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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899925/increased-risk-of-group-b-streptococcus-invasive-infection-in-hiv-exposed-but-uninfected-infants-a-review-of-the-evidence-and-possible-mechanisms
#1
REVIEW
Nicolas Dauby, Mustapha Chamekh, Pierrette Melin, Amy L Slogrove, Tessa Goetghebuer
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and mortality worldwide. Studies from both developed and developing countries have shown that HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants are at increased risk of infectious morbidity, as compared to HIV-unexposed uninfected infants (HUU). A higher susceptibility to GBS infections has been reported in HEU infants, particularly late-onset diseases and more severe manifestations of GBS diseases. We review here the possible explanations for increased susceptibility to GBS infection...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859778/molecular-epidemiology-of-staphylococcus-epidermidis-in-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#2
Hiie Soeorg, Kristi Huik, Ülle Parm, Mari-Liis Ilmoja, Tuuli Metsvaht, Irja Lutsar
Late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm neonates is increasingly reported to be associated with gut-colonizing Staphylococcus epidermidis. We aimed to describe the molecular epidemiology of S. epidermidis colonizing the gut of neonates hospitalized in two neonatal intensive care units. S. epidermidis from rectal swabs were typed by multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA), randomly chosen isolates of predominant MLVA types additionally by multilocus sequence typing. Antimicrobial susceptibility, the presence of icaA, IS256, arginine catabolic mobile element (ACME), agr type, and SCCmec type were determined...
November 16, 2016: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846067/detection-of-sepsis-in-preterm-infants-by-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-a-proof-of-principle-study
#3
Daniel J C Berkhout, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Martin Buijck, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Paul Brinkman, Marc A Benninga, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Peter Andriessen, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
OBJECTIVES: Several studies associated altered gut microbiota composition in preterm infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS), up to days prior to clinical onset of sepsis. However, microbiota analysis as early diagnostic biomarker is in clinical practice currently not feasible because of logistic aspects and high costs. Therefore, we hypothesized that analysis of fecal volatile organic compounds (VOC) may serve as non-invasive biomarker to predict LOS at a preclinical stage, since VOC reflect the composition and activity of intestinal microbial communities...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844493/does-rapid-enteral-feeding-increase-intestinal-morbidity-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-a-retrospective-analysis
#4
Franziska Belling-Dierks, Kirsten Glaser, Johannes Wirbelauer, Viktoria Rücker, Eric Frieauff
PURPOSE: To investigate the association of a standardized rapid enteral feeding strategy (established in 2011 in our unit) with intestinal morbidity in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. METHODS: A total of 301 inborn VLBW infants were included in this single-centre retrospective cohort study. We compared the incidence of intestinal morbidity (defined as necrotizing enterocolitis or intestinal perforation) in slowly enterally fed infants in 2008-2010 (10 ml/kg/day increase of milk feeds) to a corresponding cohort of rapidly enterally fed infants in 2011-2013 (20 ml/kg/day increase of milk feeds)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831912/challenges-in-reducing-group-b-streptococcus-disease-in-african-settings
#5
Yo Nishihara, Ziyaad Dangor, Neil French, Shabir Madhi, Robert Heyderman
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in high-income settings and is associated with high rates of neonatal mortality and morbidity. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that there is a high GBS disease burden in resource-limited countries, and it is therefore critically important to identify suitable and practical preventive strategies. In Europe and North America, intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) has led to a dramatic reduction of early-onset GBS disease...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816060/septic-shock-with-no-diagnosis-at-24-hours-a-pragmatic-multicenter-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Damien Contou, Damien Roux, Sébastien Jochmans, Rémi Coudroy, Emmanuel Guérot, David Grimaldi, Sylvie Ricome, Eric Maury, Gaëtan Plantefève, Julien Mayaux, Armand Mekontso Dessap, Christian Brun-Buisson, Nicolas de Prost
BACKGROUND: The lack of a patent source of infection after 24 hours of management of shock considered septic is a common and disturbing scenario. We aimed to determine the prevalence and the causes of shock with no diagnosis 24 hours after its onset, and to compare the outcomes of patients with early-confirmed septic shock to those of others. METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, prospective, multicenter observational cohort study in ten intensive care units (ICU) in France...
November 6, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776718/maternal-alcohol-use-during-pregnancy-and-associated-morbidities-in-very-low-birth-weight-newborns
#7
Theresa W Gauthier, David M Guidot, Michael S Kelleman, Courtney E McCracken, Lou Ann S Brown
BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that maternal alcohol use occurs in pregnancies that end prematurely and that in utero alcohol exposure is associated with an increased risk of morbidities of premature newborns. METHODS: In an observational study of mothers who delivered very low birth weight newborns (VLBW) ≤1,500 g, maternal alcohol use was determined via a standardized administered questionnaire. We compared the effect of maternal drinking on the odds of developing late-onset sepsis (LOS), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), death, BPD or death, days on oxygen or any morbidity (either LOS, BPD or death)...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776490/neonatal-bloodstream-infections-in-a-ghanaian-tertiary-hospital-are-the-current-antibiotic-recommendations-adequate
#8
Appiah-Korang Labi, Noah Obeng-Nkrumah, Stephanie Bjerrum, Christabel Enweronu-Laryea, Mercy Jemima Newman
BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of bloodstream infections (BSI) in neonates is usually difficult due to minimal symptoms at presentation; thus early empirical therapy guided by local antibiotic susceptibility profile is necessary to improve therapeutic outcomes. METHODS: A review of neonatal blood cultures submitted to the microbiology department of the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital was conducted from January 2010 through December 2013. We assessed the prevalence of bacteria and fungi involved in BSI and the susceptibility coverage of recommended empiric antibiotics by Ghana Standard Treatment guidelines and the WHO recommendations for managing neonatal sepsis...
October 24, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775765/association-between-antibiotic-use-and-neonatal-mortality-and-morbidities-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-without-culture-proven-sepsis-or-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
Joseph Y Ting, Anne Synnes, Ashley Roberts, Akhil Deshpandey, Kimberly Dow, Eugene W Yoon, Kyong-Soon Lee, Simon Dobson, Shoo K Lee, Prakesh S Shah
Importance: Excessive antibiotic use has been associated with altered bacterial colonization and may result in antibiotic resistance, fungemia, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality. Exploring the association between antibiotic exposure and neonatal outcomes other than infection-related morbidities may provide insight on the importance of rational antibiotic use, especially in the setting of culture-negative neonatal sepsis. Objective: To evaluate the trend of antibiotic use among all hospitalized very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants across Canada and the association between antibiotic use rates (AURs) and mortality and morbidity among neonates without culture-proven sepsis or NEC...
October 24, 2016: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773638/diagnosis-and-risk-factors-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants
#10
Ankana Daga, Fredrick Dapaah-Siakwan, Sharina Rajbhandari, Cassandra Arevalo, Agnes Salvador
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is common in critically ill premature infants. There is a lack of consensus on the diagnostic definition of AKI in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. The primary aim of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors for AKI in VLBW infants using the AKI network (AKIN) and pRIFLE (pediatric Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage) criteria and to evaluate whether Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB II) score is a predictor of AKI. The secondary objective was to determine the extent of agreement between the AKIN and pRIFLE criteria in the diagnosis of AKI in VLBW infants...
September 28, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27758929/determinants-of-developmental-outcomes-in-a-very-preterm-canadian-cohort
#11
Anne Synnes, Thuy Mai Luu, Diane Moddemann, Paige Church, David Lee, Michael Vincer, Marilyn Ballantyne, Annette Majnemer, Dianne Creighton, Junmin Yang, Reginald Sauve, Saroj Saigal, Prakesh Shah, Shoo K Lee
OBJECTIVES: Identify determinants of neurodevelopmental outcome in preterm children. METHODS: Prospective national cohort study of children born between 2009 and 2011 at <29 weeks gestational age, admitted to one of 28 Canadian neonatal intensive care units and assessed at a Canadian Neonatal Follow-up Network site at 21 months corrected age for cerebral palsy (CP), visual, hearing and developmental status using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-Third Edition (Bayley-III)...
October 6, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27749655/epidemiology-of-late-and-very-late-onset-group-b-streptococcal-disease-15-year-experience-from-two-australian-tertiary-pediatric-facilities
#12
Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737909/effect-of-antibiotic-use-on-antimicrobial-antibiotic-resistance-and-late-onset-neonatal-infections-over-25%C3%A2-years-in-an-australian-tertiary-neonatal-unit
#13
David Carr, Elizabeth Helen Barnes, Adrienne Gordon, David Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a worldwide problem. We describe 25 years of responsible antibiotic use in a tertiary neonatal unit. METHODS: Data on neonatal infections and antibiotic use were collected prospectively from 1990 to 2014 at a single tertiary Sydney neonatal intensive care unit attached to a maternity unit. There are approximately 5500 deliveries and 900 nursery admissions per year. RESULTS: The mean annual rate of late-onset sepsis was 1...
October 13, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716331/bedside-pda-ligation-in-premature-infants-less-than-28%C3%A2-weeks-and-1000-grams
#14
Mustafa Kemal Avsar, Tolga Demir, Cem Celiksular, Cenap Zeybek
BACKGROUND: PDA(Patent ductus arteriosus) is a common and clinically important condition which is presented with a number of hemodynamic and respiratory problems such as intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis due to increased pulmonary blood flow and stealing from systemic circulation. The incidence of PDA among the infants that were born before the 28th gestational week is as high as 70 %; and spontaneous closure rates in very-low-birth-weight premature neonates(VLBWPN) is around 34 %...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686309/temperature-on-admission-among-cases-of-neonatal-sepsis-and-its-association-with-mortality
#15
Mirza Sultan Ahmad, Naila Ali, Nazia Mehboob, Ramlah Mehmood, Mubashra Ahmad, Abdul Wahid
OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the prevalence of hyperthermia and different categories of hypothermia among the cases of probable and culture-proven neonatal sepsis, and to evaluate association of mortality rate with axillary temperature at admission. METHODS: This analytical study was conducted at Fazl-e-Omar Hospital, Rabwah, Pakistan, from January to December 2013, and comprised all cases of culture-proven and probable neonatal sepsis admitted in the neonatal intensive-care unit of the hospital...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677575/mitral-valve-replacement-in-neonatal-endocarditis-time-to-discuss-prevention-strategies-for-group-b-streptococcus-disease
#16
Sormeh Salehian, Abhinav Rastogi, Olivier Ghez, Margarita Burmester
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is recognised as one of the leading organisms in early-onset neonatal sepsis but is also a cause of late-onset GBS septicaemia, meningitis and rarely, infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of a healthy term neonate who developed GBS septicaemia and meningitis having presented with parental concern and poor feeding. Subsequent identification and treatment of GBS resulted in the requirement for long-line intravascular access in order to administer antibiotic therapy. One week later, after repeated parental concern and symptoms of shortness of breath, the neonate presented to Accident and Emergency and subsequently a Paediatric Cardiorespiratory Intensive Care Unit where emergency resuscitation procedures were required and diagnosis of severe IE affecting the mitral valve was made...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677342/group-b-streptococcus-late-onset-sepsis-in-very-low-birth-weight-newborns-10-years-experience
#17
Francesco M Risso, Elio Castagnola, Roberto Bandettini, Diego Minghetti, Laura Pagani, Luca A Ramenghi
PURPOSE: The incidence of late-onset neonatal infection (LONS) group B streptococcus (GBS) in very low birthweight (VLBW) is still matter of debate. In the present 10-years retrospective study we investigated the epidemiology of GBS LONS in VLBW neonates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2006 to July 2015 we conducted a retrospective study in all preterm infants admitted at our third level referral center for neonatal intensive care (NICU). From our database we were able to retrieve all cases of bloodstream infections/meningitis GBS positive...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642452/infantile-hypertrophic-pyloric-stenosis-with-unusual-presentations-in-sagamu-nigeria-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
Tinuade Adetutu Ogunlesi, Opeyemi Temitola Kuponiyi, Collins Chigbundu Nwokoro, Ibukunolu Olufemi Ogundele, Gbenga Fakunle Abe, Olusoga Babatunde Ogunfowora
A 24-day old female Nigerian neonate presented with protracted vomiting, fever and dehydration but without palpable abdominal tumour or visible gastric peristalsis. There was no derangement of serum electrolytes. The initial working diagnosis was Late-Onset Sepsis but abdominal ultrasonography showed features consistent with the diagnosis of IHPS. This case report highlights the atypical presentation of this surgical condition and the need to investigate cases of protracted vomiting in the newborn with at least, ultrasonography to minimize complications and reduce the risk of mortality in a resource-poor setting...
2016: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633519/bilirubin-exposure-is-associated-with-neonatal-sepsis-in-the-eight-days-preceding-symptoms-a-retrospective-study
#19
Francesco Raimondi, Angela Carla Borrelli, Teresa Ferrara, Antonietta Giannattasio, Letizia Capasso
OBJECTIVE: To compare levels of bilirubin (using the area under the curve, AUC) in preterm infants before the onset of sepsis with healthy matched-controls. METHODS: Preterm infants born between January 2011 and December 2015 with late-onset sepsis were enrolled in our retrospective study and were matched with healthy controls (sex, birth weight and gestational age). Levels of bilirubin were registered in the eight days preceding the onset of sepsis and the AUC was calculated for both groups...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633433/characterisation-and-antimicrobial-resistance-of-sepsis-pathogens-in-neonates-born-in-tertiary-care-centres-in-delhi-india-a-cohort-study
#20
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is one of the most common causes of neonatal deaths globally. Most sepsis-related deaths occur in low-income and middle-income countries, where the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis remains poorly understood. Most of these countries lack proper surveillance networks, hampering accurate assessment of the burden of sepsis, implementation of preventive measures, and investment in research. We report results of neonates born in hospital from a multicentre collaboration on neonatal sepsis...
October 2016: Lancet Global Health
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