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late onset sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330015/mother-to-child-transmission-of-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#1
Dana Danino, Rimma Melamed, Batya Sterer, Nurith Porat, Guy Hazan, Alex Gushanski, Eilon Shany, David Greenberg, Avraham Borer
BACKGROUND: Preterm infants are at high risk for extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) sepsis and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) outbreaks. Maternal colonization with ESBL-E may be precursory to maternal-neonatal transmission. However, there is no consensus regarding surveillance of pregnant women for ESBL-E colonization. AIM: To identify pairs of mothers and offspring harbouring same-strain ESBL-E colonization and to determine whether maternal transmission may play a role in increasing ESBL-E carriage in preterm infants...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284278/implementation-and-evaluation-of-the-early-onset-sepsis-risk-calculator-in-a-high-risk-university-nursery
#2
Jessica B Beavers, Shasha Bai, Jennifer Perry, Jordan Simpson, Sara Peeples
There is growing interest in the Kaiser early-onset sepsis (EOS) risk calculator though institutions are hesitant to deviate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines and implement this in their hospitals. We describe the process of implementing routine use of the risk calculator in term and late preterm newborns delivered to mothers with chorioamnionitis in a level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A retrospective chart review of infants delivered to mothers with chorioamnionitis from 2011 to 2014 was performed...
December 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282094/nasal-high-flow-therapy-in-very-low-birth-weight-infants-with-mild-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-single-center-experience
#3
Antonio Di Mauro, Manuela Capozza, Sergio Cotugno, Silvio Tafuri, Francesco Paolo Bianchi, Federico Schettini, Raffaella Panza, Nicola Laforgia
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary disorders and respiratory failure represent one of the most common morbidities of preterm newborns admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The use of nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) has been more recently introduced into the NICUs as a non-invasive respiratory (NIV) support. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study to evaluate safety and effectiveness of nHFT as primary support for infants born < 29 weeks of gestation and/or VLBW presenting with mild Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)...
December 28, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239829/marked-elevation-of-circulating-cd19-cd38hicd24hi-transitional-b-cells-give-protection-against-neonatal-sepsis
#4
Sitao Li, Fei Ma, Hu Hao, Desheng Wang, Yu Gao, Jialiang Zhou, Fei Li, Hung-Chih Lin, Xin Xiao, Qiyi Zeng
BACKGROUND: Adequate functions of immunoregulation, mediated by regulatory cells such as IL-10 producing CD19+CD38hiCD24hi transitional B cells (Trans), play an important role in control of excessive inflammatory response. Yet, the role of Trans in neonatal sepsis is incompletely understood. We investigated the role of Trans in late-onset sepsis (LOS). METHODS: We used multicolor flow cytometry to analyse the phenotypes of B cells drawn from a cohort of 16 neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOS) (12 survivors and 4 non-survivors) and 20 healthy neonates over time...
October 19, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222137/benefits-of-probiotics-in-preterm-neonates-in-low-income-and-medium-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#5
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209311/codevelopment-of-microbiota-and-innate-immunity-and-the-risk-for-group-b-streptococcal-disease
#6
REVIEW
Julia Kolter, Philipp Henneke
The pathogenesis of neonatal late-onset sepsis (LOD), which manifests between the third day and the third month of life, remains poorly understood. Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the most important cause of LOD in infants without underlying diseases or prematurity and the third most frequent cause of meningitis in the Western world. On the other hand, GBS is a common intestinal colonizer in infants. Accordingly, despite its adaption to the human lower gastrointestinal tract, GBS has retained its potential virulence and its transition from a commensal to a dangerous pathogen is unpredictable in the individual...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208882/thrombocytopenia-in-late-onset-neonatal-sepsis-and-its-relationship-with-specific-organism-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#7
F Ahmed, A Y Raj, L N Begum
Late onset neonatal sepsis (LONS) is a common complication in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) especially in premature infants, in whom the clinical presentation can be subtle and nonspecific. Thrombocytopenia is an important complication of sepsis. The objective of the present study was to identify the organism-speci?c platelet response in neonate with culture proven LONS. In this retrospective study all the infants with blood culture positive LONS in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) at Square Hospitals Ltd...
October 2017: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208666/epidemiology-of-uk-neonatal-infections-the-neonin-infection-surveillance-network
#8
Benjamin Cailes, Christina Kortsalioudaki, Jim Buttery, Santosh Pattnayak, Anne Greenough, Jean Matthes, Alison Bedford Russell, Nigel Kennea, Paul T Heath
OBJECTIVE: To describe the epidemiology of neonatal infection over the past decade in UK neonatal units. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected infection surveillance network data from 2005 to 2014. SETTING: 30 neonatal units in the UK. PATIENTS: Newborns on participating neonatal units who had a positive blood, cerebrospinal fluid or urine culture and were treated with at least 5 days of appropriate antibiotics...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201229/antimicrobial-resistance-and-prevalence-of-cvfb-sek-and-seq-genes-among-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-paediatric-patients-with-bloodstream-infections
#9
Bing-Shao Liang, Yan-Mei Huang, Yin-Shuang Chen, Hui Dong, Jia-Liang Mai, Yong-Qiang Xie, Hua-Min Zhong, Qiu-Lian Deng, Yan Long, Yi-Yu Yang, Si-Tang Gong, Zhen-Wen Zhou
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in neonatal cases of early and late-onset sepsis. Drug resistance profiles and carriage of toxin genes may affect the treatment and outcome of an infection. The present study aimed to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and frequencies of the toxin-associated genes conserved virulence factor B (CvfB), staphylococcal enterotoxin Q (SEQ) and staphylococcal enterotoxin K (SEK) among S. aureus isolates recovered from paediatric patients with bloodstream infections (BSIs) in Guangzhou (China)...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198543/exposure-to-gastric-acid-inhibitors-increases-the-risk-of-infection-in-preterm-very-low-birth-weight-infants-but-concomitant-administration-of-lactoferrin-counteracts-this-effect
#10
Paolo Manzoni, Ruben García Sánchez, Michael Meyer, Ilaria Stolfi, Lorenza Pugni, Hubert Messner, Silvia Cattani, Pasqua Maria Betta, Luigi Memo, Lidia Decembrino, Lina Bollani, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Fioretti, Michele Quercia, Milena Maule, Elena Tavella, Alessandro Mussa, Chryssoula Tzialla, Nicola Laforgia, Fabio Mosca, Rosario Magaldi, Michael Mostert, Daniele Farina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to inhibitors of gastric acidity, such as H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors, can independently increase the risk of infections in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) supplementation (with or without the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) vs placebo in prevention of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186106/late-preterm-prelabor-rupture-of-fetal-membranes-fetal-inflammatory-response-and-neonatal-outcome
#11
Ivana Musilova, Ctirad Andrys, Marcela Drahosova, Barbora Zednikova, Helena Hornychova, Lenka Pliskova, Helena Zemlickova, Bo Jacobsson, Marian Kacerovsky
BackgroundTo characterize the influence of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC) and/or intra-amniotic inflammation (IAI) on the intensity of the fetal inflammatory response and the association between the presence of the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) and short-term neonatal morbidity in the preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) between the gestational ages of 34 and 37 weeks.MethodsOne hundred and fifty-nine women were included in the study. The umbilical cord blood interleukin (IL)-6 concentrations were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits...
December 20, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181530/neurodevelopmental-and-behavioral-outcomes-in-extremely-premature-neonates-with-ventriculomegaly-in-the-absence-of-periventricular-intraventricular-hemorrhage
#12
Athina Pappas, Ira Adams-Chapman, Seetha Shankaran, Scott A McDonald, Barbara J Stoll, Abbot R Laptook, Waldemar A Carlo, Krisa P Van Meurs, Susan R Hintz, Martha D Carlson, Jane E Brumbaugh, Michele C Walsh, Myra H Wyckoff, Abhik Das, Rosemary D Higgins
Importance: Studies of cranial ultrasonography and early childhood outcomes among cohorts of extremely preterm neonates have linked periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and cystic periventricular leukomalacia with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, the association between nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly and neurodevelopmental and behavioral outcomes is not fully understood. Objective: To characterize the outcomes of extremely preterm neonates younger than 27 weeks' gestational age who experienced nonhemorrhagic ventriculomegaly that was detected prior to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age...
November 27, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144965/role-of-serum-1-3%C3%AE-d-glucan-assay-in-early-diagnosis-of-invasive-fungal-infections-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#13
Abd Elazeez Shabaan, Lobna Mahmoud Elbaz, Wafaa M El-Emshaty, Basma Shouman
OBJECTIVES: To study the microbiological pattern of late onset neonatal sepsis cultures and to assess the diagnostic performance of serum (1,3)-β-d-glucan level for early diagnosis of invasive fungemia in high-risk infants admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. METHODS: A prospective multicenter clinical trial conducted on infants at high risk for invasive fungal infections, with suspected late onset sepsis, admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit at Mansoura University Children's Hospital and Mansoura General Hospital between March 2014 and February 2016...
November 13, 2017: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134932/outbreak-of-pichia-kudriavzevii-fungaemia-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit
#14
T Nagarathnamma, Sneha K Chunchanur, Shivaprakash M Rudramurthy, K R Vineetha, Karthik Ramamurthy, Jillwin Joseph, R Ambica
PURPOSE: Fungaemia is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality in neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). We report an outbreak of fungaemia in a NICU due to rare yeast, Pichia kudriavzevii (a teleomorph of Candida krusei). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of neonatal sepsis due to P. kudriavzevii. METHODOLOGY: Between August and September 2014, blood cultures from nine neonates diagnosed with late-onset sepsis in the NICU yielded yeast-like organisms...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132456/-incidence-of-late-onset-sepsis-in-very-low-birth-weight-and-extremely-low-birth-weight-infants-and-risk-factors-for-late-onset-sepsis
#15
Xiao-Peng Zhao, Wei Zhou, Xu-Fang Li, Yan-Yan Song, Ting-Yan Zhang, Hong Liang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and the risk factors for LOS. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of all VLBW and ELBW infants who were hospitalized in the NICU between January 2011 and December 2013. According to the presence or absence of LOS, these infants were divided into LOS group and non-LOS group...
November 2017: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131403/does-a-procalcitonin-guided-approach-to-term-and-late-preterm-neonates-with-suspected-early-onset-sepsis-safely-decrease-unnecessary-antibiotic-exposure
#16
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129451/cost-effectiveness-of-maternal-gbs-immunization-in-low-income-sub-saharan-africa
#17
Louise B Russell, Sun-Young Kim, Ben Cosgriff, Sri Ram Pentakota, Stephanie J Schrag, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Jennifer R Verani, Anushua Sinha
BACKGROUND: A maternal group B streptococcal (GBS) vaccine could prevent neonatal sepsis and meningitis. Its cost-effectiveness in low-income sub-Saharan Africa, a high burden region, is unknown. METHODS: We used a decision tree model, with Markov nodes to project infants' lifetimes, to compare maternal immunization delivered through routine antenatal care with no immunization. 37 countries were clustered on the basis of economic and health resources and past public health performance...
November 9, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117326/infant-group-b-streptococcal-disease-incidence-and-serotypes-worldwide-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses
#18
Lola Madrid, Anna C Seale, Maya Kohli-Lynch, Karen M Edmond, Joy E Lawn, Paul T Heath, Shabir A Madhi, Carol J Baker, Linda Bartlett, Clare Cutland, Michael G Gravett, Margaret Ip, Kirsty Le Doare, Craig E Rubens, Samir K Saha, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Johan Vekemans, Stephanie Schrag
Background: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains a leading cause of neonatal sepsis in high-income contexts, despite declines due to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP). Recent evidence suggests higher incidence in Africa, where IAP is rare. We investigated the global incidence of infant invasive GBS disease and the associated serotypes, updating previous estimates. Methods: We conducted systematic literature reviews (PubMed/Medline, Embase, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS], World Health Organization Library Information System [WHOLIS], and Scopus) and sought unpublished data regarding invasive GBS disease in infants aged 0-89 days...
November 6, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117261/diagnostic-accuracy-of-the-roche-septifast-pcr-system-for-the-rapid-detection-of-blood-pathogens-in-neonatal-sepsis-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#19
Julia Straub, Helga Paula, Michaela Mayr, David Kasper, Ojan Assadian, Angelika Berger, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm
INTRODUCTION: Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis remains a major challenge in neonatology. Most molecular-based methods are not customized for neonatal requirements. The aim of the present study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of a modified multiplex PCR protocol for the detection of neonatal sepsis using small blood volumes. METHODS: 212 episodes of suspected neonatal late onset sepsis were analyzed prospectively using the Roche SeptiFast® MGRADE PCR with a modified DNA extraction protocol and software-handling tool...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109168/risk-factors-and-outcomes-for-ineffective-empiric-treatment-in-gram-negative-sepsis-stratification-by-onset-of-infection
#20
Scott T Micek, Nicholas Hampton, Marin Kollef
Sepsis and septic shock remain serious infections with reported mortality rates in excess of forty percent. Timely antibiotic therapy in sepsis and septic shock is recognized as an important determinant of outcome. However, the administration of ineffective empiric treatment (IET) (an initial antibiotic regimen that is not active against the identified pathogen(s) based on in vitro susceptibility testing) is associated with excess mortality compared to effective empiric treatment (EET). We examined all hospitalized patients between January 2010 and October 2015 at Barnes-Jewish Hospital with the presence of a sterile site (blood, or pleural, abdominal, cerebrospinal, synovial, and pericardial fluid) culture positive for Gram-negative (GN) bacteria combined with primary or secondary ICD-9-CM codes for severe sepsis (995...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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