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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315934/gas1-expression-in-parietal-cells-of-bowman-s-capsule-in-experimental-diabetic-nephropathy
#1
Brenda I Luna-Antonio, Rafael Rodriguez-Muñoz, Carmen Namorado-Tonix, Paula Vergara, Jose Segovia, Jose L Reyes
Gas1 (Growth Arrest-Specific 1) is a pleiotropic protein with novel functions including anti-proliferative and proapoptotic activities. In the kidney, the expression of Gas1 has been described in mesangial cells. In this study, we described that renal parietal cells of Bowman's capsule (BC) and the distal nephron cells also express Gas1. The role of Gas1 in the kidney is not yet known. There is a subpopulation of progenitor cells in Bowman's capsule with self-renewal properties which can eventually differentiate into podocytes as a possible mechanism of regeneration in the early stages of diabetic nephropathy...
March 18, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302062/ancestral-and-novel-roles-of-pax-family-genes-in-mollusks
#2
Maik Scherholz, Emanuel Redl, Tim Wollesen, André Luiz de Oliveira, Christiane Todt, Andreas Wanninger
BACKGROUND: Pax genes are transcription factors with significant roles in cell fate specification and tissue differentiation during animal ontogeny. Most information on their tempo-spatial mode of expression is available from well-studied model organisms where the Pax-subfamilies Pax2/5/8, Pax6, and Paxα/β are mainly involved in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), the eyes, and other sensory organs. In certain taxa, Pax2/5/8 seems to be additionally involved in the development of excretion organs...
March 16, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253300/the-pax-gene-family-highlights-from-cephalopods
#3
Sandra Navet, Auxane Buresi, Sébastien Baratte, Aude Andouche, Laure Bonnaud-Ponticelli, Yann Bassaglia
Pax genes play important roles in Metazoan development. Their evolution has been extensively studied but Lophotrochozoa are usually omitted. We addressed the question of Pax paralog diversity in Lophotrochozoa by a thorough review of available databases. The existence of six Pax families (Pax1/9, Pax2/5/8, Pax3/7, Pax4/6, Paxβ, PoxNeuro) was confirmed and the lophotrochozoan Paxβ subfamily was further characterized. Contrary to the pattern reported in chordates, the Pax2/5/8 family is devoid of homeodomain in Lophotrochozoa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160066/pax2-pax8-defined-subdomains-and-the-occurrence-of-apoptosis-in-the-posterior-placodal-area-of-mice
#4
Stefan Washausen, Wolfgang Knabe
The present work aims to improve our understanding of the causes and functions of apoptosis during the morphogenesis of epibranchial placodes in mice. Schematic maps helped to compare the spatiotemporal sequence of apoptotic events with the protein expression patterns of general (Six1) and specific placodal markers (Pax2, Pax8). Our findings challenge the view that, in mammals, all three epibranchial placodes spring from the original posterior placodal area (PPA) of presomite or early somite embryos. Instead, close-meshed analysis of the Pax2/Pax8 expression patterns demonstrates the stepwise emergence of two subdomains which both belong to the gradually expanding PPA, and which largely give rise to the otic placode and epibranchial placode 1 (anterior subdomain), or to the caudal epibranchial placodes (posterior subdomain)...
February 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105130/biological-characterization-of-sheep-kidney-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Meng Ji, Chunyu Bai, Lu Li, Ya'Nan Fan, Caiyun Ma, Xiangchen Li, Weijun Guan
The aim of the present study was to isolate, culture and characterize sheep metanephric mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs). The MMSCs were isolated from the kidney tissue of six-week-old sheep fetus. This study investigated whether primary MMSCs could be grown for 26 passages and expressed Oct-4, which is involved in the self-renewal of undifferentiated pluripotent stem cells. The MMSCs also expressed the renal lineage marker gene PAX2, and mesenchymal cell marker genes CD44, FN1 and VIM. Expression of these genes was detected using immunofluorescence and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094913/inhibition-of-pax2-transcription-activation-with-a-small-molecule-that-targets-the-dna-binding-domain
#6
Edward Grimley, Chenzhong Liao, Egon J Ranghini, Zaneta Nikolovska-Coleska, Gregory R Dressler
The Pax gene family encodes DNA binding transcription factors that control critical steps in embryonic development and differentiation of specific cell lineages. Often, Pax proteins are re-expressed or ectopically expressed in cancer and other diseases of abnormal proliferation, making them attractive targets for tissue specific inhibition by small molecules. In this report, we used a homology model of the Pax2 paired domain and a virtual screen to identify small molecules that can inhibit binding of the paired domain to DNA and Pax2 mediated transcription activation...
January 24, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991925/pax2-function-regulation-and-targeting-in-fallopian-tube-derived-high-grade-serous-ovarian-cancer
#7
D A Modi, R D Tagare, S Karthikeyan, A Russo, M Dean, D A Davis, D D Lantvit, J E Burdette
The fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) is one of the progenitor populations for high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). Loss of PAX2 is the earliest known molecular aberration in the FTE occurring in serous carcinogenesis followed by a mutation in p53. Pathological studies report consistent loss of PAX2 in benign lesions as well as serous tumors. In the current study, the combined loss of PAX2 and expression of the R273H p53 mutant protein in murine oviductal epithelial (MOE) cells enhanced proliferation and growth in soft agar in vitro but was insufficient to drive tumorigenesis in vivo...
December 19, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939779/comparative-immunomorphology-of-testicular-sertoli-and-sertoliform-tumors
#8
Hector Mesa, Scott Gilles, Milton W Datta, Paari Murugan, Wendy Larson, Susan Dachel, Juan C Manivel
Sertoli cell (SC) and sertoliform tumors of the testis are very uncommon; for this reason their differential diagnosis and classification can be challenging. We applied an extensive immunophenotypic panel that included androgenic hormones, enzymes and receptors, neuroendocrine, lineage and genitourinary markers to a series of these lesions to determine if and which immunostains can aid in their diagnostic workup. Study cases included: 2 androgen insensitivity syndrome associated SC-adenomas, 3 SC tumors not otherwise specified (SCT-NOS), 3 sclerosing-SCT, 2 large cell calcifying-SCT, 1 SCT with heterologous-sarcomatous elements, 1 malignant SCT, and 1 sertoliform rete testis adenoma (sertoliform-RTA)...
December 7, 2016: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939388/pax2-is-persistently-expressed-by-gabaergic-neurons-throughout-the-adult-rat-dorsal-horn
#9
Max Larsson
The transcription factor Pax2 is required for the differentiation of GABAergic neurons in the mouse dorsal horn. Pax2 continues to be expressed in the adult murine spinal cord and has been used as a presumed marker of GABAergic neurons in the superficial dorsal horn of the adult mouse, although a strict association between adult Pax2 expression and presence of GABA throughout the dorsal horn has not been firmly established. Moreover, whether Pax2 is selectively expressed in GABAergic dorsal horn neurons also in the rat is unknown...
December 8, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902570/preprotachykinin-a-is-expressed-by-a-distinct-population-of-excitatory-neurons-in-the-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn-including-cells-that-respond-to-noxious-and-pruritic-stimuli
#10
Maria Gutierrez-Mecinas, Andrew M Bell, Alina Marin, Rebecca Taylor, Kieran A Boyle, Takahiro Furuta, Masahiko Watanabe, Erika Polgár, Andrew J Todd
The superficial dorsal horn, which is the main target for nociceptive and pruritoceptive primary afferents, contains a high density of excitatory interneurons. Our understanding of their roles in somatosensory processing has been restricted by the difficulty of distinguishing functional populations among these cells. We recently defined 3 nonoverlapping populations among the excitatory neurons, based on the expression of neurotensin, neurokinin B, and gastrin-releasing peptide. Here we identify and characterise another population: neurons that express the tachykinin peptide substance P...
March 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896618/loss-of-liver-kinase-b1-causes-planar-polarity-defects-in-cochlear-hair-cells-in-mice
#11
Yuqin Men, Aizhen Zhang, Liwen Zhang, Yecheng Jin, Zhishuo Wang, Jing Zhao, Xiaolin Yu, Jian Zhang, Jiangang Gao
The tumor suppressor gene liver kinase B1 (LKB1), also called STK11, encodes a serine/threonine kinase. LKB1 plays crucial roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and polarity. In this study, LKB1 conditional knockout mice (LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice) were generated using Pax2-Cre mice to investigate the function of LKB1 in inner ear hair cells during early embryonic period. LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice died perinatally. Immunofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy revealed that stereociliary bundles in LKB1(Pax2) CKO mice were clustered and misoriented, respectively...
November 28, 2016: Frontiers of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895556/neurosensory-differentiation-and-innervation-patterning-in-the-human-fetal-vestibular-end-organs-between-the-gestational-weeks-8-12
#12
Lejo Johnson Chacko, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Helga Fritsch, Helge Rask-Andersen, Michael J F Blumer, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer, Rudolf Glueckert
Balance orientation depends on the precise operation of the vestibular end organs and the vestibular ganglion neurons. Previous research on the assemblage of the neuronal network in the developing fetal vestibular organ has been limited to data from animal models. Insights into the molecular expression profiles and signaling moieties involved in embryological development of the human fetal inner ear have been limited. We present an investigation of the cells of the vestibular end organs with specific focus on the hair cell differentiation and innervation pattern using an uninterrupted series of unique specimens from gestational weeks 8-12...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875264/expression-of-wnt4-5-during-reproductive-cycle-of-catfish-and-wnt5-promoter-analysis
#13
Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
Signaling molecules, Wnt4 and Wnt5, are essential for ovarian growth during developmental stages in mammals. Although these molecules were identified in several teleosts, their precise expression and role in reproductive processes have not yet been explored in any lower vertebrates. In view of this, using catfish, Clarias batrachus as an animal model, cloning and expression analysis of wnt4 and wnt5 were analyzed in different tissues, at various developmental stages, during ovarian reproductive cycle and after gonadotropin induction...
January 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783222/development-of-putative-inhibitory-neurons-in-the-embryonic-and-postnatal-mouse-superficial-spinal-dorsal-horn
#14
Anita Balázs, Zoltán Mészár, Krisztina Hegedűs, Annamária Kenyeres, Zoltán Hegyi, Klaudia Dócs, Miklós Antal
The superficial spinal dorsal horn is the first relay station of pain processing. It is also widely accepted that spinal synaptic processing to control the modality and intensity of pain signals transmitted to higher brain centers is primarily defined by inhibitory neurons in the superficial spinal dorsal horn. Earlier studies suggest that the construction of pain processing spinal neural circuits including the GABAergic components should be completed by birth, although major chemical refinements may occur postnatally...
October 25, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764784/dna-methylation-promotes-paired-box-2-expression-via-myeloid-zinc-finger-1-in-endometrial-cancer
#15
Jia Nan, Wang Jieyu, Li Qing, Tao Xiang, Chang Kaikai, Hua Keqin, Yu Yinhua, Wong Kwong-Kwok, Feng Weiwei
This work investigated the role of paired box 2 (PAX2) in endometrial cancer and its epigenetic regulation mechanism. Endometrial cancer tissues and cell lines exhibited increased PAX2 expression compared with hyperplasia, normal endometrium and endometrial epithelial cells. Knock-down of PAX2 resulted in reduced cell viability, invasion and migration, and PAX2 overexpression caused the opposite effects. Increased methylation of the PAX2 promoter was observed in both cancer tissues and cell lines and was positively correlated with PAX2 expression...
October 13, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756766/involvement-of-pax2-in-ovarian-development-and-recrudescence-of-catfish-a-role-in-steroidogenesis
#16
Yarikipati Prathibha, Balasubramanian Senthilkumaran
PAX2, a member of paired box family, is an essential transcription factor for the organ development in vertebrates including teleosts, yet no evidence has been shown for its involvement in reproduction. To study this, partial- and/or full-length cDNA of pax2 was isolated from the ovary of catfish, Clarias batrachus, along with its other Pax family members, pax1 and pax9 Tissue distribution and ontogeny expression analysis indicated the prevalence of pax2 but not pax1 and pax9 in ovary. Varied phase-wise expression during ovarian cycle and elevation of pax2 after human chorionic gonadotropin induction showed probable regulation by gonadotropins...
December 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733182/an-xp11-2-translocation-renal-cell-carcinoma-with-smarcb1-ini1-inactivation-in-adult-end-stage-renal-disease-a-case-report
#17
Lu Yu, Jun Li, Sanpeng Xu, Mariajose Navia Miranda, Guoping Wang, Yaqi Duan
BACKGROUND: Xp11.2 translocation/transcription factor E3 (TFE3) rearrangement renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare subtype of RCC with limited clinical and pathological data. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we present an unusual high-grade Xp11.2 translocation RCC with a rhabdoid feature and SMARCB1 (INI1) inactivation in a 40-year-old man with end-stage kidney disease. The histological examination of the dissected left renal tumor showed an organoid architecture of the eosinophilic or clear neoplastic cells with necrosis and high mitotic activity...
October 12, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722936/genetic-association-between-pax2-and-mullerian-duct-anomalies-in-han-chinese-females
#18
Zuying Xu, Shinan Wu, Qiong Xing, Xi Wang, Huifen Xiang, Yuping Xu, Jing Wang, Xiaojin He, Binbin Wang, Yunxia Cao
PURPOSE: The study aims to investigate the genetic association between paired box gene 2 (PAX2) and mullerian duct anomalies (MDA) in Chinese Han females. METHODS: Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was used to identify the genotypes of three tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PAX2 in 362 MDA cases and 406 controls. RESULTS: We found that one tag SNP (rs12266644) of PAX2 was associated with susceptibility to MDA...
January 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703192/gdf11-improves-tubular-regeneration-after-acute-kidney-injury-in-elderly-mice
#19
Ying Zhang, Qinggang Li, Dong Liu, Qi Huang, Guangyan Cai, Shaoyuan Cui, Xuefeng Sun, Xiangmei Chen
The GDF11 expression pattern and its effect on organ regeneration after acute injury in the elderly population are highly controversial topics. In our study, GDF11/8 expression increased after kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), and the relatively lower level of GDF11/8 in the kidneys of aged mice was associated with a loss of proliferative capacity and a decline in renal repair, compared to young mice. In vivo, GDF11 supplementation in aged mice increased vimentin and Pax2 expression in the kidneys as well as the percentage of 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU)-positive proximal tubular epithelial cells...
October 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634879/large-variety-in-a-panel-of-human-colon-cancer-organoids-in-response-to-ezh2-inhibition
#20
Martijn Aj Koppens, Gergana Bounova, Paulien Cornelissen-Steijger, Nienke de Vries, Owen J Sansom, Lodewyk Fa Wessels, Maarten van Lohuizen
EZH2 inhibitors have gained great interest for their use as anti-cancer therapeutics. However, most research has focused on EZH2 mutant cancers and recently adverse effects of EZH2 inactivation have come to light. To determine whether colorectal cancer cells respond to EZH2 inhibition and to explore which factors influence the degree of response, we treated a panel of 20 organoid lines derived from human colon tumors with different concentrations of the EZH2 inhibitor GSK126. The resulting responses were associated with mutation status, gene expression and responses to other drugs...
September 13, 2016: Oncotarget
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