, Aileen May R Mojica, Brian Bacay, Susan A Nzenze, Sheila Z M Kimaro, Peter Adrian, Keith P Klugman, Marilla G Lucero, Karen E Nelson, Shabir Madhi, Granger G Sutton, William C Nierman, Liliana Losada
Pneumococcal pneumonia has decreased significantly since the implementation of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV), nevertheless, in many developing countries pneumonia mortality in infants remains high. We have undertaken a study of the nasopharyngeal (NP) microbiome during the first year of life in infants from The Philippines and South Africa. The study entailed the determination of the Streptococcus sp. carriage using a lytA qPCR assay, whole metagenomic sequencing, and in silico serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae, as well as 16S rRNA amplicon based community profiling...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931649/sequencing-of-the-variable-region-of-rpsb-to-discriminate-between-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-other-streptococcal-species
#20
Anne L Wyllie, Yvonne Pannekoek, Sandra Bovenkerk, Jody van Engelsdorp Gastelaars, Bart Ferwerda, Diederik van de Beek, Elisabeth A M Sanders, Krzysztof Trzciński, Arie van der Ende
The vast majority of streptococci colonizing the human upper respiratory tract are commensals, only sporadically implicated in disease. Of these, the most pathogenic is Mitis group member, Streptococcus pneumoniae Phenotypic and genetic similarities between streptococci can cause difficulties in species identification. Using ribosomal S2-gene sequences extracted from whole-genome sequences published from 501 streptococci, we developed a method to identify streptococcal species. We validated this method on non-pneumococcal isolates cultured from cases of severe streptococcal disease (n = 101) and from carriage (n = 103), and on non-typeable pneumococci from asymptomatic individuals (n = 17) and on whole-genome sequences of 1157 pneumococcal isolates from meningitis in the Netherlands...
September 2017: Open Biology
keyword
keyword
78095
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"