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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342997/-x-linked-inhibitor-of-apoptosis-deficiency-manifested-as-crohn-s-disease-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
L J Xu, Y Y Luo, J D Yu, J G Lou, Y H Fang, J Chen
Objective: To analyze the clinical characteristics of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) deficient patients with clinical manifestation of Crohn's disease. Methods: Clinical manifestations, laboratory investigations, genetic testing and therapeutic interventions of one case of XIAP deficiency who was admitted to Department of Gastroenterology in Children's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine in May 2016 were summarized. PubMed and Chinese database for articles published from January 2016 to June 2017 were searched using the key words of'Crohn's disease'and'XIAP', and the relevant literature was reviewed...
January 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341931/bioinspired-capsules-based-on-nanocellulose-xyloglucan-and-pectin-the-influence-of-capsule-wall-composition-on-permeability-properties
#2
T Paulraj, A V Riazanova, A J Svagan
Materials based on renewable biopolymers, selective permeability and stimuli-responsive release/loading properties play an important role in biomedical applications. Here, in order to mimic the plant primary cell-wall, microcapsules have been fabricated using cell wall polysaccharides, namely pectin, xyloglucan and cellulose nanofibers. For the first time, a large amount of xyloglucan was successfully included in such capsules. These capsules demonstrated stimuli-responsive (ON/OFF) permeability and biocompatibility...
January 13, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339428/mucosal-infections-and-invasive-potential-of-nonencapsulated-streptococcus-pneumoniae-are-enhanced-by-oligopeptide-binding-proteins-alic-and-alid
#3
Jessica L Bradshaw, Haley R Pipkins, Lance E Keller, James K Pendarvis, Larry S McDaniel
Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp) is an emerging human pathogen that colonizes the nasopharynx and is associated with noninvasive diseases such as otitis media (OM), conjunctivitis, and nonbacteremic pneumonia. Since capsule expression was previously thought to be necessary for establishment of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), serotype-specific polysaccharide capsules are targeted by currently licensed pneumococcal vaccines. Yet, NESp expressing oligopeptide binding proteins AliC and AliD have been isolated during IPD...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339415/genome-wide-identification-by-transposon-insertion-sequencing-of-escherichia-coli-k1-genes-essential-for-in-vitro-growth-gastrointestinal-colonizing-capacity-and-survival-in-serum
#4
Alex J McCarthy, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Escherichia coli K1 strains are major causative agents of invasive disease of the new born. The age dependency of infection can be reproduced in the neonatal rat. Colonization of the small intestine following oral administration of K1 bacteria leads rapidly to invasion of the blood circulation; bacteria that avoid capture by the mesenteric lymphatic system and evade antibacterial mechanisms in the blood may disseminate to cause organ-specific infections such as meningitis. Some E. coli K1 surface constituents, in particular the polysialic acid capsule, are known to contribute to invasive potential but a comprehensive picture of the factors that determine the fully virulent phenotype has not so far emerged...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326011/neonatal-intestinal-colonization-with-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-a-five-year-follow-up-study
#5
V Nordberg, K Jonsson, C G Giske, A Iversen, O Aspevall, B Jonsson, A Camporeale, M Norman, L Navér
OBJECTIVE: To analyse Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) isolates from an outbreak of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL)-producing KP and Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) among infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and to determine the duration of the intestinal colonization. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of intestinal ESBL-KP/ ESBL-EC colonized neonates after a five-month outbreak in two NICUs. Whole genome sequencing (WGS), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core genome MLST, pulsed-field electrophoresis (PFGE) and PCR for blaCTX-M were performed on the first isolates...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316822/beneficial-anti-inflammatory-effect-of-paeonol-self-microemulsion-loaded-colon-specific-capsules-on-experimental-ulcerative-colitis-rats
#6
Shiyu Zong, Yiqiong Pu, Suyun Li, Benliang Xu, Yong Zhang, Tong Zhang, Bing Wang
Paeonol, as the main phenolic compound isolated from the Chinese herbs, has been confirmed to present anti-inflammatory effects on ulcerative colitis (UC) in our previous study. However, its poor solubility has hindered its development of being a favourable pharmaceutical product in treating colon diseases. In this study, we prepared the colon-specific delivery system (Pae-SME-CSC) with paeonol-loaded self-microemulsion (Pae-SMEDDS), and evaluated its in vitro and in vivo properties, especially the anti-inflammatory effects on UC rats...
January 9, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311231/capsule-prolongs-survival-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-during-starvation
#7
Shigeto Hamaguchi, M Ammar Zafar, Michael Cammer, Jeffrey N Weiser
Person-to-person transmission of Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) may occur via environmental sources in close contact with carriers. Pneumococcal polysaccharide capsules, the determinant of serotype (or type), are heterogeneous in structure and amount and these differences affect rates of transmission. In this study, we examined the contribution of capsule and its variations to the maintenance of pneumococcal viability under starvation conditions. S. pneumoniae retained its ability to colonize infant mice even after incubation for 24hrs in PBS at 25°C...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300388/colonoscopy-based-colorectal-cancer-modeling-in-mice-with-crispr-cas9-genome-editing-and-organoid-transplantation
#8
Jatin Roper, Tuomas Tammela, Adam Akkad, Mohammad Almeqdadi, Sebastian B Santos, Tyler Jacks, Ömer H Yilmaz
Most genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of colorectal cancer are limited by tumor formation in the small intestine, a high tumor burden that limits metastasis, and the need to generate and cross mutant mice. Cell line or organoid transplantation models generally produce tumors in ectopic locations-such as the subcutaneous space, kidney capsule, or cecal wall-that do not reflect the native stromal environment of the colon mucosa. Here, we describe detailed protocols to rapidly and efficiently induce site-directed tumors in the distal colon of mice that are based on colonoscopy-guided mucosal injection...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284248/streptococcus-suis-a-re-emerging-pathogen-associated-with-occupational-exposure-to-pigs-or-pork-products-part-i-epidemiology
#9
Jacek Dutkiewicz, Jacek Sroka, Violetta Zając, Bernard Wasiński, Ewa Cisak, Anna Sawczyn, Anna Kloc, Angelina Wójcik-Fatla
<i>Streptococcus suis</i> (ex Elliot 1966, Kilpper-Bälz & Schleifer 1987) is a facultatively anaerobic Gram-positive ovoid or coccal bacterium surrounded by a polysaccharide capsule. Based on the antigenic diversity of the capsule, <i>S. suis</i> strains are classified serologically into 35 serotypes. <i>Streptococcus suis</i> is a commensal of pigs, commonly colonizing their tonsils and nasal cavities, mostly in weaning piglets between 4-10 weeks of age. This species occurs also in cattle and other mammals, in birds and in humans...
December 23, 2017: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273467/the-effect-of-premedication-with-peppermint-oil-capsules-colpermin-prior-to-colonoscopy-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#10
Hassan Al Moussawi, Mariam Al Khatib, Malak El Ahmar, Houssam Al Masri, Ali Leddy, Tamer Akel, Ali Khalil
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Colonoscopy is the cornerstone of diagnosing colonic diseases. Investigators have evaluated the effectiveness of antispasmodic agents in colonoscopy with conflicting evidence. The aim of this study is to determine the efficacy of enteric coated peppermint oil capsules (Colpermin®), an antispasmodic agent, on outcomes during colonoscopy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 80 patients undergoing elective colonoscopy were recruited and randomized in a double blinded fashion to receive either placebo or peppermint oil capsules administered 4 h prior to the procedure...
December 19, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243747/aggregates-of-octenylsuccinate-oat-%C3%AE-glucan-as-novel-capsules-to-stabilize-curcumin-over-food-processing-storage-and-digestive-fluids-and-to-enhance-its-bioavailability
#11
J Liu, L Lei, F Ye, Y Zhou, Heba G R Younis, G Zhao
Self-aggregates of octenylsuccinate oat β-glucan (AOSG) have been verified as nanocapsules to load curcumin, a representative of hydrophobic phytochemicals. This study primarily investigated the stability of curcumin-loaded AOSGs over food processing, storage and digestive fluids. Curcumin in AOSGs showed better stability over storage and thermal treatment than its free form. Curcumin loaded in AOSGs stored at 4 °C in the dark exhibited higher stability than that at higher temperatures or exposed to light...
December 15, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239347/chronic-constipation
#12
REVIEW
Michael Camilleri, Alexander C Ford, Gary M Mawe, Phil G Dinning, Satish S Rao, William D Chey, Magnus Simrén, Anthony Lembo, Tonia M Young-Fadok, Lin Chang
Chronic constipation is a prevalent condition that severely impacts the quality of life of those affected. Several types of primary chronic constipation, which show substantial overlap, have been described, including normal-transit constipation, rectal evacuation disorders and slow-transit constipation. Diagnosis of primary chronic constipation involves a multistep process initiated by the exclusion of 'alarm' features (for example, unintentional weight loss or rectal bleeding) that might indicate organic diseases (such as polyps or tumours) and a therapeutic trial with first-line treatments such as dietary changes, lifestyle modifications and over-the-counter laxatives...
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Disease Primers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235889/effects-of-coating-layer-and-release-medium-on-release-profile-from-coated-capsules-with-eudragit-fs-30d-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#13
Eskandar Moghimipour, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh, Mohsen Rezaei, Maryam Kouchak, Jafar Fatahiasl, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Zahra Ramezani, Mohsen Amini, Somayeh Handali
The aim of the present research was to evaluate the impact of coating layers on release profile from enteric coated dosage forms. Capsules were coated with Eudragit FS 30D using dipping method. The drug profile was evaluated in both phosphate buffer and Hank's solutions. Utilization X-ray imaging, gastrointestinal transmission of enteric coated capsules was traced in rats. According to the results, no release of the drug was found at pH 1.2 and the extent of release drug in pH 6.8 medium was decreased by adding the coating layers...
December 13, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231473/-clinical-observation-of-slow-transit-constipation-treated-with-acupuncture-and-modified-weitong-xiaopi-formula
#14
Bo Wang, Yanping Chen, Suning Chen
OBJECTIVE: To compare the difference in the clinical therapeutic effects on slow transit constipation (STC) among the combined therapy of acupuncture and herbal medicine, simple use of herbal medicine and simple use of western medication. METHODS: Ninety patients of STC were randomized into three groups, 30 cases in each one. In the combined therapy group, acupuncture was used in combination with the modified weitong xiaopi formula. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the modified weitong xiaopi formula was adopted...
February 12, 2017: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230485/-importance-of-functional-diagnostics-in-gastroenterology
#15
REVIEW
M Hollenbach, A Hoffmeister, J Rosendahl, J Mössner
In this review article important and frequently used investigation methods for gastrointestinal functional diagnostics are presented. Some other rarely used special investigations are also explained. The hydrogen breath test is simple to carry out, ubiquitously available and enables the detection of lactose, fructose and sorbitol malabsorption. Furthermore, by the application of glucose, the test can be carried out when there is a suspicion of abnormal intestinal bacterial colonization and using lactulose for measuring small intestinal transit time...
December 11, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212851/omics-of-bifidobacteria-research-and-insights-into-their-health-promoting-activities
#16
REVIEW
Francesca Bottacini, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura
Members of the genus Bifidobacterium include gut commensals that are particularly abundant among the microbial communities residing in the gut of healthy breast-fed infants, where their presence has been linked to many beneficial host effects. Next-generation DNA sequencing and comparative and functional genome methodologies have been shown to be particularly useful in exploring the diversity of this genus. These combined approaches have allowed the identification of genetic features related to bifidobacterial establishment in the gut, involving host-microbe as well as microbe-microbe interactions...
December 6, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210098/regional-gastrointestinal-contractility-parameters-using-the-wireless-motility-capsule-inter-observer-reproducibility-and-influence-of-age-gender-and-study-country
#17
A D Farmer, A-M L Wegeberg, B Brock, A R Hobson, S D Mohammed, S M Scott, C E Bruckner-Holt, J R Semler, W L Hasler, P M Hellström, A M Drewes, C Brock
BACKGROUND: The wireless motility capsule concurrently measures temperature, pH and pressure as it traverses the gastrointestinal tract. AIMS: To describe normative values for motility/contractility parameters across age, gender and testing centres. METHODS: Healthy participants underwent a standardised wireless motility capsule assessment following an overnight fast and consumption of a meal of known nutritional content. Traces were divided into regions of interest and analysed using 2 software packages (MotiliGI and GIMS Data Viewer)...
December 6, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204056/effects-of-hemp-seed-soft-capsule-on-colonic-ion-transport-in-rats
#18
Xiao-Fang Lu, Meng-Di Jia, Sheng-Sheng Zhang, Lu-Qing Zhao
AIM: To investigate the effect of Hemp seed soft capsule (HSCC) on colonic ion transport and its related mechanisms in constipation rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal group, constipation group and HSSC group. Rats in the constipation and HSSC groups were administrated loperamide 3 mg/kg per day orally for 12 d to induce the constipation model. Then, the HSSC group was given HSSC 0.126 g/kg per day by gavage for 7 d...
November 14, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166546/back-to-back-colon-capsule-endoscopy-and-optical-colonoscopy-in-colorectal-cancer-screening-individuals
#19
Morten Kobaek-Larsen, Rasmus Kroijer, Anne-Kirstine Dyrvig, Maria Magdalena Buijs, Robert J C Steele, Niels Qvist, Gunnar Baatrup
AIM: To determine the polyp detection rate and per-patient sensitivity for polyps >9 mm of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) compared with colonoscopy as well as the diagnostic accuracy of CCE. METHOD: Individuals who had positive immunochemical faecal occult blood test during screening had investigator blinded colon capsule endoscopy and colonoscopy. Participants underwent repeat endoscopy if significant lesions detected by colon capsule endoscopy were considered to have been missed by colonoscopy...
November 22, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152256/consumption-of-kiwifruit-capsules-increases-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-abundance-in-functionally-constipated-individuals-a-randomised-controlled-human-trial
#20
Paul Blatchford, Halina Stoklosinski, Sarah Eady, Alison Wallace, Christine Butts, Richard Gearry, Glenn Gibson, Juliet Ansell
This study investigated the impact of ACTAZIN™ green (2400 and 600 mg) and Livaux™ (2400 mg) gold kiwifruit supplements on faecal microbial composition and metabolites in healthy and functionally constipated (FC) participants. The participants were recruited into the healthy group (n 20; one of whom did not complete the study) and the FC group (n 9), each of whom consumed all the treatments and a placebo (isomalt) for 4 weeks in a randomised cross-over design interspersed with 2-week washout periods. Modification of faecal microbiota composition and metabolism was determined by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and GC, and colonic pH was calculated using SmartPill® wireless motility capsules...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
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