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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902570/preprotachykinin-a-ppta-is-expressed-by-a-distinct-population-of-excitatory-neurons-in-the-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-including-cells-that-respond-to-noxious-and-pruritic-stimuli
#1
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Andrew M Bell, Alina Marin, Rebecca Taylor, Kieran A Boyle, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Erika Polgár, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined three non-overlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B (NKB) and gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP). Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P...
November 25, 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896618/loss-of-liver-kinase-b1-causes-planar-polarity-defects-in-cochlear-hair-cells-in-mice
#2
Yuqin Men, Aizhen Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yecheng Jin, Zhishuo Wang, Jing Zhao, Xiaolin Yu, Jian Zhang, Jiangang Gao
The tumor suppressor gene liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also called STK11, encodes a serine/threonine kinase. LKB1 plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and polarity. In this study, LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice) were generated using Pax2-Cre mice to investigate the function of LKB1 in inner ear hair cells during early embryonic period. LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice died perinatally. Immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed that stereociliary bundles in LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice were clustered and misoriented, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#3
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875264/expression-of-wnt4-5-during-reproductive-cycle-of-catfish-and-wnt5-promoter-analysis
#4
Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
Signaling molecules, Wnt4 and Wnt5, are essential for ovarian growth during developmental stages in mammals. Although these molecules were identified in several teleosts, their precise expression and role in reproductive processes have not yet been explored in any lower vertebrates. In view of this, using catfish, Clarias batrachus as an animal model, cloning and expression analysis of wnt4 and wnt5 were analyzed in different tissues, at various developmental stages, during ovarian reproductive cycle and after gonadotropin induction...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783222/development-of-putative-inhibitory-neurons-in-the-embryonic-and-postnatal-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn
#5
Anita Balázs, Zoltán Mészár, Krisztina Hegedűs, Annamária Kenyeres, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Miklós Antal
The superficial spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station of pain processing. It is also widely accepted that spinal synaptic processing to control the modality and intensity of pain signals transmitted to higher brain centers is primarily defined by inhibitory neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Earlier studies suggest that the construction of pain processing spinal neural circuits including the GABAergic components should be completed by birth, although major chemical refinements may occur postnatally...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764784/dna-methylation-promotes-paired-box-2-expression-via-myeloid-zinc-finger-1-in-endometrial-cancer
#6
Jia Nan, Wang Jieyu, Li Qing, Tao Xiang, Chang Kaikai, Hua Keqin, Yu Yinhua, Wong Kwong-Kwok, Feng Weiwei
This work investigated the role of paired box 2 (PAX2) in endometrial cancer and its epigenetic regulation mechanism. Endometrial cancer tissues and cell lines exhibited increased PAX2 expression compared with hyperplasia, normal endometrium and endometrial epithelial cells. Knock-down of PAX2 resulted in reduced cell viability, invasion and migration, and PAX2 overexpression caused the opposite effects. Increased methylation of the PAX2 promoter was observed in both cancer tissues and cell lines and was positively correlated with PAX2 expression...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756766/involvement-of-pax2-in-ovarian-development-and-recrudescence-of-catfish-a-role-in-steroidogenesis
#7
Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
PAX2, a member of paired box family, is an essential transcription factor for the organ development in vertebrates including teleosts, yet no evidence has been shown for its involvement in reproduction. To study this, partial- and/or full-length cDNA of pax2 was isolated from the ovary of catfish, Clarias batrachus, along with its other Pax family members, pax1 and pax9 Tissue distribution and ontogeny expression analysis indicated the prevalence of pax2 but not pax1 and pax9 in ovary. Varied phase-wise expression during ovarian cycle and elevation of pax2 after human chorionic gonadotropin induction showed probable regulation by gonadotropins...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733182/an-xp11-2-translocation-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-smarcb1-ini1-inactivation-in-adult-end-stage-renal-disease-a-case-report
#8
Lu Yu, Jun Li, Sanpeng Xu, Mariajose Navia Miranda, Guoping Wang, Yaqi Duan
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722936/genetic-association-between-pax2-and-mullerian-duct-anomalies-in-han-chinese-females
#9
Zuying Xu, Shinan Wu, Qiong Xing, Xi Wang, Huifen Xiang, Yuping Xu, Jing Wang, Xiaojin He, Binbin Wang, Yunxia Cao
PURPOSE: The study aims to investigate the genetic association between paired box gene 2 (PAX2) and mullerian duct anomalies (MDA) in Chinese Han females. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify the genotypes of three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAX2 in 362 MDA cases and 406 controls. RESULTS: We found that one tag SNP (rs12266644) of PAX2 was associated with susceptibility to MDA...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703192/gdf11-improves-tubular-regeneration-after-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-mice
#10
Ying Zhang, Qinggang Li, Dong Liu, Qi Huang, Guangyan Cai, Shaoyuan Cui, Xuefeng Sun, Xiangmei Chen
The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics. In our study, GDF11/8 expression increased after kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and the relatively lower level of GDF11/8 in the kidneys of aged mice was associated with a loss of proliferative capacity and a decline in renal repair, compared to young mice. In vivo, GDF11 supplementation in aged mice increased vimentin and Pax2 expression in the kidneys as well as the percentage of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634879/large-variety-in-a-panel-of-human-colon-cancer-organoids-in-response-to-ezh2-inhibition
#11
Martijn Aj Koppens, Gergana Bounova, Paulien Cornelissen-Steijger, Nienke de Vries, Owen J Sansom, Lodewyk Fa Wessels, Maarten van Lohuizen
EZH2 inhibitors have gained great interest for their use as anti-cancer therapeutics. However, most research has focused on EZH2 mutant cancers and recently adverse effects of EZH2 inactivation have come to light. To determine whether colorectal cancer cells respond to EZH2 inhibition and to explore which factors influence the degree of response, we treated a panel of 20 organoid lines derived from human colon tumors with different concentrations of the EZH2 inhibitor GSK126. The resulting responses were associated with mutation status, gene expression and responses to other drugs...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27633911/ossifying-renal-tumor-of-infancy-orit-the-clinicopathological-and-cytogenetic-feature-of-two-cases-and-literature-review
#12
Wenbin Guan, Yu Yan, Wenguang He, Meng Qiao, Yi Liu, Yanhua Wang, Bo Jiang, Wenwei Yu, Ruifen Wang, Lifeng Wang
Ossifying renal tumor of infancy (ORTI) is a rare benign pediatric renal tumor, which has typical clinical and pathological features. In this article, the histological features, immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay of two cases of ORTI were performed and the literatures were reviewed. Both of the patients presented to hospital with painless gross hematuria without other symptoms. One is 6 months old male, another is 5-month-old. After several diagnostic procedures, they underwent surgery and the histological diagnosis of ORTI was finally made...
November 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27622074/carcinogenesis-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-reflected-in-hla-ligands-a-novel-approach-for-synergistic-peptide-vaccination-design
#13
Martin G Klatt, Daniel J Kowalewski, Heiko Schuster, Moreno Di Marco, Jörg Hennenlotter, Arnulf Stenzl, Hans-Georg Rammensee, Stefan Stevanović
Despite recent advances in immunotherapy of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), peptide vaccination strategies still lack an approach for personalized peptide vaccination that takes intra- and inter-tumoral heterogeneity and biological characteristics into account. In this study, we use an immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry-based approach supplemented by network analysis of HLA ligands to target this goal. By analyzing HLA-presented peptides for HLA class I and II of 11 malignant and 6 non-malignant kidney tissue samples, more than 2,700 peptides and 1,600 corresponding source proteins were identified...
August 2016: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27607106/modulation-of-wnt-signaling-enhances-inner-ear-organoid-development-in-3d-culture
#14
Rachel E DeJonge, Xiao-Ping Liu, Christopher R Deig, Stefan Heller, Karl R Koehler, Eri Hashino
Stem cell-derived inner ear sensory epithelia are a promising source of tissues for treating patients with hearing loss and dizziness. We recently demonstrated how to generate inner ear sensory epithelia, designated as inner ear organoids, from mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in a self-organizing 3D culture. Here we improve the efficiency of this culture system by elucidating how Wnt signaling activity can drive the induction of otic tissue. We found that a carefully timed treatment with the potent Wnt agonist CHIR99021 promotes induction of otic vesicles-a process that was previously self-organized by unknown mechanisms...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603780/lgl1-is-required-for-olfaction-and-development-of-olfactory-bulb-in-mice
#15
Zhenzu Li, Tingting Zhang, Zhuchun Lin, Congzhe Hou, Jian Zhang, Yuqin Men, Huashun Li, Jiangang Gao
Lethal giant larvae 1 (Lgl1) was initially identified as a tumor suppressor in Drosophila and functioned as a key regulator of epithelial polarity and asymmetric cell division. In this study, we generated Lgl1 conditional knockout mice mediated by Pax2-Cre, which is expressed in olfactory bulb (OB). Next, we examined the effects of Lgl1 loss in the OB. First, we determined the expression patterns of Lgl1 in the neurogenic regions of the embryonic dorsal region of the LGE (dLGE) and postnatal OB. Furthermore, the Lgl1 conditional mutants exhibited abnormal morphological characteristics of the OB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591083/loss-of-zeb2-in-mesenchyme-derived-nephrons-causes-primary-glomerulocystic-disease
#16
Hila Milo Rasouly, Sudhir Kumar, Stefanie Chan, Anna Pisarek-Horowitz, Richa Sharma, Qiongchao J Xi, Yuriko Nishizaki, Yujiro Higashi, David J Salant, Richard L Maas, Weining Lu
Primary glomerulocystic kidney disease is a special form of renal cystic disorder characterized by Bowman's space dilatation in the absence of tubular cysts. ZEB2 is a SMAD-interacting transcription factor involved in Mowat-Wilson syndrome, a congenital disorder with an increased risk for kidney anomalies. Here we show that deletion of Zeb2 in mesenchyme-derived nephrons with either Pax2-cre or Six2-cre causes primary glomerulocystic kidney disease without tubular cysts in mice. Glomerulotubular junction analysis revealed many atubular glomeruli in the kidneys of Zeb2 knockout mice, which explains the presence of glomerular cysts in the absence of tubular dilatation...
December 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578782/early-formation-of-the-m%C3%A3-llerian-duct-is-regulated-by-sequential-actions-of-bmp-pax2-and-fgf-lim1-signaling
#17
Yuji Atsuta, Yoshiko Takahashi
The Müllerian duct (MD) and Wolffian duct (WD) are embryonic tubular tissues giving rise to female and male reproductive tracts, respectively. In amniote embryos, both MD and WD emerge in both sexes, but subsequently degenerate in the males and females, respectively. Here, by using MD-specific gene manipulations in chicken embryos, we identify the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link early MD specification to tubular invagination. Early (pre-)specification of MD precursors in the coelomic epithelium requires BMP signaling and its downstream target Pax2 in a WD-independent process...
October 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561213/expression-of-segment-polarity-genes-in-brachiopods-supports-a-non-segmental-ancestral-role-of-engrailed-for-bilaterians
#18
Bruno C Vellutini, Andreas Hejnol
The diverse and complex developmental mechanisms of segmentation have been more thoroughly studied in arthropods, vertebrates and annelids-distantly related animals considered to be segmented. Far less is known about the role of "segmentation genes" in organisms that lack a segmented body. Here we investigate the expression of the arthropod segment polarity genes engrailed, wnt1 and hedgehog in the development of brachiopods-marine invertebrates without a subdivided trunk but closely related to the segmented annelids...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555585/hedgehog-dependent-e3-ligase-midline1-regulates-ubiquitin-mediated-proteasomal-degradation-of-pax6-during-visual-system-development
#19
Thorsten Pfirrmann, Enrico Jandt, Swantje Ranft, Ashwin Lokapally, Herbert Neuhaus, Muriel Perron, Thomas Hollemann
Pax6 is a key transcription factor involved in eye, brain, and pancreas development. Although pax6 is expressed in the whole prospective retinal field, subsequently its expression becomes restricted to the optic cup by reciprocal transcriptional repression of pax6 and pax2 However, it remains unclear how Pax6 protein is removed from the eyestalk territory on time. Here, we report that Mid1, a member of the RBCC/TRIM E3 ligase family, which was first identified in patients with the X-chromosome-linked Opitz BBB/G (OS) syndrome, interacts with Pax6...
September 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27513319/overexpression-of-microrna-497-suppresses-cell-proliferation-and-induces-apoptosis-through-targeting-paired-box-2-in-human-ovarian-cancer
#20
Zhong Lin, Junling Zhao, Xindan Wang, Xuehong Zhu, Liansheng Gong
MicroRNAs are a class of endogenous, small non-coding RNAs which are tightly involved in evolution and progression of human cancers. MicroRNA-497 has been reported as tumor-suppressor in various human cancer. However, the role of miR-497 in ovarian cancer is still poorly known. We investigated the expression level and cellular function of miR-497 in human ovarian cancer. In this study, the expression of miR-497 in ovarian cancer tissues and SKOV3 cells was detected by quantitative reverse‑transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
October 2016: Oncology Reports
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