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Colon capsule

Mukesh K Yadav, Jorge E Vidal, Yoon Y Go, Shin H Kim, Sung-Won Chae, Jae-Jun Song
Objective: Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharynx of children, and from nasopharynx it could migrate to the middle ear and causes acute otitis media (AOM). During colonization and AOM, the pneumococcus forms biofilms. In vitro biofilm formation requires a functional LuxS/AI-2 quorum-sensing system. We investigated the role of LuxS/AI-2 signaling in pneumococcal middle ear infection, and identified the genes that are regulated by LuxS/AI-2 during pneumococcal biofilm formation. Methods: Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 wild-type and an isogenic D39Δ luxS strain were utilized to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation, and in vivo colonization and epithelial damage using a microtiter plate assay and a rat model of pneumococcal middle ear infection, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Santiago M Lattar, Xueqing Wu, Jennifer Brophy, Fuminori Sakai, Keith P Klugman, Jorge E Vidal
Streptococcus pneumoniae acquires genes for resistance to antibiotics such as streptomycin (Str) or trimethoprim (Tmp) by recombination via transformation of DNA released by other pneumococci and closely related species. Using naturally transformable pneumococci, including strain D39 serotype 2 (S2) and TIGR4 (S4), we studied whether pneumococcal nasopharyngeal transformation was symmetrical, asymmetrical, or unidirectional. Incubation of S2Tet and S4Str in a bioreactor simulating the human nasopharynx led to the generation of SpnTet/Str recombinants...
May 15, 2018: MBio
Emanuel Vamanu, Mihaela Ene, Bogdan Biță, Cristina Ionescu, Liviu Crăciun, Ionela Sârbu
The ability to orally administer silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in enteric capsules implies a direct interaction with the colon microbiota. The in vitro effect provides a portrayal of the functional properties under in vivo conditions. The purpose of this study was to describe a green AgNP synthesis process, using aqueous extract from Lactarius piperatus mushroom, and to characterize the nanomaterial. We determined its antimicrobial and antioxidant effects in vitro in the microbiota of healthy individuals via the GIS1 system-a colon transit simulator...
May 14, 2018: Nutrients
Frank Anayo Orji, Ositadinma Chinyere Ugbogu, Eziuche Amadike Ugbogu, Alberto Barbabosa-Pliego, Jose Cedillo Monroy, Abdelfattah Z M Salem
Over 250 species of resident flora in the class of bacteria are known to be associated with humans. These conventional flora compositions is often determined by factors which may not be limited to stress, nutrition, genetics, and age, sex, stress, nutrition of humans. Man is constantly in contact with bacteria through media such as air, water, soil and food. This paper reviews the concept of bacterial pathogenesis from the sequential point of colonization to tissue injury. The paper in addition to examination of the factors which enhances virulence in bacterial pathogens also x-rayed the concept of pathogenicity islands and the next generation approaches or rather current trends/methods used in the bacterial pathogenicity investigations...
May 5, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Alberto Berardi, Lorina Bisharat, Hatim S AlKhatib, Marco Cespi
Zein is the main storage protein of corn and it has several industrial applications. Mainly in the last 10-15 years, zein has emerged as a potential pharmaceutical excipient with unique features. Zein is a natural, biocompatible and biodegradable material produced from renewable sources. It is insoluble, yet due to its amphiphilic nature, it has self-assembling properties, which have been exploited for the formation of micromicroparticle and nanoparticle and films. Moreover, zein can hydrate so it has been used in swellable matrices for controlled drug release...
May 7, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
Christopher R Doyle, Jee-Young Moon, Johanna P Daily, Tao Wang, Liise-Anne Pirofski
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) elicit opsonophagocytic (opsonic) antibodies to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharides (PPS) and reduce nasopharyngeal (NP) colonization by vaccine-included Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. However, non-opsonic antibodies may also be important for protection against pneumococcal disease. For example, 1E2, a mouse IgG1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) to the serotype 3 (ST3) PPS reduced ST3 NP colonization in mice and altered ST3 gene expression in vitro Here, we determined whether 1E2 affects ST3 gene expression in vivo during colonization of mice by performing RNA-seq on NP lavage fluid from ST3-infected mice treated with 1E2, a control mAb, or PBS...
May 7, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Angélica Morales-Miranda, Ismael Domínguez Rosado, Carlos Chan Núñez, Fredy Chable Montero
Approximately 15% of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases exhibit microsatellite instability (MSI), which appears to be associated with unique biological behavior. The present study presents a case of appendiceal carcinoma associated with MSI that responded well to adjuvant chemotherapy. Clinical, pathological and immunohistochemical (IHC) characteristics have been described. The 60-year-old male patient had suffered from recurrent lower abdominal pain associated with abdominal distention for 6 months; then, following an acute attack, he was subjected to laparoscopic appendectomy...
May 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Shinji Okabayashi, Taku Kobayashi, Masaru Nakano, Takahiko Toyonaga, Ryo Ozaki, Maria Carla Tablante, Satoshi Kuronuma, Osamu Takeuchi, Toshifumi Hibi
Background: Second-generation colon capsule endoscopy (CCE-2) has been reported as a potential tool for monitoring ulcerative colitis (UC). However, its excretion rate is still unsatisfactory, and the bowel preparation regimen is not well tolerated. Furthermore, a standard bowel preparation regimen validated for UC has not been established. The aim of this study was to develop a simple 1-day CCE-2 procedure while evaluating its excretion rate and acceptability in UC. Factors associated with the colonic transit time and acceptability of CCE-2 were evaluated...
April 30, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Victoria Blanes-Vidal, Esmaeil S Nadimi, Maria Magdalena Buijs, Gunnar Baatrup
PURPOSE: Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is considered a potential alternative to optical colonoscopy (OC) for colorectal cancer screening. However, the accuracy of CCE in polyp size and morphology estimation is unknown. METHODS: A fully paired study was performed (2015-2016), where 255 participants from the Danish national screening program had CCE, OC, and histopathology (HP) of all detected polyps. We developed a new algorithm to match CCE and OC polyps, based on objective measures of similarity between polyps...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Graham G Willsey, Sebastian Ventrone, Kristin C Schutz, Aaron M Wallace, John W Ribis, Benjamin T Suratt, Matthew J Wargo
The interactions between K lebsiella pneumoniae and the host environment at the site of infection largely unknown. Pulmonary surfactant serves as an initial point of contact for inhaled bacteria entering the lung and is thought to contain molecular cues that aid colonization and pathogenesis. To gain insight into this ecological transition, we characterized the transcriptional response of K. pneumoniae MGH 78578 to purified pulmonary surfactant. This work revealed changes within the K. pneumoniae transcriptome that likely contribute to host colonization, adaptation, and virulence in vivo Notable transcripts expressed under these conditions include genes involved in capsule synthesis, LPS modification, antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and metabolism...
April 30, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Kazeo Ninomiya, Takashi Hisabe, Yuki Okado, Yasumichi Takada, Rino Yamaoka, Yuho Sato, Masahiro Kishi, Noritaka Takatsu, Toshiyuki Matsui, Toshiharu Ueki, Kenshi Yao, Fumihito Hirai
BACKGROUND: Capsule endoscopy (CE) has allowed the characterization of small bowel lesions. However, small bowel lesions in ulcerative colitis (UC) have not been elucidated and no studies have compared between UC and Crohn's disease (CD). AIM: The objective of this study was to investigate the small bowel lesions in UC, and to characterize UC lesions by comparison with CD. METHODS: Subjects comprised 54 UC patients and 39 CD patients who underwent CE...
April 26, 2018: Digestion
Brian Surjanhata, Kenneth Barshop, Kyle Staller, Jack Semler, Laurence Guay, Braden Kuo
BACKGROUND: Chronic constipation may be categorized as normal transit (NTC), slow transit (STC), or outlet obstruction. Colonic wake response is a relative increase in colonic motility upon awakening. Colonic manometry studies have demonstrated attenuated wake response in STC. We sought to evaluate wake response among healthy (H), NTC, and STC patients using wireless motility capsule (WMC). METHODS: A retrospective study of WMC data from a multicenter clinical trial and a tertiary gastroenterology clinic was performed...
April 25, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Xiangyun Zhi, Iman Tajer Abdullah, Ozcan Gazioglu, Irfan Manzoor, Sulman Shafeeq, Oscar P Kuipers, N Luisa Hiller, Peter W Andrew, Hasan Yesilkaya
Microbes communicate with each other by using quorum sensing (QS) systems and modulate their collective 'behavior' for in-host colonization and virulence, biofilm formation, and environmental adaptation. The recent increase in genome data availability reveals the presence of several putative QS sensing circuits in microbial pathogens, but many of these have not been functionally characterized yet, despite their possible utility as drug targets. To increase the repertoire of functionally characterized QS systems in bacteria, we studied Rgg144/Shp144 and Rgg939/Shp939, two putative QS systems in the important human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae...
April 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Marilen Benner, Gerben Ferwerda, Irma Joosten, Renate G van der Molen
BACKGROUND: Fertility depends on a receptive state of the endometrium, influenced by hormonal and anatomical adaptations, as well as the immune system. Local and systemic immunity is greatly influenced by microbiota. Recent discoveries of 16S rRNA in the endometrium and the ability to detect low-biomass microbiota fueled the notion that the uterus may be indeed a non-sterile compartment. To date, the concept of the 'sterile womb' focuses on in utero effects of microbiota on offspring and neonatal immunity...
April 16, 2018: Human Reproduction Update
Shabana F Pasha
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This is a review of colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) with a focus on its recent developments, technological improvements, and current and potential future indications. RECENT FINDINGS: Based on the current literature, CCE II demonstrates comparable polyp detection rates as optical colonoscopy and CT colonography, and improved cost-effectiveness. The main limitation to patient acceptance is the requirement of a rigorous bowel preparation. Preliminary studies show good correlation between CCE and optical colonoscopy for assessment of colonic disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)...
April 12, 2018: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Jutta Keller, Gabrio Bassotti, John Clarke, Phil Dinning, Mark Fox, Madhusudan Grover, Per M Hellström, Meiyun Ke, Peter Layer, Carolina Malagelada, Henry P Parkman, S Mark Scott, Jan Tack, Magnus Simren, Hans Törnblom, Michael Camilleri
Disturbances of gastric, intestinal and colonic motor and sensory functions affect a large proportion of the population worldwide, impair quality of life and cause considerable health-care costs. Assessment of gastrointestinal motility in these patients can serve to establish diagnosis and to guide therapy. Major advances in diagnostic techniques during the past 5-10 years have led to this update about indications for and selection and performance of currently available tests. As symptoms have poor concordance with gastrointestinal motor dysfunction, clinical motility testing is indicated in patients in whom there is no evidence of causative mucosal or structural diseases such as inflammatory or malignant disease...
April 6, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Laurentiu Benga, Martin Sager, Henrik Christensen
The species [Pasteurella] pneumotropica has been reclassified into the new genus Rodentibacter, within the family Pasteurellaceae. Along with the type species (Rodentibacter pneumotropicus) of the new genus, seven new species have been named. These organisms were formerly mainly known as the [P.] pneumotropica complex and [P.] pneumotropica was considered as the most important Pasteurellaceae species colonizing laboratory rodents. The aim of this review is to update the veterinary relevant aspects of clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, virulence and diagnostics of members of Rodentibacter with a focus on the most important species from a veterinary perspective...
April 2018: Veterinary Microbiology
M Szweda, A Rychlik, M Nowicki, E Kaczmar
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of budesonide on the expression of Ki-67 and PCNA proliferative antigens and the apoptotic index in the course of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and to evaluate the applicability of these markers in monitoring IBD treatment in dogs. The experiment was performed on 28 dogs of different breeds and both sexes, with body weight of 6 to 20 kg, aged 6 to 10 years. The animals diagnosed with IBD were divided into four groups of 7 dogs each, including three experimental groups characterized by various severity of IBD and a control group...
December 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Shun Kurose, Kyoko Onozawa, Hiroshi Yoshikawa, Kenichiro Yaita, Hideyuki Takahashi, Nobuyuki Shimono, Yoji Nagasaki
BACKGROUND: Invasive Meningococcal Disease (IMD) is a rare and critical disease in Japan. Most of these cases are caused by capsulated Neisseria meningitidis strains. Non-capsulated (non-typable) strains are considered relatively low-pathogenic and can colonize in the nasopharynx of healthy children and young adults. As far as could be ascertained, only twelve IMD cases due to non-capsulated strains have been reported in the literature. No clear risk factors could be identified in a literature review (unknown or immunocompetent, seven cases; C6 deficiency, three cases)...
April 2, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Vanessa L Muñoz, Eric A Porsch, Joseph W St Geme
Kingella kingae is a gram-negative coccobacillus that is being recognized increasingly as an important cause of invasive disease in young children. The pathogenesis of K. kingae disease begins with colonization of the oropharynx, followed by invasion of the bloodstream, survival in the intravascular space, and dissemination to distant sites. Recent studies have revealed that K. kingae produces a number of surface factors that may contribute to the pathogenic process, including a polysaccharide capsule and an exopolysaccharide...
March 26, 2018: Infection and Immunity
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