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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914740/predicting-the-relative-impacts-of-maternal-and-neonatal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-rsv-vaccine-target-product-profiles-a-consensus-modelling-approach
#1
Wirichada Pan-Ngum, Timothy Kinyanjui, Moses Kiti, Sylvia Taylor, Jean-François Toussaint, Sompob Saralamba, Thierry Van Effelterre, D James Nokes, Lisa J White
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the major viral cause of infant and childhood lower respiratory tract disease worldwide. Defining the optimal target product profile (TPP) is complicated due to a wide range of possible vaccine properties, modalities and an incomplete understanding of the mechanism of natural immunity. We report consensus population level impact projections based on two mathematical models applied to a low income setting. METHOD: Two structurally distinct age-specific deterministic compartmental models reflecting uncertainty associated with the natural history of infection and the mechanism by which immunity is acquired and lost were constructed...
November 28, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896019/naloxone-and-metabolites-quantification-in-cord-blood-of-prenatally-exposed-newborns-and-correlations-with-maternal-concentrations
#2
Samantha L Wiegand, Madeleine J Swortwood, Marilyn A Huestis, John Thorp, Hendreé E Jones, Neeta L Vora
Objective To quantify naloxone and metabolite concentrations in newborns prenatally exposed to sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone and to correlate neonatal and maternal metabolite concentrations. Methods This is a prospective observational cohort study. Eleven pregnant women treated for opioid use disorder with sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone were enrolled. Maternal and newborn blood was collected and analyzed for naloxone, buprenorphine, and metabolites via liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry...
October 2016: American Journal of Perinatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884950/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-in-the-amniotic-cavity-of-women-with-intra-amniotic-infection-a-new-mechanism-of-host-defense
#3
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Ronald Unkel, Majid Shaman, Suzanne M Jacques, Bogdan Panaitescu, Valeria Garcia-Flores, Sonia S Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) control microbial infections through their antimicrobial activities attributed to DNA, histones, granules, and cytoplasmic proteins (eg, elastase). Intra-amniotic infection is characterized by the influx of neutrophils into the amniotic cavity; therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether amniotic fluid neutrophils form NETs in this inflammatory process. METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from women with intra-amniotic infection (n = 15) were stained for bacteria detection using fluorescent dyes...
November 23, 2016: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881034/galanin-in-pregnancy-is-there-an-association-with-birth-weight-and-gestational-diabetes
#4
Eleni Bili, Evdokia Karagianni, Dimitrios G Goulis, Konstantinos Toulis, Grigoris Grimbizis, Basil C Tarlatzis
OBJECTIVE: To review the actions of galanin during pregnancy and to examine the existence of an association between galanin and birthweight as well as with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). RESULTS: Galanin concentrations in maternal circulation are similar in pregnant and non-pregnant status and have been correlated with body mass index (BMI). There is evidence of an association between birthweight and galanin concentrations in amniotic fluid during second trimester as well as galanin concentrations in umbilical cord at term...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875570/towards-a-tissue-engineered-contractile-fontan-conduit-the-fate-of-cardiac-myocytes-in-the-subpulmonary-circulation
#5
Daniel Biermann, Alexandra Eder, Florian Arndt, Hatim Seoudy, Hermann Reichenspurner, Thomas Mir, Arlindo Riso, Rainer Kozlik-Feldmann, Kersten Peldschus, Michael G Kaul, Tillman Schuler, Susanne Krasemann, Arne Hansen, Thomas Eschenhagen, Jörg S Sachweh
The long-term outcome of patients with single ventricles improved over time, but remains poor compared to other congenital heart lesions with biventricular circulation. Main cause for this unfavourable outcome is the unphysiological hemodynamic of the Fontan circulation, such as subnormal systemic cardiac output and increased systemic-venous pressure. To overcome this limitation, we are developing the concept of a contractile extracardiac Fontan-tunnel. In this study, we evaluated the survival and structural development of a tissue-engineered conduit under in vivo conditions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874028/a-mouse-model-of-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia-generated-by-transmammary-delivered-immunoblocking-of-bmp9-and-bmp10
#6
Santiago Ruiz, Haitian Zhao, Pallavi Chandakkar, Prodyot K Chatterjee, Julien Papoin, Lionel Blanc, Christine N Metz, Fabien Campagne, Philippe Marambaud
Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a potentially life-threatening genetic vascular disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in the genes encoding activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), endoglin, Smad4, and bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9). Injections of mouse neonates with BMP9/10 blocking antibodies lead to HHT-like vascular defects in the postnatal retinal angiogenesis model. Mothers and their newborns share the same immunity through the transfer of maternal antibodies during lactation...
November 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870827/augmented-th17-type-immune-responses-in-preterm-neonates-exposed-to-histologic-chorioamnionitis
#7
Daniel C Rito, Luke T Viehl, Paula M Buchanan, Seema Haridas, Joyce M Koenig
BACKGROUND: Histologic chorioamnionitis (HCA) is a placental inflammatory disorder that frequently precedes preterm delivery. HCA increases risk for long-standing inflammatory injury and may influence immune programming, particularly in preterm (PT) neonates. We hypothesized that HCA exposure is associated with an increased circulating frequency of pro-inflammatory, Th17-type responses. METHODS: Placental cord blood was collected from HCA-exposed or control neonates (23-41 weeks gestation)...
November 21, 2016: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870810/neonatal-group-b-streptococcus-infections-prevention-strategies-clinical-and-microbiologic-characteristics-in-7-years-of-surveillance
#8
Roberta Creti, Monica Imperi, Alberto Berardi, Marco Pataracchia, Simona Recchia, Giovanna Alfarone, Lucilla Baldassarri
BACKGROUND: The characteristics of group B streptococcus (GBS) neonatal disease in a period of 7 years are reported. METHODS: The estimation of the neonatal GBS disease risk and prevention strategies adopted at delivery in absence of national guidelines were evaluated by the analysis of 3501 questionnaires. Notification of 194 neonatal GBS infections was recorded. In addition, 115 strains from neonatal early and late onset disease (EOD and LOD, respectively) plus 320 strains from pregnant women were analyzed by molecular typing methods and for antibiotic resistance...
November 18, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870444/sex-differences-and-estrogen-regulation-of-bdnf-gene-expression-but-not-propeptide-content-in-the-developing-hippocampus
#9
Katherine E Kight, Margaret M McCarthy
Sex differences in adult brain function are frequently determined developmentally through the actions of steroid hormones during sensitive periods of prenatal and early postnatal life. In rodents, various cellular end points of the developing brain are affected by estradiol that is derived from the aromatization of circulating testosterone and/or synthesized within the brain. We have previously described a sex difference in neurogenesis in the hippocampus of neonatal rats that is modulated by estradiol. In this report, we examined a potential downstream regulator of the effects of estradiol on hippocampal cell proliferation by measuring gene expression of brain-derived neurotrophin (BDNF) in male and female neonatal rats in response to estradiol...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863538/in-vivo-relevance-of-polymorphic-interleukin-8-promoter-haplotype-for-the-systemic-immune-response-to-lps-in-holstein-friesian-calves
#10
Bojan Stojkovic, Rachel M McLoughlin, Kieran G Meade
Interleukin 8, also known as CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8), is a critical chemokine in the recruitment of leukocytes to sites of infection and is a potent mediator of inflammation. We previously discovered 29 polymorphic sites in the promoter region of the bovine Interleukin 8 gene, which segregate into two distinct haplotypes, denoted IL8-h1 and IL8-h2. Population genetic analysis of these two haplotypes showed significant inter-breed differences in haplotype frequency, which is suggestive of selection acting at this locus...
December 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862068/development-and-validation-of-a-fetal-genotyping-assay-with-potential-for-noninvasive-prenatal-diagnosis-of-hereditary-hearing-loss
#11
Ying Chen, Yiqian Liu, Benjing Wang, Jun Mao, Ting Wang, Kan Ye, Yanlin Ye, David S Cram, Hong Li
OBJECTIVE: Inherited non-syndromic hearing loss (NSHL) is a common sensory disorder that afflicts otherwise healthy individuals. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of circulating single molecule amplification and re-sequencing technology (cSMART) for non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) of NHSL. METHOD: Neonatal inheritance of NSHL mutations was determined from bloodspots using SNaPshot genotyping. NIPT of cell-free DNA for fetal NSHL mutations in the GJB2, GJB3 and SLC26A4 genes was performed by a multiplex cSMART assay...
November 8, 2016: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861552/pathoadaptive-mutations-of-escherichia-coli-k1-in-experimental-neonatal-systemic-infection
#12
Alex J McCarthy, David Negus, Patricia Martin, Catarina Pechincha, Eric Oswald, Richard A Stabler, Peter W Taylor
Although Escherichia coli K1 strains are benign commensals in adults, their acquisition at birth by the newborn may result in life-threatening systemic infections, most commonly sepsis and meningitis. Key features of these infections, including stable gastrointestinal (GI) colonization and age-dependent invasion of the bloodstream, can be replicated in the neonatal rat. We previously increased the capacity of a septicemia isolate of E. coli K1 to elicit systemic infection following colonization of the small intestine by serial passage through two-day-old (P2) rat pups...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861499/maternal-filarial-infection-influences-the-development-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-children-from-infancy-to-early-childhood
#13
Madhusmita Bal, Manoranjan Ranjit, K Gopinath Achary, Ashok K Satapathy
BACKGROUND: Children born from filarial infected mothers are comparatively more susceptible to filarial infection than the children born to uninfected mothers. But the mechanism of such increased susceptibility to infection in early childhood is not exactly known. Several studies have shown the association of active filarial infection with T cell hypo-responsiveness which is mediated by regulatory T cells (Tregs). Since the Tregs develop in the thymus from CD4+ CD25hi thymocytes at an early stage of the human fetus, it can be hypothesized that the maternal infection during pregnancy affects the development of Tregs in children at birth as well as early childhood...
November 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854117/treatment-of-neonates-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-by-proportional-assist-ventilation-plus-synchronized-intermittent-mandatory-ventilation-a-comparison-study
#14
Rong Wu, Zhao F Tian, Xiang Y Kong, Shao D Hua, Jin H Hu, Guo F Zhen
BACKGROUND: The proportion assisted ventilation (PAV) can improve patient-ventilator interaction, reduce the incidence of end-expiratory asynchrony and increase the time of synchrony. PAV could compensate for the leaks by Elastic and resistive unloading and thus is ideal for neonates with uncuffed airways. The aim of this study was to compare the relevant clinical parameters of neonates with respiratory distress syndrome(RDS) who are surported by PAV plus synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV) and SIMV...
November 17, 2016: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837307/outcomes-of-radiofrequency-perforation-for-pulmonary-atresia-and-intact-ventricular-septum-a-single-centre-experience
#15
Steven Rathgeber, Benjamin Auld, Stephanie Duncombe, Martin C K Hosking, Kevin C Harris
Percutaneous radiofrequency perforation (RFP) of the pulmonary valve is used as a primary therapy in neonates with pulmonary atresia and intact ventricular septum (PAIVS). We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of RFP for PAIVS in a single center and assess the pre-intervention anatomical parameters associated with a biventricular outcome. We retrospectively reviewed all cases of PAIVS treated with RFP at a single center from 1999 through 2012. We collected baseline imaging data, technical aspects of the procedure, adverse events and outcomes...
November 11, 2016: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824757/circulating-cell-free-dna-to-determine-the-fetal-rhd-status-in-all-three-trimesters-of-pregnancy
#16
Kenneth J Moise, Manisha Gandhi, Noemi H Boring, Richard OʼShaughnessy, Lynn L Simpson, Honor M Wolfe, Jason K Baxter, William Polzin, Keith A Eddleman, Sonia S Hassan, Daniel W Skupski, Greg Ryan, Martin Walker, Garrett Lam, Richard Brown, M Amanda Skoll, Christopher Robinson, Asad Sheikh, Richard Bronsteen, Lauren A Plante, Graham McLennan, Anna Chikova, Toni Paladino
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the accuracy of a new assay to determine the fetal RHD status using circulating cell-free DNA. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study. Maternal blood samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy in 520 nonalloimmunized RhD-negative patients. Plasma samples were analyzed for circulating cell-free DNA using the SensiGENE RHD test, which used primers for exons 4 and 7 as previously described and incorporated a new primer design for exon 5 of the RHD gene...
December 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820846/preclinical-immunomodulation-by-the-probiotic-bifidobacterium-breve-m-16v-in-early-life
#17
Maria Del Mar Rigo-Adrover, Àngels Franch, Margarida Castell, Francisco José Pérez-Cano
This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817953/mechanically-assisted-bidirectional-cavopulmonary-shunt-in-neonates-and-infants-an-acute-human-pilot-study
#18
Osami Honjo, Sandra L Merklinger, John B Poe, Anne-Marie Guerguerian, Hargen Zhang, Katherine L Taylor, Glen S Van Arsdell
OBJECTIVE: Poor survival following surgical palliation for hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) raises the question of the need for a paradigm shift. This is the first human study to investigate the possibility of primary "in-series" palliation in neonates and infants with HLHS in an acute setting with the aid of 2 types of mechanical assist: superior vena cava (SVC)-to-pulmonary artery (PA) pump assist and SVC-to-right atrium (RA) oxygenation assist. METHODS: By rearranging the cannula sites and flow rates for modified ultrafiltration, 2 types of mechanically assisted bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS) circulation were simulated for 20 minutes...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815443/human-b-1-and-b-2-b-cells-develop-from-lin-cd34-cd38lo-stem-cells
#19
Tâm D Quách, Thomas J Hopkins, Nichol E Holodick, Raja Vuyyuru, Tim Manser, Ruthee-Lu Bayer, Thomas L Rothstein
The B-1 B cell population is an important bridge between innate and adaptive immunity primarily because B-1 cells produce natural Ab. Murine B-1 and B-2 cells arise from distinct progenitors; however, in humans, in part because it has been difficult to discriminate between them phenotypically, efforts to pinpoint the developmental origins of human B-1 and B-2 cells have lagged. To characterize progenitors of human B-1 and B-2 cells, we separated cord blood and bone marrow Lin(-)CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells into Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(lo) and Lin(-)CD34(+)CD38(hi) populations...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812646/one-year-after-the-zika-virus-outbreak-in-brazil-from-hypotheses-to-evidence
#20
Carlos Alexandre Antunes de Brito, Marli Tenorio Cordeiro
Zika virusis an arbovirus of the Flaviviridae family with two major strains, an Asian and an African strain. The main vectors involved in the transmission of Zika virus are the Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. Despite its identification, discovered in 1947 in the Zika forest in Uganda, only isolated and sporadic occurrences of human infection were reported within a largely asymptomatic proportion of individuals. The first reported outbreak occurred in 2007 in the Yap Island, which belongs to the Federated States of Micronesia in the Pacific Ocean, and in French Polynesia, where high attack rates occurred and the first cases of associated Guillain-Barré syndrome were reported...
September 2016: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
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