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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470342/acog-practice-bulletin-no-192-management-of-alloimmunization-during-pregnancy
#1
(no author information available yet)
When any fetal blood group factor inherited from the father is not possessed by the mother, antepartum or intrapartum fetal-maternal bleeding may stimulate an immune reaction in the mother. Maternal immune reactions also can occur from blood product transfusion. The formation of maternal antibodies, or "alloimmunization," may lead to various degrees of transplacental passage of these antibodies into the fetal circulation. Depending on the degree of antigenicity and the amount and type of antibodies involved, this transplacental passage may lead to hemolytic disease in the fetus and neonate...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470338/acog-practice-bulletin-no-192-summary-management-of-alloimmunization-during-pregnancy
#2
(no author information available yet)
When any fetal blood group factor inherited from the father is not possessed by the mother, antepartum or intrapartum fetal-maternal bleeding may stimulate an immune reaction in the mother. Maternal immune reactions also can occur from blood product transfusion. The formation of maternal antibodies, or "alloimmunization," may lead to various degrees of transplacental passage of these antibodies into the fetal circulation. Depending on the degree of antigenicity and the amount and type of antibodies involved, this transplacental passage may lead to hemolytic disease in the fetus and neonate...
March 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466685/prolactin-regulates-liver-growth-during-postnatal-development-in-mice
#3
Bibiana Moreno-Carranza, Marco Bravo-Manríquez, Arelí Baez, María G Ledesma-Colunga, Xarubet Ruiz-Herrera, Pamela Reyes-Ortega, Ericka A De Los Ríos, Yazmín Macotela, Gonzalo Martínez de la Escalera, Carmen Clapp
The liver grows during the early postnatal period first at slower and then at faster rates than the body to achieve the adult liver-to-body weight ratio (LBW), a constant reflecting liver health. The hormone prolactin (PRL) stimulates adult liver growth and regeneration and its levels are high in the circulation of newborn infants, but whether PRL plays a role on neonatal liver growth is unknown. Here, we show that the liver produces PRL and upregulates the PRL receptor in mice during the first 2 weeks after birth, when liver growth lags behind body growth...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452377/discordance-in-the-dependence-on-kisspeptin-signaling-in-mini-puberty-vs-adolescent-puberty-human-genetic-evidence
#4
Muhammad Shahab, Margaret Lippincott, Yee-Ming Chan, Addie Davies, Paulina M Merino, Lacey Plummer, Veronica Mericq, Stephanie Seminara
Context: Hypothalamic kisspeptin signaling plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of reproductive function. Biallelic mutations in the coding sequence of KISS1R (GPR54) have been identified in patients with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), but it is unknown whether biallelic variants can also be associated with related reproductive disorders. Case description: A missense homozygous variant (c.890G>T p.R297L) in KISS1R was identified in a child who presented with microphallus and bilateral cryptorchidism...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450407/changes-in-the-cardiac-ghsr1a-ghrelin-system-correlate-with-myocardial-dysfunction-in-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-in-mice
#5
Rebecca Sullivan, Rebecca McGirr, Shirley Hu, Alice Tan, Derek Wu, Carlie Charron, Tyler Lalonde, Edith Arany, Subrata Chakrabarti, Leonard Luyt, Savita Dhanvantari
Ghrelin and its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHSR1a), are present in cardiac tissue. Activation of GHSR1a by ghrelin promotes cardiomyocyte contractility and survival, and changes in myocardial GHSR1a and circulating ghrelin track with end-stage heart failure, leading to the hypothesis that GHSR1a is a biomarker for heart failure. We hypothesized that GHSR1a could also be a biomarker for diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM). We used two models of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DCM: group 1, adult mice treated with 35 mg/kg STZ for 3 days; and group 2, neonatal mice treated with 70 mg/kg STZ at days 2 and 5 after birth...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436717/early-hemodynamic-changes-after-fetal-aortic-stenosis-valvuloplasty-predict-biventricular-circulation-at-birth
#6
Aaron R Prosnitz, Monika Drogosz, Audrey C Marshall, Louise E Wilkins-Haug, Carol B Benson, Lynn A Sleeper, Wayne Tworetzky, Kevin G Friedman
OBJECTIVE: To describe the early hemodynamic changes after fetal aortic valvuloplasty (FAV) for evolving hypoplastic left heart syndrome due to mid-gestational aortic stenosis and to assess whether these early changes predict biventricular (BiV) circulation at neonatal discharge. METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed all technically successful FAV cases resulting in live birth between 2000 and 2015 (n=93, 45% BiV circulation at neonatal discharge). Paired testing methods were used to compare pre- and post-intervention measures of left ventricular hemodynamics...
February 13, 2018: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433370/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pregnant-women-and-newborns-in-lagos-nigeria
#7
Emmanuel Owie, Bosede Bukola Afolabi
We aimed to determine the prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency among pregnant women and their newborns in order to make recommendations for Vitamin D supplementation, if necessary. It was a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 12 months. Information such as use of Vitamin D supplements, number of daytime hours spent outdoors and dressing style was obtained from 166 pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria; maternal and cord blood 25(OH)D concentration was determined using ELISA. The prevalence of Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/mL) in the mothers and newborns was 4...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429410/the-human-fetal-adrenal-produces-cortisol-but-no-detectable-aldosterone-throughout-the-second-trimester
#8
Zoe C Johnston, Michelle Bellingham, Panagiotis Filis, Ugo Soffientini, Denise Hough, Siladitya Bhattacharya, Marc Simard, Geoffrey L Hammond, Peter King, Peter J O'Shaughnessy, Paul A Fowler
BACKGROUND: Human fetal adrenal glands are highly active and, with the placenta, regulate circulating progesterone, estrogen and corticosteroids in the fetus. At birth the adrenals are essential for neonate salt retention through secretion of aldosterone, while adequate glucocorticoids are required to prevent adrenal insufficiency. The objective of this study was to carry out the first comprehensive analysis of adrenal steroid levels and steroidogenic enzyme expression in normal second trimester human fetuses...
February 12, 2018: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423949/genetic-diversity-of-equine-herpesvirus-1-isolated-from-neurological-abortigenic-and-respiratory-disease-outbreaks
#9
N A Bryant, G S Wilkie, C A Russell, L Compston, D Grafham, L Clissold, K McLay, L Medcalf, R Newton, A J Davison, D M Elton
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease in equines and is endemic in most countries. The viral factors that influence EHV-1 disease severity are poorly understood, and this has hampered vaccine development. However, the N752D substitution in the viral DNA polymerase catalytic subunit has been shown statistically to be associated with neurological disease. This has given rise to the term "neuropathic strain," even though strains lacking the polymorphism have been recovered from cases of neurological disease...
February 9, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423508/association-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity-with-low-levels-of-arachidonic-acid-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
Chatarina A Löfqvist, Svetlana Najm, Gunnel Hellgren, Eva Engström, Karin Sävman, Anders K Nilsson, Mats X Andersson, Anna-Lena Hård, Lois E H Smith, Ann Hellström
Importance: Mice with oxygen-induced retinopathy fed matched diets except for ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) vs ω-6 LC-PUFAs demonstrate relative antiangiogenic and neuroprotective associations of ω-3 LC-PUFAs. However, supplementing preterm infants with LC-PUFAs has been inconsistent in reducing major preterm morbidities. However, few studies measured serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To examine the associated risk of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) from the levels of circulating ω-3 and ω-6 LC-PUFAs...
February 8, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422500/the-tumour-microenvironment-creates-a-niche-for-the-self-renewal-of-tumour-promoting-macrophages-in-colon-adenoma
#11
Irene Soncin, Jianpeng Sheng, Qi Chen, Shihui Foo, Kaibo Duan, Josephine Lum, Michael Poidinger, Francesca Zolezzi, Klaus Karjalainen, Christiane Ruedl
Circulating CCR2+ monocytes are crucial for maintaining the adult tissue-resident F4/80hiMHCIIhi macrophage pool in the intestinal lamina propria. Here we show that a subpopulation of CCR2-independent F4/80hiMHCIIlow macrophages, which are the most abundant F4/80hi cells in neonates, gradually decline in number in adulthood; these macrophages likely represent the fetal contribution to F4/80hi cells. In colon adenomas of ApcMin/+ mice, F4/80hiMHCIIlow macrophages are not only preserved, but become the dominant subpopulation among tumour-resident macrophages during tumour progression...
February 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420129/combined-application-of-glutamate-transporter-inhibitors-and-hypothermia-discriminates-principal-constituent-processes-involved-in-glutamate-homo-and-heteroexchange-in-brain-nerve-terminals
#12
Artem Pastukhov, Tatiana Borisova
Deep and profound hypothermia is successfully practiced in the prevention of ischemic stroke consequences and aortic arch cardiac surgery accompanied by reduction of cerebral circulation. Hypothermia is a current neuroprotection standard in hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy. Drug-hypothermia administration is proposed as a new approach in pharmacotherapy for neonatal seizures. Also, hypothermia is useful as neuroprotective approach in long-term interplanetary space missions. We recently revealed gradual dynamics of hypothermia-induced decrease in transporter-mediated release and uptake of L-[14C]glutamate in presynaptic rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes), thereby confirming potent unspecific neuroprotective effect of hypothermia...
February 8, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390149/cord-blood-anti-parasite-il-10-as-risk-marker-for-compromised-vaccine-immunogenicity-in-early-childhood
#13
Indu Malhotra, A Desiree LaBeaud, Nathan Morris, Maxim McKibben, Peter Mungai, Eric Muchiri, Christopher L King, Charles H King
Background: Antenatal exposure to parasites can affect infants' subsequent responses to vaccination. The present study investigated how maternal prenatal infections and newborns' anti-parasite cytokine profiles relate to IgG responses to standard vaccination during infancy. Methods: 450 Kenyan women were tested for parasitic infections during pregnancy. Their newborns' responses to malaria, schistosome, and filaria antigens were assessed in cord blood (CB) lymphocytes...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376087/diagnostic-potential-of-neural-exosome-cargo-as-biomarkers-for-acute-brain-injury
#14
Laura Goetzl, Nana Merabova, Nune Darbinian, Diana Martirosyan, Erica Poletto, Keri Fugarolas, Ogechukwu Menkiti
Objective: Neuronal exosomes purified from peripheral blood samples have been proposed as diagnostic tool in the setting of acute brain injury but never tested clinically. We hypothesized that exosome protein biomarkers would change over time following acute hypoxic brain injury and would predict response to therapy. Methods: Synaptopodin (SYNPO), an actin-associated protein present in postsynaptic spines, was evaluated as a potential biomarker as well as: synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase...
January 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374073/genetic-fate-mapping-defines-the-vascular-potential-of-endocardial-cells-in-the-adult-heart
#15
Juan Tang, Hui Zhang, Lingjuan He, Xiuzhen Huang, Yan Li, Wenjuan Pu, Wei Yu, Libo Zhang, Dongqing Cai, Kathy O Lui, Bin Zhou
Rationale: Endocardium is the major source of coronary endothelial cells in the fetal and neonatal hearts. It remains unclear whether endocardium in the adult stage is also the main origin of neovascularization after cardiac injury. Objective: To define the vascular potential of adult endocardium in homeostasis and after cardiac injuries by fate mapping studies. Methods and Results: We generate an inducible adult endocardial Cre line (Npr3-CreER) and show that Npr3-CreER efficiently and specifically labels endocardial cells but not coronary blood vessels in the adult heart...
January 26, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370905/right-ventricular-involution-what-can-we-learn-from-nature-s-model-of-compensated-hypertrophy
#16
Megan E Bowen, Xiaoqing Liu, Peter M Sundwall, Stavros G Drakos, Dean Y Li, Craig H Selzman, Stephen H McKellar
BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) failure (RVF) is a vexing problem facing patients with various disease processes and carries a high mortality. RVF is a poorly understood phenomenon with limited treatment options. In mammalian fetal circulation, the right ventricle is the systemic ventricle. In neonates, however, the left ventricle assumes that role and gradually thickens compared with the right ventricle. This process, known as right ventricular involution (RVI), is poorly understood...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368992/characterization-of-an-outbreak-of-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-italy
#17
Marta Corbella, Mariasofia Caltagirone, Stefano Gaiarsa, Bianca Mariani, Davide Sassera, Ibrahim Bitar, Alba Muzzi, Roberta Migliavacca, Luigia Scudeller, Mauro Stronati, Patrizia Cambieri
Here we report an outbreak of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae that occurred in a neonatal intensive care unit in Northern Italy and involved 97 patients. Progressively tightened sets of containment measures were implemented but the epidemic event was stopped only 9 months later. The final, effective, containment strategy consisted of the application of strict geographic cohorting of colonized infants and their nursing staff, the suspension of any new admission and a rigorous daily sterilization protocol for all surfaces and fomites in the ward...
January 25, 2018: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366566/inadequate-preoperative-nutrition-might-be-associated-with-acute-kidney-injury-and-greater-illness-severity-postoperatively
#18
Kurt D Piggott, Anne Liu, Jessica Monczka, Harun Fakioglu, Sukumar Suguna Narasimhulu, Kamal Pourmoghadam, William DeCampli
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition is vital for maintaining optimal cellular and organ function, particularly in neonates who undergo cardiac surgery. Achieving nutritional goals preoperatively can be challenging because of fluid restrictions, suboptimal oral intake, and concerns for inadequate gastrointestinal circulation. We examined preoperative caloric intake and its effects on postoperative course in neonates who underwent cardiac surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of neonates (younger than 30 days) who underwent congenital heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass from 2008 to 2014 at Arnold Palmer Hospital for Children...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364360/novel-multidisciplinary-approach-to-monitor-and-treat-fetuses-with-gastroschisis-using-the-svetliza-reducibility-index-and-the-exit-like-procedure
#19
Gustavo Henrique de Oliveira, Javier Svetliza, Denise Cristina Mós Vaz-Oliani, Humberto Liedtke Junior, Antonio Helio Oliani, Denise Araujo Lapa Pedreira
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial experience with a novel approach to follow-up and treat gastroschisis in "zero minute" using the EXITlike procedure. METHODS: Eleven fetuses with prenatal diagnosis of gastroschisis were evaluated. The Svetliza Reductibility Index was used to prospectively evaluate five cases, and six cases were used as historical controls. The Svetliza Reductibility Index consisted in dividing the real abdominal wall defect diameter by the larger intestinal loop to be fitted in such space...
October 2017: Einstein
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355822/mild-prenatal-hypoxia-ischemia-leads-to-social-deficits-and-central-and-peripheral-inflammation-in-exposed-offspring
#20
David J O ' Driscoll, Valeria D Felice, Louise C Kenny, Geraldine B Boylan, Gerard W O'Keeffe
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) resulting from intrauterine or perinatal hypoxic-ischemia (HI) is a leading cause of long-term neonatal neurodisability. While most studies of long-term outcome have focused on moderate and severe HIE in term infants, recent work has shown that those with mild HIE may have subtle neurological impairments. However, the impact of mild HI on pre-term infants is much less clear given that pre-term birth is itself a risk factor for neurodisability. Here we show that mild HI insult alters behaviour, inflammation and the corticosterone stress response in a rat model of pre-term HIE...
January 16, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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