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neonatal circulation,

Hitesh Soni, Adebowale Adebiyi
Apoptosis of renal tubular and glomerular cells during kidney disease involves activation of Fas ligand (FasL)-dependent death pathway. The significance of FasL in neonates with septic acute kidney injury (AKI) is unresolved, but an increase in renal FasL production, and/or infiltration of circulating FasL into the kidneys may occur following initial septic insult. Here, we examined whether soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) levels are altered during early phase of septic AKI in neonates. Six hours of polymicrobial sepsis elicited by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) (a bacteremia and sepsis marker) concentration in anesthetized and mechanically ventilated neonatal pigs...
October 21, 2016: Renal Failure
Virginia Mela, Sara Jimenez, Alejandra Freire-Regatillo, Vicente Barrios, Eva-María Marco, Ana-Belén Lopez-Rodriguez, Jesús Argente, María-Paz Viveros, Julie A Chowen
The neonatal leptin surge, occurring from postnatal day (PND) 5 to 13 and peaking at PND9 in rodents, is important for the development of neuroendocrine circuits involved in metabolic control and reproductive function. We previously demonstrated that treatment with a leptin antagonist from PND 5 to 9, coincident with peak leptin levels in the neonatal surge, modified trophic factors and markers of cell turnover and neuronal maturation in the hypothalamus of peri-pubertal rats. The kisspeptin system and metabolic neuropeptide and hormone levels were also modified...
October 14, 2016: Peptides
Håvard Tetlie Garberg, Marianne U Huun, Lars O Baumbusch, Monica Åsegg-Atneosen, Rønnaug Solberg, Ola Didrik Saugstad
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of reliable biomarkers that can identify and grade acute hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in newborns. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are short, non-coding strands of RNA that are released into the circulation in response to tissue stress and injury. Some miRNAs are highly tissue specific and thus may potentially be non-invasive biomarkers of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to characterize the temporal expression of selected circulating miRNAs in a clinically relevant piglet model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia (HI)...
October 18, 2016: Neonatology
Ester Arévalo Sureda, Björn Weström, Stefan G Pierzynowski, Olena Prykhodko
BACKGROUND: The intestinal barrier is immature in newborn mammals allowing for transfer of bioactive macromolecules, e.g. protecting antibodies, from mother's milk to the blood circulation and in neonatal rodents lasts until weaning. This passage involves the neonatal-Fc-receptor (FcRn) binding IgG in the proximal and highly endocytic vacuolated enterocytes in the distal immature small intestine (SI). Recent studies have suggested an involvement of the transcription factor B-lymphocyte-induced maturation-protein-1 (Blimp-1) in the regulation of SI maturation in mice...
2016: PloS One
Mustafa Kemal Avsar, Tolga Demir, Cem Celiksular, Cenap Zeybek
BACKGROUND: PDA(Patent ductus arteriosus) is a common and clinically important condition which is presented with a number of hemodynamic and respiratory problems such as intraventricular hemorrhage, pulmonary hemorrhage and necrotizing enterocolitis due to increased pulmonary blood flow and stealing from systemic circulation. The incidence of PDA among the infants that were born before the 28th gestational week is as high as 70 %; and spontaneous closure rates in very-low-birth-weight premature neonates(VLBWPN) is around 34 %...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery
Igor V Polivenok, John P Breinholt, Sri O Rao, Olga V Buchneva
Management of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA-VSD) in the neonatal period presents numerous challenges. Endovascular stenting of the ductus arteriosus or of a collateral vessel in ductal-dependent pulmonary circulation as an alternative to the Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt has become increasingly popular in the last decades. The utilization of the reverse Szabo (anchor-wire) technique for single collateral vessel stenting in a case of PA-VSD is described.
July 2016: Translational pediatrics
Jezid Miranda, Stefania Triunfo, Merida Rodriguez-Lopez, Mikko Sairanen, Heikki Kouru, Miguel Parra-Saavedra, Francesca Crovetto, Francesc Figueras, Fatima Crispi, Eduard Gratacos
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential value of a third trimester combined screening for the prediction of adverse perinatal outcome (APO) in the general population and among small-for-gestational age (SGA) neonates. METHODS: Nested case-control study within a prospective cohort of 1,590 singleton gestations referred for third-trimester evaluation (32(0) -36(6) weeks of gestation). Maternal baseline characteristics, mean arterial blood pressure, fetoplacental ultrasound and circulating biochemical markers [placental growth factor (PlGF), lipocalin-2, unconjugated estriol and inhibin A] were assessed in all women who subsequently presented an APO (n = 148) and in a control group without perinatal complications (n = 902)...
October 5, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Faith J Ross, Denise Joffe, Gregory J Latham
Total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) is a potentially devastating form of congenital heart disease in which all pulmonary blood flow returns to the systemic venous circulation rather than the left atrium. Anomalous pulmonary venous flow may be obstructed at birth, and affected infants present with severe cyanosis and poor cardiac output unresponsive to standard resuscitation with prostaglandin. Obstructed TAPVC remains one of the few indications for emergent neonatal cardiac surgery. This review will discuss the physiology and perioperative management of isolated TAPVC without associated cardiac lesions...
September 29, 2016: Seminars in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Shashi Kumar Gupta, Ariana Foinquinos, Sabrina Thum, Janet Remke, Karina Zimmer, Christophe Bauters, Pascal de Groote, Reinier A Boon, Leon J de Windt, Sebastian Preissl, Lutz Hein, Sandor Batkai, Florence Pinet, Thomas Thum
BACKGROUND: Aging populations show higher incidences of myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure (HF). Cardiac remodeling post-MI leads to progressive impaired cardiac function caused by a disarray of several processes including derailed autophagy. Microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are known to be key players in cardiovascular disease but their involvement in cardiac autophagy and aging is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to identify new miRNA candidates that regulate cardiac autophagy and aging...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Fakry F Mohamed, Shimaa M G Mansour, Iman E El-Araby, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
Neonatal calf diarrhea (NCD) is a major cause of morbidity, mortality and economic losses in the beef and dairy industries. This study was conducted to investigate the existence of enteric viruses in two Egyptian farms with a history of recurrent diarrhea. Fecal samples were collected from 25 diarrheic calves. RNA was extracted and tested by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the presence of rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, torovirus, coronavirus and bovine viral diarrhea virus. Overall, 76 % (19/25) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses...
September 29, 2016: Archives of Virology
Sung Hye Byun, So Young Lee, Seong Yeon Hong, Taeha Ryu, Baek Jin Kim, Jin Yong Jung
INTRODUCTION: In fetuses who are predicted to be at risk of catastrophic airway obstruction at delivery, the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure is useful for securing the fetal airway while maintaining fetal oxygenation via placental circulation. Factors, including poor posture of the fetus and physician, narrow visual field, and issues of contamination in the aseptic surgical field, make fetal intubation during the EXIT procedure difficult. Herein, we report our experience of the usefulness of the GlideScope video laryngoscope (GVL) for intubation during the EXIT procedure...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mihaela Lazar, Emily Abernathy, Min-Hsin Chen, Joseph Icenogle, Denisa Janta, Aurora Stanescu, Adriana Pistol, Sabine Santibanez, Annette Mankertz, Judith M Hübschen, Grigore Mihaescu, Gheorghe Necula, Emilia Lupulescu
We describe a rubella outbreak that occurred in Romania between September 2011 and December 2012. During this period 24,627 rubella cases, 41.1% (n=10,134) of which female, were notified based on clinical criteria, and a total of 6,182 individuals were found serologically positive for IgM-specific rubella antibody. The median age of notified cases was 18 years (range: <1-65) and the most affected age group 15 to 19 years (n=16,245 cases). Of all notified cases, 24,067 cases (97.7%) reported no history of vaccination...
September 22, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Claire Dossier, Agnès Jamin, Georges Deschênes
Steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome is marked by a massive proteinuria and loss of podocytes foot processes. The mechanism of the disease remains debated but recent publications suggest a primary role of EBV. EBV replication in the peripheral blood is found in 50% of patients during the first flare of the disease. The genetic locus of steroid sensitive nephrotic syndrome was also identified as influencing antibodies directed against EBNA1. EBV is able to establish, latent benign infection in memory B cells that display phenotypes similar to antigen-selected memory B cells...
September 28, 2016: Pediatric Research
Luba Sominsky, Ilvana Ziko, Thai-Xinh Nguyen, Zane B Andrews, Sarah J Spencer
Early life overweight is a significant risk factor for developmental programming of adult obesity due to changes in the availability of metabolic factors crucial for the maturation of brain appetite-regulatory circuitry. The appetite-stimulating hormone, ghrelin, has been recently identified as a major regulator of the establishment of hypothalamic feeding pathways. Ghrelin exists in circulation in two major forms, as acylated and des-acylated ghrelin. While most research has focused on acyl ghrelin, the role of neonatal des-acyl ghrelin in metabolic programming is currently unknown...
September 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Alain Amblard, Marie Reymond, Sandrine Champrenault, Pierre-Louis Leger, Jérôme Rambaud
A mobile paediatric circulatory support unit has been set up within the paediatric and neonatal intensive care service at the Armand-Trousseau Hospital in Paris (AP-HP, 75). It is in place for situations of refractory respiratory and/or circulatory failure and can intervene in a radius of several hundred kilometres, in order to establish long-term extracorporeal circulation. In this delicate context, transporting children requires specific skills, coordination between all intervening parties and faultless organisation...
September 2016: Soins. Pédiatrie, Puériculture
Adrienne M Antonson, Emily C Radlowski, Marcus A Lawson, Jennifer L Rytych, Rodney W Johnson
Maternal infection during pregnancy increases risk for neurodevelopmental disorders and reduced stress resilience in offspring, but the mechanisms are not fully understood. We hypothesized that piglets born from gilts infected with a respiratory virus during late gestation would exhibit aberrant microglia activity, cognitive deficits and reduced sociability. Pregnant gilts were inoculated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV; 5 x 10(5) TCID50 of live PRRSV) or saline at gestational day 76...
September 17, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Malia S Q Murphy, Chandrakant Tayade, Graeme N Smith
Pre-eclampsia (PE) is a common hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with a significant impact on maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity. While the pathogenesis of PE has been well described, identification of a biomarker(s) with robust predictive utility in identifying women at the highest risk of developing the condition has yet to be identified. In the search for diagnostic markers, those that may be obtained from the circulation are preferred alternatives to those derived from organ tissue samples. Because of their stability in plasma, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been explored as biomarkers in a host of disease states, although there is comparably little literature available on the circulating miRNAome of PE...
September 16, 2016: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
Elizabeth J A Fitchett, Anna C Seale, Stefania Vergnano, Michael Sharland, Paul T Heath, Samir K Saha, Ramesh Agarwal, Adejumoke I Ayede, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, Robert Black, Kalifa Bojang, Harry Campbell, Simon Cousens, Gary L Darmstadt, Shabir A Madhi, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Neena Modi, Janna Patterson, Shamim Qazi, Stephanie J Schrag, Barbara J Stoll, Stephen N Wall, Robinson D Wammanda, Joy E Lawn
Neonatal infections are estimated to account for a quarter of the 2·8 million annual neonatal deaths, as well as approximately 3% of all disability-adjusted life-years. Despite this burden, few data are available on incidence, aetiology, and outcomes, particularly regarding impairment. We aimed to develop guidelines for improved scientific reporting of observational neonatal infection studies, to increase comparability and to strengthen research in this area. This checklist, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology for Newborn Infection (STROBE- NI), is an extension of the STROBE (Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology) statement...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
I L Iessi, Y K Sinzato, F Q Gallego, J H Nielsen, D C Damasceno
The aim of the study was to investigate the role of diabetic intrauterine environment on circulating insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin levels in pregnant rats, fetuses, and offspring. Diabetes was induced in female Wistar rats by streptozotocin at birth or as adult and the animals were assigned into: control (C); mildly diabetic (MD); and severely diabetic (SD). The rats were mated and distributed into 2 subgroups: euthanasia at day 21 of pregnancy and at day 10 postpartum. Both MD and SD dams showed impaired oral glucose tolerance...
September 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Yujiro Ide, Masaya Murata, Hiroki Ito, Kisaburo Sakamoto
Right atrial isomerism and pulmonary atresia combined with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are very rare. Surgical treatment becomes more challenging when an extracardiac total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) requiring surgical repair neonatally is also present. We describe a successful staged Fontan operation for a neonate with a single ventricle, right atrial isomerism, pulmonary atresia with major aortopulmonary collateral arteries, a small central pulmonary artery and a supracardiac TAPVC...
September 13, 2016: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
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