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chromatin interaction

Aishwarya Kundu, Michelle G Khouri, Sheila Aryana, Gary L Firestone
1-Benzyl-indole-3-carbinol (1-benzyl-I3C), a synthetic analogue of the crucifer derived natural phytochemical I3C, displayed significantly wider sensitivity and anti-proliferative potency in melanoma cells than the natural compound. Unlike I3C, which targets mainly oncogenic BRAF-expressing cells, 1-benzyl I3C effectively inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells with a more extensive range of mutational profiles, including those expressing wild type BRAF. In both cultured melanoma cell lines and in vivo in melanoma cell-derived tumor xenografts, 1-benzyl-I3C disrupted canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling that resulted in the down regulation of β-catenin protein levels with a concomitant increase in levels of the β-catenin destruction complex components GSK3β and Axin...
September 23, 2017: Carcinogenesis
Robert A Policastro, Gabriel E Zentner
Genome-wide mapping of protein-DNA interactions is a staple approach in many areas of modern molecular biology. Genome-wide profiles of protein-binding sites are most commonly generated by chromatin immunoprecipitation and high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq). Although ChIP-seq has played a central role in studying genome-wide protein binding, recent work has highlighted systematic biases in the technique that warrant technical and interpretive caution and underscore the need for orthogonal techniques to both confirm the results of ChIP-seq studies and uncover new insights not accessible to ChIP...
October 6, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Christophe D Chabbert, Sophie H Adjalley, Lars M Steinmetz, Vicent Pelechano
Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-Seq) or microarray hybridization (ChIP-on-chip) are standard methods for the study of transcription factor binding sites and histone chemical modifications. However, these approaches only allow profiling of a single factor or protein modification at a time.In this chapter, we present Bar-ChIP, a higher throughput version of ChIP-Seq that relies on the direct ligation of molecular barcodes to chromatin fragments. Bar-ChIP enables the concurrent profiling of multiple DNA-protein interactions and is therefore amenable to experimental scale-up, without the need for any robotic instrumentation...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Brett R Hanson, Ming Tan
Chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to measure the binding of transcription factors to target DNA sequences in order to better understand transcriptional regulation. Here, we describe a process to analyze bacterial transcription factor binding in the context of an infected eukaryotic host cell. Using this approach, we measured the binding kinetics of three Chlamydia trachomatis transcription factors within infected cells, and demonstrated temporal changes in binding.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kun Wang, Ann-Christin Lindås
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a powerful method used for identifying genome-wide DNA-protein interactions in vivo. A large number of essential intracellular processes such as DNA replication, transcription regulation, chromatin stability, and others are all dependent on protein interactions with DNA. The DNA fragments enriched from the ChIP assay are analyzed by downstream applications, for example, microarray hybridization (ChIP-chip), quantitative PCR (ChIP-qPCR), or deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). This chapter presents a stepwise protocol for ChIP performed in hyperthermophilic archaea that we have successfully used in the hyperthermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Amarjit Saini, Carl Johan Sundberg
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is an invaluable method for studying interactions between histone proteins and genomic DNA regions and transcriptional regulation using antibodies to enrich genomic regions associated with these epitopes. Either to monitor the presence of histones with post-translational modifications at specific genomic locations or to measure transcription factor interactions with a candidate target gene, protein-DNA complexes are most commonly crosslinked using formaldehyde, which stabilizes these transient interactions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Timothy V Beischlag, Gratien G Prefontaine, Oliver Hankinson
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) exploits the specific interactions between DNA and DNA-associated proteins. It can be used to examine a wide range of experimental parameters. A number of proteins bound at the same genomic location can identify a multi-protein chromatin complex where several proteins work together to regulate gene transcription or chromatin configuration. In many instances, this can be achieved using sequential ChIP; or simply, ChIP-re-ChIP. Whether it is for the examination of specific transcriptional or epigenetic regulators, or for the identification of cistromes, the ability to perform a sequential ChIP adds a higher level of power and definition to these analyses...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mário A F Soares, Diogo S Castro
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is considered the method of choice for characterizing interactions between a protein of interest and specific genomic regions. It is of paramount importance in gene-regulation studies, as it can be used to map the target regions of sequence-specific transcription factors and cofactors, or histone marks that characterize distinct chromatin states. ChIP can be used directly to probe interactions with candidate regions (ChIP-PCR), or coupled to Next-Generation Sequencing (ChIP-seq) to generate genome-wide information...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hui Gao, Chunyan Zhao
Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) has become the most effective and widely used tool to study the interactions between specific proteins or modified forms of proteins and a genomic DNA region. Combined with genome-wide profiling technologies, such as microarray hybridization (ChIP-on-chip) or massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq), ChIP could provide a genome-wide mapping of in vivo protein-DNA interactions in various organisms. Here, we describe a protocol of ChIP-on-chip that uses tiling microarray to obtain a genome-wide profiling of ChIPed DNA...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Neus Visa, Antonio Jordán-Pla
Protein-DNA interactions in vivo can be detected and quantified by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). ChIP has been instrumental for the advancement of epigenetics and has set the groundwork for the development of a number of ChIP-related techniques that have provided valuable information about the organization and function of genomes. Here, we provide an introduction to ChIP and discuss the applications of ChIP in different research areas. We also review some of the strategies that have been devised to improve ChIP performance...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cristian O'Flaherty, David Matsushita Fournier
Cellular response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) includes both reversible redox signaling and irreversible non-enzymatic reactions which depend on the nature and concentration of the ROS involved. Changes in thiol/disulfide pairs affect protein conformation, enzymatic activity, ligand binding, and protein-protein interactions. During spermatogenesis and epididymal maturation, there are ROS-dependent modifications of the sperm chromatin and flagellar proteins.The spermatozoon is regulated by redox mechanisms to acquire fertilizing ability...
September 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
Ryne C Ramaker, Daniel Savic, Andrew A Hardigan, Kimberly Newberry, Gregory M Cooper, Richard M Myers, Sara J Cooper
Large-scale efforts like the ENCODE Project have made tremendous progress in cataloging the genomic binding patterns of DNA-associated proteins (DAPs), such as transcription factors (TFs). However, most chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses have focused on a few immortalized cell lines whose activities and physiology differ in important ways from endogenous cells and tissues. Consequently, binding data from primary human tissue are essential to improving our understanding of in vivo gene regulation...
October 11, 2017: Genome Research
Larisa Melnikova, Margarita Kostyuchenko, Varvara Molodina, Alexander Parshikov, Pavel Georgiev, Anton Golovnin
The best-studied Drosophila insulator complex consists of two BTB-containing proteins, the Mod(mdg4)-67.2 isoform and CP190, which are recruited to the chromatin through interactions with the DNA-binding Su(Hw) protein. It was shown previously that Mod(mdg4)-67.2 is critical for the enhancer-blocking activity of the Su(Hw) insulators and it differs from more than 30 other Mod(mdg4) isoforms by the C-terminal domain required for a specific interaction with Su(Hw) only. The mechanism of the highly specific association between Mod(mdg4)-67...
October 2017: Open Biology
Stephan Hofmann, Sandra Dehn, Ramona Businger, Sebastian Bolduan, Martha Schneider, Zeger Debyser, Ruth Brack-Werner, Michael Schindler
Viruses interact with multiple host cell factors. Some of these are required to promote viral propagation, others have roles in inhibiting infection. Here, we delineate the function of the cellular factor PHF13 (or SPOC1), a putative HIV-1 restriction factor. Early in the HIV-1 replication cycle PHF13 increased the number of integrated proviral copies and the number of infected cells. However, after HIV-1 integration, high levels of PHF13 suppressed viral gene expression. The antiviral activity of PHF13 is counteracted by the viral accessory protein Vpr, which mediates PHF13 degradation...
October 2017: Open Biology
Adam H Tencer, Khan L Cox, Luo Di, Joseph B Bridgers, Jie Lyu, Xiaodong Wang, Jennifer K Sims, Tyler M Weaver, Hillary F Allen, Yi Zhang, Jovylyn Gatchalian, Michael A Darcy, Matthew D Gibson, Jinzen Ikebe, Wei Li, Paul A Wade, Jeffrey J Hayes, Brian D Strahl, Hidetoshi Kono, Michael G Poirier, Catherine A Musselman, Tatiana G Kutateladze
Chromatin remodeling is required for genome function and is facilitated by ATP-dependent complexes, such as nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD). Among its core components is the chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 3 (CHD3) whose functional significance is not well established. Here, we show that CHD3 co-localizes with the other NuRD subunits, including HDAC1, near the H3K9ac-enriched promoters of the NuRD target genes. The tandem PHD fingers of CHD3 bind histone H3 tails and posttranslational modifications that increase hydrophobicity of H3K9-methylation or acetylation (H3K9me3 or H3K9ac)-enhance this interaction...
October 10, 2017: Cell Reports
Rebekah Tillotson, Jim Selfridge, Martha V Koerner, Kamal K E Gadalla, Jacky Guy, Dina De Sousa, Ralph D Hector, Stuart R Cobb, Adrian Bird
Heterozygous mutations in the X-linked MECP2 gene cause the neurological disorder Rett syndrome. The methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) protein is an epigenetic reader whose binding to chromatin primarily depends on 5-methylcytosine. Functionally, MeCP2 has been implicated in several cellular processes on the basis of its reported interaction with more than 40 binding partners, including transcriptional co-repressors (for example, the NCoR/SMRT complex), transcriptional activators, RNA, chromatin remodellers, microRNA-processing proteins and splicing factors...
October 11, 2017: Nature
Dmitry V Fyodorov, Bing-Rui Zhou, Arthur I Skoultchi, Yawen Bai
Together with core histones, which make up the nucleosome, the linker histone (H1) is one of the five main histone protein families present in chromatin in eukaryotic cells. H1 binds to the nucleosome to form the next structural unit of metazoan chromatin, the chromatosome, which may help chromatin to fold into higher-order structures. Despite their important roles in regulating the structure and function of chromatin, linker histones have not been studied as extensively as core histones. Nevertheless, substantial progress has been made recently...
October 11, 2017: Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology
Roberta Tarallo, Giorgio Giurato, Giuseppina Bruno, Maria Ravo, Francesca Rizzo, Annamaria Salvati, Luca Ricciardi, Giovanna Marchese, Angela Cordella, Teresa Rocco, Valerio Gigantino, Biancamaria Pierri, Giovanni Cimmino, Luciano Milanesi, Concetta Ambrosino, Tuula A Nyman, Giovanni Nassa, Alessandro Weisz
BACKGROUND: The RNA-binding protein Argonaute 2 (AGO2) is a key effector of RNA-silencing pathways It exerts a pivotal role in microRNA maturation and activity and can modulate chromatin remodeling, transcriptional gene regulation and RNA splicing. Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) is endowed with oncosuppressive activities, antagonizing hormone-induced carcinogenesis and inhibiting growth and oncogenic functions in luminal-like breast cancers (BCs), where its expression correlates with a better prognosis of the disease...
October 6, 2017: Genome Biology
Robert Warneford-Thomson, Chongsheng He, Simone Sidoli, Benjamin A Garcia, Roberto Bonasio
Noncoding RNAs play important roles in several nuclear processes, including regulating gene expression, chromatin structure, and DNA repair. In most cases, the action of noncoding RNAs is mediated by proteins whose functions are in turn regulated by these interactions with noncoding RNAs. Consistent with this, a growing number of proteins involved in nuclear functions have been reported to bind RNA and in a few cases the RNA-binding regions of these proteins have been mapped, often through laborious, candidate-based methods...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Elizabeth G Porter, Katelyn E Connelly, Emily C Dykhuizen
Elucidation of the binding properties of chromatin-targeting proteins can be very challenging due to the complex nature of chromatin and the heterogeneous nature of most mammalian chromatin-modifying complexes. In order to overcome these hurdles, we have adapted a sequential salt extraction (SSE) assay for evaluating the relative binding affinities of chromatin-bound complexes. This easy and straightforward assay can be used by non-experts to evaluate the relative difference in binding affinity of two related complexes, the changes in affinity of a complex when a subunit is lost or an individual domain is inactivated, and the change in binding affinity after alterations to the chromatin landscape...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
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