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neonatal circulation,

Courtney B Ferrebee, Jianing Li, Jamie Haywood, Kimberly Pachura, Brian S Robinson, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Rheinallt M Jones, Anuradha Rao, Paul A Dawson
Background & Aims: Ileal bile acid absorption is mediated by uptake via the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), and export via the basolateral heteromeric organic solute transporter α-β (OSTα-OSTβ). In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of enterocyte bile acid stasis in Ostα -/- mice, including the temporal relationship between intestinal injury and initiation of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. Methods: Ileal tissue morphometry, histology, markers of cell proliferation, gene, and protein expression were analyzed in male and female wild-type and Ostα -/- mice at postnatal days 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Vardaman M Buckalew
Endogenous digitalis-like factor(s), originally proposed as a vasoconstrictor natriuretic hormone, was discovered in fetal and neonatal blood accidentally because it cross-reacts with antidigoxin antibodies (ADAs). Early studies using immunoassays with ADA identified the digoxin-like immuno-reactive factor(s) (EDLF) in maternal blood as well, and suggested it originated in the feto-placental unit. Mammalian digoxin-like factors have recently been identified as at least two classes of steroid compounds, plant derived ouabain (O), and several toad derived bufodienolides, most prominent being marinobufagenin (MBG)...
June 29, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
J Mustofa, P-Y Cheung, S Patel, T F Lee, M Lu, M P Pasquin, M OʼReilly, G M Schmölzer
OBJECTIVE: We previously demonstrated that sustained inflation (SI) during chest compression (CC) significantly reduces time to return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) when compared to 3:1 compression:ventilation (C:V) ratio during neonatal resuscitation. However, the optimal length of SI during CC to improve ROSC and hemodynamic recovery in severely asphyxiated piglets is unknown. AIM: To examine if different lengths of SI will improve ROSC and hemodynamic recovery in severely asphyxiated piglets...
June 18, 2018: Resuscitation
Elizabeth A DuPriest, Baoyu Lin, Philipp Kupfer, Kaiu Sekiguchi, Amruta Bhusari, Alexandra Quackenbush, Almir Celebic, Terry K Morgan, Jonathan Q Purnell, Susan Pound Bagby
Poor prenatal development followed by rapid childhood growth conveys greater cardiometabolic risk in later life. Microswine offspring exposed to perinatal maternal protein restriction (MPR; "low protein offspring", LPO) grow poorly in late-fetal/neonatal stages. After weaning to ad libitum (AL) diet, LPO-AL exhibit accelerated growth and fat deposition rates with low adiponectin mRNA despite low-normal body fat and small intra-abdominal adipocytes. We examined effects of caloric restriction (CR) on growth and metabolic status in LPO and normal protein offspring (NPO) randomized to AL or CR diets from weaning...
June 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Hua He, Anne Monique Nuyt, Zhong-Cheng Luo, Francois Audibert, Lise Dubois, Shu-Qin Wei, Haim A Abenhaim, Emmanuel Bujold, Isabelle Marc, Pierre Julien, William D Fraser
Small for gestational age (SGA) infants are at increased risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is unknown whether any prenatal biomarkers are helpful for identifying SGA infants with altered metabolic health profile at birth or later life. In a nested study of 162 SGA (birth weight < 10th percentile) and 161 optimal birth weight (25th-75th percentiles) control infants in the 3D (design, develop and discover) birth cohort in Canada, we assessed whether maternal circulating placental growth factor (PlGF), a biomarker of placental function, is associated with metabolic health biomarkers in SGA infants...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Sebastian Ganz, Michael Bülte, Zdzislaw Gajewski, Axel Wehrend
The best studied substances in bovine colostrum are the immunoglobulins. They are absorbed in the small intestine of the neonate by pinocytosis. The Fc-receptor is not highly involved in this process in calves compared to other species. However, this receptor plays a crucial role in the transport of immunoglobulins from the circulation of the dam to the udder and, therefore, into the colostrum. During colostrogenesis, which starts up to 8 weeks prior to parturition, up to 500 g of immunoglobulins are transferred daily by this process...
June 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe G, Grosstiere/Nutztiere
Kyoko Hayakawa, Anthony M Formica, Yuka Nakao, Daiju Ichikawa, Susan A Shinton, Joni Brill-Dashoff, Mitchell R Smith, Herbert C Morse, Richard R Hardy
In mice, fetal/neonatal B-1 cell development generates murine CD5+ B cells (B1a) with autoreactivity. We analyzed B1a cells at the neonatal stage in a VH 11/D/JH knock-in mouse line (VH 11t) that generates an autoreactive antiphosphatidylcholine BCR. Our study revealed that antiphosphatidylcholine B1a cells develop in liver, mature in spleen, and distribute in intestine/colon, mesenteric lymph node (mLN), and body cavity as the outcome of B-1 cell development before B-2 cell development. Throughout life, self-renewing B-1 B1a cells circulate through intestine, mesenteric vessel, and blood...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zihan Yan, Zeenat A Shyr, Manuela Fortunato, Alecia Welscher, Mariana Alisio, Michael Martino, Brian N Finck, Hannah Conway, Maria S Remedi
Chronic hyperglycemia has been proposed to cause pancreatic β-cell dysfunction and loss of β-cell mass. As in human monogenic neonatal diabetes, mice expressing KATP channel gain-of-function (GOF) mutations demonstrate deficiency in insulin secretion and develop severe diabetes. As diabetes progresses, they show loss of islet insulin content and β-cell mass, secondary consequences of glucotoxicity. Co-morbidity of chronic hyperglycemia and elevated lipids, so called glucolipotoxicity, is also crucial in the pathogenesis of diabetes...
June 12, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Syed M Rehman, Antonio Ravaglioli, Kanchana Singappuli, Kevin Roman, James Gnanapragasam, Duminda Samarasinghe, Nicola Viola
Single-stage repair of complex cardiac abnormalities in high-risk neonates presents formidable challenges. The majority of hybrid strategies involving bilateral pulmonary artery banding (bPAB) with or without patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stenting is described in the setting of hypoplastic left heart syndrome. We present a series of cases describing two-stage repair with initial palliative hybrid procedures involving bPAB with or without PDA stenting. This allows weight gain and stabilization of circulation before complete repair, provides good results, and may overcome risk factors associated with single-stage repair in neonates...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Elsa De La Chesnaye, Leticia Manuel-Apolinar, Leticia Damasio, Aleida Olivares, Miguel Angel Palomino, Isis Santos, Juan Pablo Méndez
Numerous clinical studies have reported the association between high circulating levels of lipocalin-2 (LCN2) and metabolic diseases. However, only few studies have addressed sexually dimorphic, either in its circulating concentration or in its expression in other organs. To the best of our knowledge, LCN2 and the 24p3 receptor (24p3R), have not been identified in gonads; therefore, the present study analyzed their mRNA expression profile and cellular localization in gonads collected from fetal rats at 21 days post coitum, as well as from neonatal rats at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 20 and 30 postnatal days...
July 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Annie Turkieh, Marie Fertin, Marion Bouvet, Paul Mulder, Hervé Drobecq, Gilles Lemesle, Nicolas Lamblin, Pascal de Groote, Sina Porouchani, Maggy Chwastyniak, Olivia Beseme, Philippe Amouyel, Frédéric Mouquet, Jean-Luc Balligand, Vincent Richard, Christophe Bauters, Florence Pinet
BACKGROUND: Left ventricular remodeling (LVR) after myocardial infarction is associated with an increased risk of heart failure and death. In spite of a modern therapeutic approach, LVR remains relatively frequent and difficult to predict in clinical practice. Our aim was to identify new biomarkers of LVR and understand their involvement in its development. METHODS AND RESULTS: Proteomic analysis of plasma from the REVE-2 study (Remodelage Ventriculaire)-a study dedicated to the analysis of LVR which included 246 patients after a first anterior myocardial infarction-identified increased plasma levels of CLU (clusterin) in patients with high LVR...
June 2018: Circulation. Heart Failure
Alan T Nurden
Patients with the inherited bleeding disorder Glanzmann thrombasthenia (GT) possess platelets that lack αIIbβ3 integrin and fail to aggregate, and have moderate to severe mucocutaneous bleeding. Many become refractory to platelet transfusions due to the formation of isoantibodies to αIIbβ3 with the rapid elimination of donor platelets and/or a block of function. Epitope characterization has shown isoantibodies to be polyclonal and to recognize different epitopes on the integrin with β3 a major site and αvβ3 on endothelial and vascular cells a newly recognized target...
May 23, 2018: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
Camillo Sargiacomo, Hoda El-Kehdy, Guillaume Pourcher, Bruno Stieger, Mustapha Najimi, Etienne Sokal
Sodium taurocholate cotransporter polypeptide (NTCP), mainly expressed on the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes, is one of the major transporters responsible for liver bile acid (BA) re-uptake. NTCP transports conjugated BA from the blood into hepatocytes and is crucial for correct enterohepatic circulation. Studies have shown that insufficient hepatic clearance of BA correlates with elevated serum BA in infants younger than 1 year of age. In the current study, we investigated human NTCP messenger RNA and protein expression by using reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting in isolated and cryopreserved human hepatocytes from two different age groups, below and above 1 year of age...
June 2018: Hepatology Communications
Kota Agematsu, Toru Okamura, Yoji Takiguchi, Fumiya Yoneyama, Yorikazu Harada
Intrapulmonary artery septation is employed in patients with unbalanced pulmonary artery growth. A baby girl received a systemic pulmonary shunt in the neonatal period and bilateral Glenn shunts in early infancy. Once the Glenn shunts were established, the right pulmonary artery became hypoplastic. We performed intrapulmonary artery septation involving the Glenn shunts to the left pulmonary artery and the systemic pulmonary shunt to the right pulmonary artery. As early as 3 months after intrapulmonary artery septation, right pulmonary artery growth was observed...
January 1, 2018: Asian Cardiovascular & Thoracic Annals
Yogen Singh, Cécile Tissot
The hemodynamic changes during the first few breaths after birth are probably the most significant and drastic adaptation in the human life. These changes are critical for a smooth transition of fetal to neonatal circulation. With the cord clamping, lungs take over as the source of oxygenation from placenta. A smooth transition of circulation is a complex mechanism and primarily depends upon the drop in pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and increase in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). Understanding the normal transition physiology and the adverse adaptation is of utmost importance to the clinicians looking after neonates...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Roberto V Reyes, Sebastián Castillo-Galán, Ismael Hernandez, Emilio A Herrera, Germán Ebensperger, Aníbal J Llanos
The pulmonary arteries are exquisitely responsive to oxygen changes. They rapidly and proportionally contract as arterial PO2 decrease, and they relax as arterial PO2 is re-established. The hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is intrinsic since it does not require neural or endocrine factors, as evidenced in isolated vessels. On the other hand, pulmonary arteries also respond to sustained hypoxia with structural and functional remodeling, involving growth of smooth muscle medial layer and later recruitment of adventitial fibroblasts, secreted mitogens from endothelium and changes in the response to vasoconstrictor and vasodilator stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Mariano Carossino, Maria E Barrandeguy, Yanqiu Li, Viviana Parreño, Jennifer Janes, Alan T Loynachan, Udeni B R Balasuriya
Equine rotavirus A (ERVA) is the leading cause of diarrhea in neonatal foals and a major health problem to the equine breeding industry worldwide. The G3P[12] and G14P[12] ERVA genotypes are the most prevalent in foals with diarrhea. Control and prevention strategies include vaccination of pregnant mares with an inactivated vaccine containing a prototype ERVA G3P[12] strain with limited and controversial field efficacy. Here, we performed the molecular characterization of ERVA strains circulating in central Kentucky using fecal samples collected during the 2017 foaling season...
June 1, 2018: Virus Research
Jennifer M Lynch, Tiffany Ko, David R Busch, John J Newland, Madeline E Winters, Kobina Mensah-Brown, Timothy W Boorady, Rui Xiao, Susan C Nicolson, Lisa M Montenegro, J William Gaynor, Thomas L Spray, Arjun G Yodh, Maryam Y Naim, Daniel J Licht
BACKGROUND: Hypoxic-ischemic white matter brain injury commonly occurs in neonates with critical congenital heart disease. Recent work has shown that longer time to surgery is associated with increased risk for this injury. In this study we investigated changes in perinatal cerebral hemodynamics during the transition from fetal to neonatal circulation to ascertain mechanisms that might underlie this risk. METHODS: Neonates with either transposition of the great arteries (TGA) or hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) were recruited for preoperative noninvasive optical monitoring of cerebral oxygen saturation, cerebral oxygen extraction fraction, and cerebral blood flow using diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy, 2 noninvasive optical techniques...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Young Ah Kim, Kyungwon Lee, Jae Eun Chung
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is known to cause urinary tract infection (UTI) and meningitis in neonates, as well as existing as a commensal flora of the human gut. Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing E. coli has increased in the community with the spread of CTX-M type ESBL-producing sequence type 131 (ST131)-O25-H30Rx E. coli clone. The role of ESBL-producing E. coli in female genital tract infection has not been elucidated. The clinical and molecular features of E...
June 1, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Lejla Medzikovic, Cindy van Roomen, Antonius Baartscheer, Pieter B van Loenen, Judith de Vos, Erik N T P Bakker, Duco S Koenis, Amin Damanafshan, Esther E Creemers, E Karin Arkenbout, Carlie J M de Vries, Vivian de Waard
Aims: Cardiac remodelling and heart failure are promoted by persistent sympathetic activity. We recently reported that nuclear receptor Nur77 may protect against sympathetic agonist-induced cardiac remodelling in mice. The sympathetic co-transmitter Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is co-released with catecholamines and is a known cardiac modulator and predictor of heart failure mortality. Recently, transcriptome analyses revealed NPY as a putative target of Nur77. In this study, we assess whether Nur77 modulates adverse cardiac remodelling via NPY signalling...
May 30, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
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