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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911621/in%C3%A2-vitro-prebiotic-effects-and-quantitative-analysis-of-bulnesia-sarmienti-extract
#1
Md Ahsanur Reza, Md Akil Hossain, Seung-Jin Lee, Jong-Choon Kim, Seung-Chun Park
Prebiotics are used to influence the growth, colonization, survival, and activity of probiotics, and enhance the innate immunity, thus improving the health status of the host. The survival, growth, and activity of probiotics are often interfered with by intrinsic factors and indigenous microbes in the gastrointestinal tract. In this study, Bulnesia sarmienti aqueous extract (BSAE) was evaluated for the growth-promoting activity of different strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus, and a simple, precise, cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and validated for the determination of active prebiotic ingredients in the extract...
October 2016: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904998/parallel-evolution-of-group-b-streptococcus-hypervirulent-clonal-complex-17-unveils-new-pathoadaptive-mutations
#2
Alexandre Almeida, Isabelle Rosinski-Chupin, Céline Plainvert, Pierre-Emmanuel Douarre, Maria J Borrego, Claire Poyart, Philippe Glaser
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a commensal of the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts, while a prevailing cause of neonatal disease worldwide. Of the various clonal complexes (CCs), CC17 is overrepresented in GBS-infected newborns for reasons that are still largely unknown. Here, we report a comprehensive genomic analysis of 626 CC17 isolates collected worldwide, identifying the genetic traits behind their successful adaptation to humans and the underlying differences between carriage and clinical strains...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904187/genomic-characterization-of-urethritis-associated-neisseria-meningitidis-shows-that-a-wide-range-of-n-meningitidis-strains-can-cause-urethritis
#3
Kevin C Ma, Magnus Unemo, Samo Jeverica, Robert D Kirkcaldy, Hideyuki Takahashi, Makoto Ohnishi, Yonatan H Grad
Neisseria meningitidis, typically a resident of the oro- or nasopharynx and the causative agent of meningococcal meningitis and meningococcemia, is capable of invading and colonizing the urogenital tract. This can result in urethritis, akin to the syndrome caused by its sister species N. gonorrhoeae, the etiologic agent of gonorrhea. Recently, meningococcal strains associated with outbreaks of urethritis were reported to share genetic characteristics with gonococcus, raising the question of the extent to which these strains contain features that promote adaptation to the genitourinary niche, making them gonococcal-like and distinguishing them from other N...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874408/defining-the-mechanical-determinants-of-kingella-kingae-adherence-to-host-cells
#4
Brad K Kern, Eric A Porsch, Joseph W St Geme
Kingella kingae is an important pathogen in young children and initiates infection by colonizing the posterior pharynx. Adherence to pharyngeal epithelial cells is an important first step in the process of colonization. In the present study, we sought to elucidate the interplay of type IV pili (T4P), a trimeric autotransporter adhesin called Knh, and the polysaccharide capsule in K. kingae adherence to host cells. Using adherence assays performed under shear stress, we observed that a strain expressing only Knh was capable of higher levels of adherence than a strain expressing only T4P...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872760/relating-gastric-scintigraphy-and-symptoms-to-motility-capsule-transit-and-pressure-findings-in-suspected-gastroparesis
#5
W L Hasler, K P May, L A Wilson, M Van Natta, H P Parkman, P J Pasricha, K L Koch, T L Abell, R W McCallum, L A Nguyen, W J Snape, I Sarosiek, J O Clarke, G Farrugia, J Calles-Escandon, M Grover, J Tonascia, L A Lee, L Miriel, F A Hamilton
BACKGROUND: Wireless motility capsule (WMC) findings are incompletely defined in suspected gastroparesis. We aimed to characterize regional WMC transit and contractility in relation to scintigraphy, etiology, and symptoms in patients undergoing gastric emptying testing. METHODS: A total of 209 patients with gastroparesis symptoms at NIDDK Gastroparesis Consortium centers underwent gastric scintigraphy and WMCs on separate days to measure regional transit and contractility...
September 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860595/intestinal-stem-cells-contribute-to-the-maturation-of-the-neonatal-small-intestine-and-colon-independently-of-digestive-activity
#6
Hirotsugu Yanai, Naho Atsumi, Toshihiro Tanaka, Naohiro Nakamura, Yoshihiro Komai, Taichi Omachi, Kiyomichi Tanaka, Kazuhiko Ishigaki, Kazuho Saiga, Haruyuki Ohsugi, Yoko Tokuyama, Yuki Imahashi, Shuichi Ohe, Hiroko Hisha, Naoko Yoshida, Keiki Kumano, Masanori Kon, Hiroo Ueno
The murine intestine, like that of other mammalians, continues to develop after birth until weaning; however, whether this occurs in response to an intrinsic developmental program or food intake remains unclear. Here, we report a novel system for the allotransplantation of small intestine and colon harvested from Lgr5 (EGFP-IRES-CreERT2/+); Rosa26 (rbw/+) mice immediately after birth into the subrenal capsule of wild-type mice. By histological and immunohistochemical analysis, the developmental process of transplanted small intestine and colon was shown to be comparable with that of the native tissues: mature intestines equipped with all cell types were formed, indicating that these organs do not require food intake for development...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840585/efficacy-and-safety-of-quxie-capsule-in-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-a-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#7
Tong Zhang, Yu-Fei Yang, Bin He, Dan-Hui Yi, Jie Hao, Da Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To verify the efficacy and safety of Quxie Capsule () in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). METHODS: The present study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Sixty patients with mCRC were randomized into two groups at a 1:1 ratio by sealed envelope. The treatment group received conventional therapy combined with Quxie Capsule for 3 months. The control group was treated with conventional therapy combined with placebo for 3 months...
August 24, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830943/capsule-type-and-amount-affect-shedding-and-transmission-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae
#8
M Ammar Zafar, Shigeto Hamaguchi, Tonia Zangari, Michael Cammer, Jeffrey N Weiser
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of Streptococcus pneumoniae is characterized by its diversity, as it has over 95 known serotypes, and the variation in its thickness as it surrounds an organism. While within-host effects of CPS have been studied in detail, there is no information about its contribution to host-to-host transmission. In this study, we used an infant mouse model of intralitter transmission, together with isogenic capsule switch and cps promoter switch constructs, to explore the effects of CPS type and amount...
August 22, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830720/development-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-chitosan-beads-for-the-colonic-delivery-of-azathioprine-for-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
Abdelrahman M Helmy, Mahmoud Elsabahy, Ghareb M Soliman, Mahmoud A Mahmoud, Elsayed A Ibrahim
Azathioprine is a highly efficient immunosuppressant drug used for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Systemic administration of azathioprine results in delayed therapeutic effect and serious adverse reactions. In the current study, we have developed, for the first time, colon-targeted chitosan beads for delivery of azathioprine in colitis rabbit model. Several characterizations were performed for the azathioprine-loaded beads (e.g. drug encapsulation efficiency, drug loading capacity, yield, size, shape and compatibility with other ingredients)...
August 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816760/colon-capsule-endoscopy-looking-beyond-the-colon-in-crohn-s-disease
#10
Douglas Tjandra, Hajar Hasan Kheslat, Francesco Amico, Finlay Macrae
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815031/capsule-retention-related-to-small-bowel-capsule-endoscopy-a-large-european-single-center-10-year-clinical-experience
#11
Artur Nemeth, Gabriele Wurm Johansson, Jörgen Nielsen, Henrik Thorlacius, Ervin Toth
BACKGROUND: The most concerning complication of video capsule endoscopy (VCE) is capsule retention (CR) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract although clinical outcome and management of patients with CR are still uncertain in a large single center material. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate incidence, causes, risk factors, management and clinical outcomes of CR in a large single center between 2001 and 2011. RESULTS: 2401 consecutive small-bowel (SB) VCEs were performed...
August 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810644/feasibility-of-a-novel-low-volume-and-sodium-phosphate-free-bowel-preparation-regimen-for-colon-capsule-endoscopy
#12
Jieqiong Zhou, Xiaowei Tang, Jing Wang, Zhenyu Chen, Xinying Wang, Bo Jiang
Bowel preparation regimens for colon capsule endoscopy are not yet standardized since they are not well optimized. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility of a novel low-volume and sodium phosphate-free bowel preparation regimen for colon capsule endoscopy. A total of 31 patients were prospectively enrolled. In the novel regimen, on the day prior to examination, a low-fiber diet was permitted, 5 mg mosapride citrate was administered twice (1 h prior to lunch and supper) and 1 l polyethylene glycol was administered in the evening...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794055/effect-of-vaccine-elicited-antibodies-on-colonization-of-neisseria-meningitidis-serogroup-b-and-c-strains-in-a-human-bronchial-epithelial-cell-culture-model
#13
Vianca Vianzon, Beate Illek, Gregory R Moe
Capsular polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines protect individuals from invasive disease and decrease carriage, which reduces spread of the organism in the population. In contrast, antibodies elicited by plain polysaccharide or protein antigen-based meningococcal (Men) vaccines have little or no effect on decreasing carriage. In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which vaccine-induced human IgG antibodies affect colonization by serogroup B (MenB) or C (MenC) strains using a human bronchial epithelial cell culture model (16HBE14o-)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782240/electrophoretic-deposition-of-mgo-nanoparticles-imparts-antibacterial-properties-to-poly-l-lactic-acid-for-orthopedic-applications
#14
Daniel J Hickey, Divya Muthusamy, Thomas J Webster
Bacterial infection of implanted biomaterials is a serious problem that increases health care costs and negatively affects a considerable fraction of orthopedic procedures. In this field, magnesium oxide nanoparticles (MgO NPs) have emerged as a promising material to combat bacterial infection while maintaining or improving bone cell functions. Here, MgO NPs were electrophoretically deposited onto poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) sheets to achieve a coating of highly exposed MgO NPs that directly influenced cell-substrate interactions at short time scales...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764983/targeted-delivery-of-probiotics-to-enhance-gastrointestinal-stability-and-intestinal-colonisation
#15
Cornelius C Dodoo, Jie Wang, Abdul W Basit, Paul Stapleton, Simon Gaisford
The aim of this work was to assess the viability of some commercial probiotics after exposure to gastric acid and the possibility of modifying these formulations for delivery into the distal parts of the intestines. Gastrointestinal tolerance testing was conducted for three commercial probiotics and an in-house freeze-dried Lactobacillus acidophilus strain. The contents of the commercial products and the in-house freeze-dried strain were then loaded into capsules for site-specific delivery into the colon using the Phloral(®) coating technology; the viability upon release was then ascertained...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742161/abundance-and-co-occurrence-of-extracellular-capsules-increase-environmental-breadth-implications-for-the-emergence-of-pathogens
#16
Olaya Rendueles, Marc Garcia-Garcerà, Bertrand Néron, Marie Touchon, Eduardo P C Rocha
Extracellular capsules constitute the outermost layer of many bacteria, are major virulence factors, and affect antimicrobial therapies. They have been used as epidemiological markers and recently became vaccination targets. Despite the efforts to biochemically serotype capsules in a few model pathogens, little is known of their taxonomic and environmental distribution. We developed, validated, and made available a computational tool, CapsuleFinder, to identify capsules in genomes. The analysis of over 2500 prokaryotic genomes, accessible in a database, revealed that ca...
July 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729207/first-two-cases-of-severe-multifocal-infections-caused-by-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-switzerland-characterization-of-an-atypical-non-k1-k2-serotype-strain-causing-liver-abscess-and-endocarditis
#17
Baharak Babouee Flury, Valentina Donà, Niccolò Buetti, Hansjakob Furrer, Andrea Endimiani
BACKGROUND: We describe the first two multifocal invasive infections due to Klebsiella pneumoniae recently observed in Switzerland. METHODS: Phenotypic (MIC assays and string test) and molecular analyses (PCR/Sequencing for bla, virulence factor genes and whole genome sequencing for one strain) were performed to characterize the causative K. pneumoniae isolates. RESULTS: Both K. pneumoniae isolates (Kp1 and Kp2) were pan-susceptible to antibiotics and produced narrow-spectrum SHV β-lactamases...
September 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720847/the-glycointeractome-of-serogroup-b-neisseria-meningitidis-strain-mc58
#18
Tsitsi D Mubaiwa, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Evgeny A Semchenko, Freda E-C Jen, Yogitha N Srikhanta, Christopher J Day, Michael P Jennings, Kate L Seib
Neisseria meningitidis express numerous virulence factors that enable it to interact with diverse microenvironments within the host, during both asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization and invasive disease. Many of these interactions involve bacterial or host glycans. In order to characterise the meningococcal glycointeractome, glycan arrays representative of structures found on human cells, were used as a screening tool to investigate host glycans bound by N. meningitidis. Arrays probed with fluorescently labelled wild-type MC58 revealed binding to 223 glycans, including blood group antigens, mucins, gangliosides and glycosaminoglycans...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713062/a-prospective-study-on-second-generation-colon-capsule-endoscopy-to-detect-mucosal-lesions-and-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis-with-video
#19
Hai Yun Shi, Francis K L Chan, Akira Higashimori, Moe Kyaw, Jessica Y L Ching, Heyson C H Chan, Joey C H Chan, Anthony W H Chan, Kelvin L Y Lam, Raymond S Y Tang, Justin C Y Wu, Joseph J Y Sung, Siew C Ng
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Mucosal healing is the goal for ulcerative colitis (UC) therapy, but it needs to be confirmed via colonoscopy. Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) is a noninvasive technique for colon investigation. Our study investigated the accuracy of second-generation CCE (CCE-2) in assessing mucosal lesions and disease activity in UC. METHODS: In this prospective study, CCE-2 and conventional colonoscopy were performed on the same day. CCE-2 reviewers and colonoscopists used the Mayo endoscopic subscore (MES) and the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) to assess disease activity, and they were blinded to each other's findings...
July 14, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688203/assessment-of-colorectal-length-using-the-electromagnetic-capsule-tracking-system-a-comparative-validation-study-in-healthy-subjects
#20
E B Mark, J L Poulsen, A M Haase, J B Frøkjaer, V Schlageter, S M Scott, K Krogh, A M Drewes
AIM: We aimed to determine colorectal length with the 3D-Transit system by describing a 'centerline' of capsule movement and compare it to known anatomy, as determined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Further, we aimed to test the day-to-day variation of colorectal length assessed with the system. METHOD: The 3D-Transit system consists of electromagnetic capsules that can be tracked as they traverse the gastrointestinal tract. 25 healthy subjects were examined with both 3D-Transit and MRI...
July 8, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
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