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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741967/omega-3-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-kidney-injury-of-female-rats-and-renal-programming-of-their-offsprings
#1
Asmaa Mohammed Shamseldeen, Mohammed Ali Eshra, Laila Ahmed Rashed, Marwa Fathy Amer, Amal Elham Fares, Samaa Samir Kamar
CONTEXT: Maternal diet composition could influence fetal organogenesis. OBJECTIVE: We investigated effects of high fat diet (HFD) intake alone or combined with omega 3 during pregnancy, lactation and early days of weaning on nephrogenesis of pups and maternal renal function and morphology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Mothers and their pups included in each group were supplied with the same diet composition. Rats were divided into group I, II and III supplied with chow of either 10 kcal%, 45 kcal% or 45 kcal% from fat together with omega-3 respectively...
May 9, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685496/are-pax-proteins-potential-therapeutic-targets-in-kidney-disease-and-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Edward Grimley, Gregory R Dressler
Pax genes encode developmental regulators that are expressed in a variety of tissues and control critical events in morphogenesis. In the kidney, Pax2 and Pax8 are expressed in embryonic development and in specific renal diseases associated with aberrant epithelial cell proliferation. Prior genetic and cell biological studies suggest that reducing the activity of Pax proteins in renal cancer or in polycystic kidney disease can slow the progression of these conditions. The Pax proteins may be critical for providing tissue and locus specificity to recruit epigenetic modifiers that control gene expression and chromatin structure...
April 20, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671694/risk-allele-of-gene-variant-rs6584389-is-associated-with-increased-intima-media-thickness-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#3
Miriam Kozarova, Zuzana Malachovska, Jozef Zidzik, Martin Javorsky, Katarina Demkova, Viera Habalova, Ivan Tkac
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies identified several gene variants associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Among them, rs6584389 A>C was significantly associated with PAD defined by decreased ankle-brachial index (ABI). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the rs6584389 variant is also associated with the earlier stages of atherosclerosis assessed by intima-media thickness (IMT) or pulse-wave velocity (PWV) in clinically asymptomatic subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), a group of patients with a high cardiovascular risk...
April 19, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649411/the-in-vitro-differentiation-of-gdnf-gene-engineered-amniotic-fluid-derived-stem-cells-into-renal-tubular-epithelial-like-cells
#4
Ying Lu, Zhuojun Wang, Lu Chen, Jia Wang, Shulin Li, Caixia Liu, Dong Sun
Amniotic fluid is an alternative source of stem cells, and human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSCs) obtained from a small amount of amniotic fluid collected during the second trimester represent a novel source for use in regenerative medicine. These AFSCs are characterized by lower diversity, a higher proliferation rate and a wider differentiation capability than adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). AFSCs are selected based on the cell surface marker c-kit receptor (CD117) using immunomagnetic sorting...
March 15, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629948/pax8-expression-variability-in-cerebellar-hemangioblastoma-case-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Daniel G Eichberg, Simon Buttrick, Kyle White, Sakir H Gultekin, Ricardo J Komotar
Hemangioblastomas are benign tumors of undetermined origin, and account for up to 2.5% of all intracranial tumors. They may occur either sporadically or as a manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) syndrome. Central nervous system (CNS) hemangioblastomas are pathologically diagnosed by gross and microscopic morphology, with further support of the diagnosis conferred by a characteristic immunohistochemistry profile including PAX8 negativity. Although renal hemangioblastomas have previously been reported to be PAX8 positive, CNS hemangioblastoma positive PAX8 expression has never been reported...
April 7, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620584/endometrial-carcinoma-with-an-unusual-morphology-in-a-patient-with-cornelia-de-lange-syndrome-a-case-study
#6
Keisei Tate, Hiroshi Yoshida, Mitsuya Ishikawa, Hanako Shimizu, Takashi Uehara, Tomoyasu Kato
Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is a cohesinopathy, which is characterized by multiple structural anomalies as well as mental and growth retardation. A 36-yr-old nulliparous woman with oligomenorrhea was referred to us due to a mass in the uterine corpus. She had been clinically diagnosed with CdLS during infancy based on her specific facial features as well as growth and intellectual retardation. Imaging examinations and an endometrial biopsy revealed endometrial endometrioid carcinoma and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)...
April 3, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29617378/degenerate-pax2-and-senseless-binding-motifs-improve-detection-of-low-affinity-sites-required-for-enhancer-specificity
#7
Arya Zandvakili, Ian Campbell, Lisa M Gutzwiller, Matthew T Weirauch, Brian Gebelein
Cells use thousands of regulatory sequences to recruit transcription factors (TFs) and produce specific transcriptional outcomes. Since TFs bind degenerate DNA sequences, discriminating functional TF binding sites (TFBSs) from background sequences represents a significant challenge. Here, we show that a Drosophila regulatory element that activates Epidermal Growth Factor signaling requires overlapping, low-affinity TFBSs for competing TFs (Pax2 and Senseless) to ensure cell- and segment-specific activity. Testing available TF binding models for Pax2 and Senseless, however, revealed variable accuracy in predicting such low-affinity TFBSs...
April 4, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534701/recommendations-for-mrna-analysis-of-micro-dissected-glomerular-tufts-from-paraffin-embedded-human-kidney-biopsy-samples
#8
Clemens L Bockmeyer, Juliane Wittig, Karen Säuberlich, Philipp Selhausen, Marc Eßer, Philip Zeuschner, Friedrich Modde, Kerstin Amann, Christoph Daniel
BACKGROUND: Glomeruli are excellent pre-determined natural structures for laser micro-dissection. Compartment-specific glomerular gene expression analysis of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded renal biopsies could improve research applications. The major challenge for such studies is to obtain good-quality RNA from small amounts of starting material, as applicable for the analysis of glomerular compartments. In this work, we provide data and recommendations for an optimized workflow of glomerular mRNA analysis...
March 13, 2018: BMC Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483821/disruption-of-gen1-causes-congenital-anomalies-of-the-kidney-and-urinary-tract-in-mice
#9
Herui Wang, Chi Zhang, Xiaowen Wang, Yaru Lian, Bin Guo, Miao Han, Xiaoe Zhang, Xiaoting Zhu, Sixian Xu, Zengli Guo, Yunli Bi, Qian Shen, Xiang Wang, Jiaojiao Liu, Yuan Zhuang, Ting Ni, Hong Xu, Xiaohui Wu
Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) are among the most common developmental defects in humans. Despite of several known CAKUT-related loci ( HNF1B , PAX2 , EYA1 , etc.), the genetic etiology of CAKUT remains to be elucidated for most patients. In this study, we report that disruption of the Holliday Junction resolvase gene Gen1 leads to renal agenesis, duplex kidney, hydronephrosis, and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in mice. GEN1 interacts with SIX1 and enhances the transcriptional activity of SIX1/EYA1, a key regulatory complex of the GDNF morphogen...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459480/occupational-exposure-to-pesticides-is-associated-with-differential-dna-methylation
#10
Diana A van der Plaat, Kim de Jong, Maaike de Vries, Cleo C van Diemen, Ivana Nedeljković, Najaf Amin, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, Dirkje S Postma, Cornelia M van Duijn, H Marike Boezen, Judith M Vonk
OBJECTIVES: Occupational pesticide exposure is associated with a wide range of diseases, including lung diseases, but it is largely unknown how pesticides influence airway disease pathogenesis. A potential mechanism might be through epigenetic mechanisms, like DNA methylation. Therefore, we assessed associations between occupational exposure to pesticides and genome-wide DNA methylation sites. METHODS: 1561 subjects of LifeLines were included with either no (n=1392), low (n=108) or high (n=61) exposure to any type of pesticides (estimated based on current or last held job)...
February 19, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449000/an-immunohistochemical-and-molecular-analysis-of-papillary-proliferation-of-the-endometrium
#11
Colin J R Stewart, Susan Bigby, Tino Giardina, Fabienne Grieu-Iacopetta, Benhur Amanuel
Papillary proliferations of the endometrium (PPEs) are uncommon lesions that are often associated with endometrial polyps. PPEs occasionally precede or co-exist with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma, but their pathogenesis and relationship to endometrial neoplasia is uncertain. In the present study 11 PPEs, including eight benign papillary proliferations (BPPs) and three complex papillary hyperplasias (CPHs) were examined immunohistochemically for expression of PAX2, BAF250a, p16, β-catenin and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins...
April 2018: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437173/human-brain-organoid-on-a-chip-to-model-prenatal-nicotine-exposure
#12
Yaqing Wang, Li Wang, Yujuan Zhu, Jianhua Qin
Nicotine has been recognized to trigger various neuronal disabilities in the fetal brain and long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, further understanding of fetal brain development under nicotine exposure is challenging due to the limitations of existing animal models. Here, we create a new brain organoid-on-a-chip system derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) that allows us to model neurodevelopmental disorders under prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) at early stages. The brain organoid-on-a-chip system facilitates 3D culture, in situ neural differentiation, and self-organization of brain organoids under continuous perfused cultures in a controlled manner...
March 13, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377931/transcriptional-regulatory-control-of-mammalian-nephron-progenitors-revealed-by-multi-factor-cistromic-analysis-and-genetic-studies
#13
Lori L O'Brien, Qiuyu Guo, Emad Bahrami-Samani, Joo-Seop Park, Sean M Hasso, Young-Jin Lee, Alan Fang, Albert D Kim, Jinjin Guo, Trudy M Hong, Kevin A Peterson, Scott Lozanoff, Ramya Raviram, Bing Ren, Ben Fogelgren, Andrew D Smith, Anton Valouev, Andrew P McMahon
Nephron progenitor number determines nephron endowment; a reduced nephron count is linked to the onset of kidney disease. Several transcriptional regulators including Six2, Wt1, Osr1, Sall1, Eya1, Pax2, and Hox11 paralogues are required for specification and/or maintenance of nephron progenitors. However, little is known about the regulatory intersection of these players. Here, we have mapped nephron progenitor-specific transcriptional networks of Six2, Hoxd11, Osr1, and Wt1. We identified 373 multi-factor associated 'regulatory hotspots' around genes closely associated with progenitor programs...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372472/detection-of-copy-number-variations-by-pair-analysis-using-next-generation-sequencing-data-in-inherited-kidney-diseases
#14
China Nagano, Kandai Nozu, Naoya Morisada, Masahiko Yazawa, Daisuke Ichikawa, Keita Numasawa, Hiroyo Kourakata, Chieko Matsumura, Satoshi Tazoe, Ryojiro Tanaka, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Tomoko Horinouchi, Keita Nakanishi, Junya Fujimura, Nana Sakakibara, Yoshimi Nozu, Ming Juan Ye, Hiroshi Kaito, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Comprehensive genetic approaches for diagnosing inherited kidney diseases using next-generation sequencing (NGS) have recently been established. However, even with these approaches, we are still failing to detect gene defects in some patients who appear to suffer from genetic diseases. One of the reasons for this is the difficulty of detecting copy number variations (CNVs) using our current approaches. For such cases, we can apply methods of array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) or multiplex ligation and probe amplification (MLPA); however, these are expensive and laborious and also often fail to identify CNVs...
January 25, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370269/the-histone-demethylase-lsd1-regulates-inner-ear-progenitor-differentiation-through-interactions-with-pax2-and-the-nurd-repressor-complex
#15
Dharmeshkumar Patel, Atsushi Shimomura, Sreeparna Majumdar, Matthew C Holley, Eri Hashino
The histone demethylase LSD1 plays a pivotal role in cellular differentiation, particularly in silencing lineage-specific genes. However, little is known about how LSD1 regulates neurosensory differentiation in the inner ear. Here we show that LSD1 interacts directly with the transcription factor Pax2 to form the NuRD co-repressor complex at the Pax2 target gene loci in a mouse otic neuronal progenitor cell line (VOT-N33). VOT-N33 cells expressing a Pax2-response element reporter were GFP-negative when untreated, but became GFP positive after forced differentiation or treatment with a potent LSD inhibitor...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357419/modulation-of-apol1-mir193a-axis-prevents-podocyte-dediffrentiation-in-high-glucose-milieu
#16
Abheepsa Mishra, Kamesh Ayasolla, Vinod Kumar, Xiqian Lan, Himanshu Vashistha, Rukhsana Aslam, Ali Hussain, Sheetal Chowdhary, Shadafarin Marashi Shoshtari, Nitpriya Paliwal, Waldemar Popik, Moin A Saleem, Ashwani Malhotra, Leonard G Meggs, Karl Skorecki, Pravin C Singhal
The loss of podocyte (PD) molecular phenotype is an important feature of diabetic podocytopathy. We hypothesized that high glucose (HG) induces dedifferentiation in differentiated podocytes (DPD) through alterations in APOL1-microRNA (miR) 193a axis. HG-induced DPDs dedifferentiation manifested in the form of down regulation of WT1 and upregulation of PAX2 expression. WT1- silenced DPDs displayed enhanced expression of PAX2. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of DPD cellular lysates with anti-WT1 antibody revealed formation of WT1 repressor complexes containing Polycomb group proteins (PcG), EZH2, Menin, and DNA methyl transferase (DNMT1), whereas, silencing of either WT1 or DNMT1 disrupted this complex with enhanced expression of PAX2...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350886/the-cell-biology-and-molecular-genetics-of-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-development
#17
REVIEW
Zahida Yesmin Roly, Brendan Backhouse, Andrew Cutting, Tiong Yang Tan, Andrew H Sinclair, Katie L Ayers, Andrew T Major, Craig A Smith
The Müllerian ducts are part of the embryonic urogenital system. They give rise to mature structures that serve a critical function in the transport and development of the oocyte and/or embryo. In most vertebrates, both sexes initially develop Müllerian ducts during embryogenesis, but they regress in males under the influence of testis-derived Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH). A number of regulatory factors have been shown to be essential for proper duct development, including Bmp and Wnt signaling molecules, together with homeodomain transcription factors such as PAX2 and LIM1...
May 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339962/three-new-pax2-gene-mutations-in-patients-with-papillorenal-syndrome
#18
Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, Anthony J Lehner, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Patrik Schatz
Papillorenal syndrome (PAPRS; Mendelian Inheritance in Man [MIM] 120330) is an autosomal dominant disease characterised by the presence of congenital renal and optic nerve abnormalities associated with mutations of the PAX2 gene. In this article, the authors present four patients with PAPRS who are carriers of three new PAX2 mutations, as well as another patient with a possible non-pathogenic variant of the PAX2 gene. All patients were given a full neurophthalmological examination, and all patients underwent a genetic test for PAX2 ...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339104/region-specific-innate-antiviral-responses-of-the-human-epididymis
#19
James A Browne, Shih-Hsing Leir, Scott E Eggener, Ann Harris
Viral infections of the epididymis are associated with epididymitis, which damages the epithelium and impairs fertility. We showed previously that innate immune response genes were differentially expressed in the corpus and cauda region of the human epididymis in comparison to the caput. Here we investigate the antiviral defense response mechanisms of human epididymis epithelial (HEE) cells. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) are enriched in HEE cells from the corpus and cauda region...
January 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324767/glass-promotes-the-differentiation-of-neuronal-and-non-neuronal-cell-types-in-the-drosophila-eye
#20
Carolyn A Morrison, Hao Chen, Tiffany Cook, Stuart Brown, Jessica E Treisman
Transcriptional regulators can specify different cell types from a pool of equivalent progenitors by activating distinct developmental programs. The Glass transcription factor is expressed in all progenitors in the developing Drosophila eye, and is maintained in both neuronal and non-neuronal cell types. Glass is required for neuronal progenitors to differentiate as photoreceptors, but its role in non-neuronal cone and pigment cells is unknown. To determine whether Glass activity is limited to neuronal lineages, we compared the effects of misexpressing it in neuroblasts of the larval brain and in epithelial cells of the wing disc...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
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