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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747658/a-single-amino-acid-substitution-confers-b-cell-clonogenic-activity-to-the-hiv-1-matrix-protein-p17
#1
Cinzia Giagulli, Pasqualina D'Ursi, Wangxiao He, Simone Zorzan, Francesca Caccuri, Kristen Varney, Alessandro Orro, Stefania Marsico, Benoît Otjacques, Carlo Laudanna, Luciano Milanesi, Riccardo Dolcetti, Simona Fiorentini, Wuyuan Lu, Arnaldo Caruso
Recent data highlight the presence, in HIV-1-seropositive patients with lymphoma, of p17 variants (vp17s) endowed with B-cell clonogenicity, suggesting a role of vp17s in lymphomagenesis. We investigated the mechanisms responsible for the functional disparity on B cells between a wild-type p17 (refp17) and a vp17 named S75X. Here, we show that a single Arginine (R) to Glycine (G) mutation at position 76 in the refp17 backbone (p17R76G), as in the S75X variant, is per se sufficient to confer a B-cell clonogenic potential to the viral protein and modulate, through activation of the PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, different molecules involved in apoptosis inhibition (CASP-9, CASP-7, DFF-45, NPM, YWHAZ, Src, PAX2, MAPK8), cell cycle promotion and cancer progression (CDK1, CDK2, CDK8, CHEK1, CHEK2, GSK-3 beta, NPM, PAK1, PP2C-alpha)...
July 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729440/the-transcription-factor-foxg1-promotes-optic-fissure-closure-in-the-mouse-by-suppressing-wnt8b-in-the-nasal-optic-stalk
#2
Rowena Smith, Yu-Ting Huang, Tian Tian, Dominika Vojtasova, Oscar Mesalles-Naranjo, Steven M Pollard, Thomas Pratt, David J Price, Vassiliki Fotaki
During vertebrate eye morphogenesis a transient fissure forms at its inferior part, known as the optic fissure. This will gradually close giving rise to a healthy, spherical optic cup. Failure of the optic fissure to close gives rise to an ocular disorder known as coloboma. During this developmental process Foxg1 is expressed in the optic neuroepithelium, with highest levels of expression in the nasal optic stalk. Foxg1-/- mutant mice have microphthalmic eyes with a large ventral coloboma. We found Wnt8b expression upregulated in the Foxg1-/- optic stalk and hypothesized that, similar to what is observed in telencephalic development, Foxg1 directs development of the optic neuroepithelium through transcriptional suppression of Wnt8b To test this, we generated Foxg1-/-;Wnt8b-/- double mutants of either sex and found that the morphology of the optic cup and stalk and the closure of the optic fissure were substantially rescued in these embryos...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710480/brain-regionalization-genes-are-co-opted-into-shell-field-patterning-in-mollusca
#3
Tim Wollesen, Maik Scherholz, Sonia Victoria Rodríguez Monje, Emanuel Redl, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
The 'brain regionalization genes' Six3/6, Otx, Pax2/5/8, Gbx, and Hox1 are expressed in a similar fashion in the deuterostome, ecdysozoan, and the cephalopod brain, questioning whether this holds also true for the remaining Mollusca. We investigated developmental Gbx-expression in representatives of both molluscan sister groups, the Aculifera and Conchifera. Gbx is expressed in the posterior central nervous system of an aculiferan polyplacophoran and solenogaster but not in a conchiferan bivalve suggesting that Gbx, together with Six3/6, Otx, Pax2/5/8, and Hox1, is involved in central nervous system regionalization as reported for other bilaterians...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674456/pax2-is-dispensable-for-in-vitro-nephron-formation-from-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#4
Yusuke Kaku, Atsuhiro Taguchi, Shunsuke Tanigawa, Fahim Haque, Tetsushi Sakuma, Takashi Yamamoto, Ryuichi Nishinakamura
The kidney is formed by reciprocal interactions between the nephron progenitor and the ureteric bud, the former of which gives rise to the epithelia of nephrons consisting of glomeruli and renal tubules. The transcription factor PAX2 is essential for this mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition of nephron progenitors, as well as ureteric bud lineage development, in mice. PAX2 mutations in humans cause renal coloboma syndrome. We previously reported the induction of nephron progenitors and three-dimensional nephron structures from human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells...
July 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635231/-comparison-of-paired-box-genes-8-and-2-expression-in-epithelium-tissues-and-the-related-tumors
#5
Y Song, X Huang, G H Shen, X Y Liu, X Zhang
Objective: To explore the expressional differences between paired box genes 2(Pax2) and 8 (Pax8) protein in different kinds of epitheliums and tumors, and to investigate the clinicopathologic significance. Methods: Expression levels of Pax2 and Pax8 protein were detected in 75 cases of different human epithelium tissues and 255 cases of different tumors on tissue microarray by immunohistochemistry. Results: Pax2 and Pax8 selectively expressed in different tissues. The positive rates of Pax8 protein expressed in the normal epithelium of the thyroid, urinary system and female reproductive system were 100% (2/2), 60...
June 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631711/-expansion-of-secretory-cells-in-the-fallopian-tubal-epithelium-in-the-early-stages-of-the-pathogenesis-of-ovarian-serous-carcinomas
#6
A V Asaturova, L S Ezhova, N M Faizullina, L V Adamyan, G N Khabas, M V Sannikova
AIM: to investigate the frequency of the types of fallopian tubal secretory cell expansion (SCE) in diseases of the reproductive organs and to determine the immunophenotype and biological role of the cells in the early stages of the pathogenesis of high-grade ovarian serous carcinomas (HGOSC). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The investigation enrolled 287 patients with extraovarian diseases and ovarian serous tumors varying in grade, whose fallopian tubes were morphologically and immunohistochemically examined using p53, Ki-67, PAX2, Bcl-2, beta-catenin, and ALDH1 markers...
2017: Arkhiv Patologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615245/the-regulatory-1%C3%AE-subunit-of-protein-kinase-a-modulates-renal-cystogenesis
#7
Hong Ye, Xiaofang Wang, Megan M Constans, Caroline R Sussman, Fouad Chebib, Maria V Irazabal, William F Young, Peter C Harris, Lawrence S Kirschner, Vicente E Torres
The failure of the polycystins (PCs) to function in primary cilia is thought to be responsible for Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease (ADPKD). Primary cilia integrate multiple cellular signaling pathways, including calcium, cAMP, Wnt, and Hedgehog, which control cell proliferation and differentiation. It has been proposed that mutated PCs result in reduced intracellular calcium, which in turn upregulates cAMP, protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, and subsequently other proliferative signaling pathways...
June 14, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603275/development-pax2-keeps-nephron-progenitors-on-track
#8
Andrea Aguilar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600055/recurrent-female-adnexal-tumor-of-probably-wolffian-origin-a-case-report
#9
Tian Qiu, Yincheng Teng, Jianqian Tong, Wenqi Tao, Liang Xu
OBJECTIVE: Wolffian adnexal tumors (WATs) are rare, and metastasis is uncommon. We present the case of a 53-year-old female with a recurrent WAT. CASE REPORT: The patient presented with abdominal distension, and ultrasound revealed heterogeneous echoes (130 × 93 × 116 mm(3)) around the uterus and ascites. Her cancer antigen 125 (CA125) and CA19-9 levels were elevated. Hysterectomy, bilateral oophorectomy, and tumor resection were performed. The histopathological diagnosis was a WAT...
June 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576690/complement-component-c3ar-constitutes-a-novel-regulator-for-chick-eye-morphogenesis
#10
Erika Grajales-Esquivel, Agustin Luz-Madrigal, Jeffrey Bierly, Tracy Haynes, Edimara S Reis, Zeyu Han, Christian Gutierrez, Zachary McKinney, Apostolia Tzekou, John D Lambris, Panagiotis A Tsonis, Katia Del Rio-Tsonis
Complement components have been implicated in a wide variety of functions including neurogenesis, proliferation, cell migration, differentiation, cancer, and more recently early development and regeneration. Following our initial observations indicating that C3a/C3aR signaling induces chick retina regeneration, we analyzed its role in chick eye morphogenesis. During eye development, the optic vesicle (OV) invaginates to generate a bilayer optic cup (OC) that gives rise to the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina...
August 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562601/multifunctional-glial-support-by-semper-cells-in-the-drosophila-retina
#11
Mark A Charlton-Perkins, Edward D Sendler, Elke K Buschbeck, Tiffany A Cook
Glial cells play structural and functional roles central to the formation, activity and integrity of neurons throughout the nervous system. In the retina of vertebrates, the high energetic demand of photoreceptors is sustained in part by Müller glia, an intrinsic, atypical radial glia with features common to many glial subtypes. Accessory and support glial cells also exist in invertebrates, but which cells play this function in the insect retina is largely undefined. Using cell-restricted transcriptome analysis, here we show that the ommatidial cone cells (aka Semper cells) in the Drosophila compound eye are enriched for glial regulators and effectors, including signature characteristics of the vertebrate visual system...
May 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535371/repression-of-interstitial-identity-in-nephron-progenitor-cells-by-pax2-establishes-the-nephron-interstitium-boundary-during-kidney-development
#12
Natalie Naiman, Kaoru Fujioka, Mari Fujino, M Todd Valerius, S Steven Potter, Andrew P McMahon, Akio Kobayashi
The kidney contains the functional units, the nephrons, surrounded by the renal interstitium. Previously we discovered that, once Six2-expressing nephron progenitor cells and Foxd1-expressing renal interstitial progenitor cells form at the onset of kidney development, descendant cells from these populations contribute exclusively to the main body of nephrons and renal interstitial tissues, respectively, indicating a lineage boundary between the nephron and renal interstitial compartments. Currently it is unclear how lineages are regulated during kidney organogenesis...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535367/pax2-a-keep-to-the-path-sign-on-waddington-s-epigenetic-landscape
#13
Jamie Davies
Developing kidneys have Foxd1(+) stromogenic stem cells and [Six2(+), Pax2(+)] nephrogenic stem cells. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Naiman et al. (2017) show that targeted Pax2 deletion converts nephrogenic cells to the stromogenic path, suggesting that Pax2 normally represses an otherwise inevitable transition between sister lineages.
May 22, 2017: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521150/the-effects-of-copper-oxide-nanoparticles-on-dorsoventral-patterning-convergent-extension-and-neural-and-cardiac-development-of-zebrafish
#14
Jia Xu, Qiuping Zhang, Xu Li, Sihui Zhan, Lifeng Wang, Dongyan Chen
Currently, nanoparticles are widely used in biomedicine and industry. CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) are versatile materials in our daily life and their toxicity has drawn extensive attention. In this study, we concentrate on the effect of CuO-NPs on early zebrafish development. The results reveal that CuO-NPs can induce abnormal phenotypes of a smaller head and eyes and delayed epiboly. The gene expression pattern shows that CuO-NPs spatially narrow the expression of dorsal genes chordin and goosecoid and alter the expression of dlx3, ntl and hgg which are related to the cell migration of gastrulation...
May 4, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450830/spiral-ganglion-neuron-projection-development-to-the-hindbrain-in-mice-lacking-peripheral-and-or-central-target-differentiation
#15
Karen L Elliott, Jennifer Kersigo, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Bernd Fritzsch
We investigate the importance of the degree of peripheral or central target differentiation for mouse auditory afferent navigation to the organ of Corti and auditory nuclei in three different mouse models: first, a mouse in which the differentiation of hair cells, but not central auditory nuclei neurons is compromised (Atoh1-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ); second, a mouse in which hair cell defects are combined with a delayed defect in central auditory nuclei neurons (Pax2-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ), and third, a mouse in which both hair cells and central auditory nuclei are absent (Atoh1(-/-))...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427856/frizzled-3-acts-upstream-of-alcam-during-embryonic-eye-development
#16
Franziska A Seigfried, Wiebke Cizelsky, Astrid S Pfister, Petra Dietmann, Paul Walther, Michael Kühl, Susanne J Kühl
Formation of a functional eye during vertebrate embryogenesis requires different processes such as cell differentiation, cell migration, cell-cell interactions as well as intracellular signalling processes. It was previously shown that the non-canonical Wnt receptor Frizzled 3 (Fzd3) is required for proper eye formation, however, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that loss of Fzd3 induces severe malformations of the developing eye and that this defect is phenocopied by loss of the activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (Alcam)...
April 17, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426529/diagnostic-utility-of-pax8-pax2-and-ngfr-immunohistochemical-expression-in-pediatric-renal-tumors
#17
Nicoleta C Arva, Jeffrey Bonadio, Elizabeth J Perlman, Mariana M Cajaiba
Pediatric renal tumors (PRT) with small round blue or spindle cell morphology can be diagnostically challenging and only a limited number of immunohistochemical markers have been documented to help in the diagnosis: paired box (Pax) 2 and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) positivity have been demonstrated in Wilms tumor (WT) and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK), respectively. However, the immunohistochemical expression of these markers in other PRT remains unknown. This study investigated Pax8, Pax2, and NGFR immunophenotype in a large series of PRT...
April 19, 2017: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412963/posttranslationally-modified-progesterone-receptors-direct-ligand-specific-expression-of-breast-cancer-stem-cell-associated-gene-programs
#18
Todd P Knutson, Thu H Truong, Shihong Ma, Nicholas J Brady, Megan E Sullivan, Ganesh Raj, Kathryn L Schwertfeger, Carol A Lange
BACKGROUND: Estrogen and progesterone are potent breast mitogens. In addition to steroid hormones, multiple signaling pathways input to estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) actions via posttranslational events. Protein kinases commonly activated in breast cancers phosphorylate steroid hormone receptors (SRs) and profoundly impact their activities. METHODS: To better understand the role of modified PRs in breast cancer, we measured total and phospho-Ser294 PRs in 209 human breast tumors represented on 2754 individual tissue spots within a tissue microarray and assayed the regulation of this site in human tumor explants cultured ex vivo...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315934/gas1-expression-in-parietal-cells-of-bowman-s-capsule-in-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy
#19
Brenda I Luna-Antonio, Rafael Rodriguez-Muñoz, Carmen Namorado-Tonix, Paula Vergara, Jose Segovia, Jose L Reyes
Gas1 (Growth Arrest-Specific 1) is a pleiotropic protein with novel functions including anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activities. In the kidney, the expression of Gas1 has been described in mesangial cells. In this study, we described that renal parietal cells of Bowman's capsule (BC) and the distal nephron cells also express Gas1. The role of Gas1 in the kidney is not yet known. There is a subpopulation of progenitor cells in Bowman's capsule with self-renewal properties which can eventually differentiate into podocytes as a possible mechanism of regeneration in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy...
March 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302062/ancestral-and-novel-roles-of-pax-family-genes-in-mollusks
#20
Maik Scherholz, Emanuel Redl, Tim Wollesen, André Luiz de Oliveira, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are transcription factors with significant roles in cell fate specification and tissue differentiation during animal ontogeny. Most information on their tempo-spatial mode of expression is available from well-studied model organisms where the Pax-subfamilies Pax2/5/8, Pax6, and Paxα/β are mainly involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), the eyes, and other sensory organs. In certain taxa, Pax2/5/8 seems to be additionally involved in the development of excretion organs...
March 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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