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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434974/proteomic-approach-to-detect-changes-in-hippocampal-protein-levels-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432716/deciphering-tacrolimus-induced-toxicity-in-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cells
#2
J Triñanes, A E Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Y Brito, A Wagner, A P J De Vries, G Cuesto, A Acebes, E Salido, A Torres, E Porrini
β-cell transcription factors like: FoxO1, MafA, PDX-1, NeuroD, are dysfunctional in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). PTDM resembles T2DM and reflects interaction between pre-transplant insulin resistance and immunosuppressants, mainly calcineurin inhibitors. We evaluated the effect of tacrolimus, cyclosporine-A and metabolic stressors (glucose+palmitate) on insulinoma β-cells (INS-1) in vitro and in pancreata of obese and lean Zucker rats. Cells were cultured for five days with 100μM palmitate and 22mM glucose; cyclosporin-A (250ng/mL) or tacrolimus (15ng/mL) were added the last 48h...
April 22, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432570/vascular-and-endothelial-function-in-youth-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
REVIEW
Amy S Shah, Elaine M Urbina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to discuss the burden of type 2 diabetes in youth and summarize the studies that have utilized noninvasive techniques to assess early vascular disease in youth with type 2 diabetes. RECENT FINDINGS: Noninvasive imaging modalities provide researchers with tools to investigate the vasculature in adolescents with type 2 diabetes. The data published to date consistently show adolescents with type 2 diabetes have greater vascular thickness and stiffness and worse endothelial function compared to their obese and lean peers...
June 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408970/differential-regulation-of-cardiac-function-and-intracardiac-cytokines-by-rapamycin-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats
#4
Christian Luck, Vincent G DeMarco, Abuzar Mahmood, Madhavi P Gavini, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetes is comorbid with cardiovascular disease and impaired immunity. Rapamycin improves cardiac functions and extends lifespan by inhibiting the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). However, in diabetic murine models, Rapamycin elevates hyperglycemia and reduces longevity. Since Rapamycin is an immunosuppressant, we examined whether Rapamycin (750 μg/kg/day) modulates intracardiac cytokines, which affect the cardiac immune response, and cardiac function in male lean (ZL) and diabetic obese Zucker (ZO) rats...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408965/phospholipase-c-related-catalytically-inactive-protein-can-regulate-obesity-a-state-of-peripheral-inflammation
#5
REVIEW
Yosuke Yamawaki, Kana Oue, Satomi Shirawachi, Satoshi Asano, Kae Harada, Takashi Kanematsu
Obesity is defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation. Chronic inflammation in fat influences the development of obesity-related diseases. Many reports state that obesity increases the risk of morbidity in many diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, sleep apnea, and breast, prostate and colon cancers, leading to increased mortality. Obesity is also associated with chronic neuropathologic conditions such as depression and Alzheimer's disease. However, there is strong evidence that weight loss reduces these risks, by limiting blood pressure and improving levels of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol...
February 2017: Japanese Dental Science Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408379/-obesity-associated-breast-cancer-in-lean-women-metabolism-and-inflammation-as-critical-modifiers-of-risk
#6
EDITORIAL
Gerald V Denis, Julie R Palmer
Why is obesity only weakly associated with certain "obesity-driven" cancers? Recent population studies identify cohorts of high body mass index (BMI) subjects with unexpectedly reduced risk for breast and colon cancer, and normal BMI subjects with unexpectedly elevated risk for breast cancer, provoking hard thinking about cellular and molecular mechanisms that most strongly couple obesity to cancer occurrence or progression. Emerging work suggests that abnormal metabolism and its associated chronic inflammation make the difference...
April 13, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408068/quercus-infectoria-inhibits-set7-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-inflammatory-pathway-in-macrophages-exposed-to-a-diabetic-environment
#7
Julalak Chokpaisarn, Norifumi Urao, Supayang P Voravuthikunchai, Timothy J Koh
Chronic inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of myriad complications associated with diabetes and thus anti-inflammatory therapies may ameliorate these complications. Quercus infectoria (Qi) extract has been shown to downregulate inflammatory processes; however, the molecular mechanisms of this anti-inflammatory activity remain unclear. The hypothesis of our study was that Qi extract exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by downregulating the Set7/NF-κB pathway. Bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) were treated with high glucose plus palmitate medium (HG/Pa) to simulate the diabetic environment...
April 10, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401400/glucose-uptake-of-the-muscle-and-adipose-tissues-in-diabetes-and-obesity-disease-models-evaluation-of-insulin-and-%C3%AE-3-adrenergic-receptor-agonist-effects-by-18-f-fdg
#8
Seigo Ishino, Taku Sugita, Yusuke Kondo, Mika Okai, Kazue Tsuchimori, Masanori Watanabe, Ikuo Mori, Masaki Hosoya, Takashi Horiguchi, Hidenori Kamiguchi
OBJECTIVE: One of the major causes of diabetes and obesity is abnormality in glucose metabolism and glucose uptake in the muscle and adipose tissue based on an insufficient action of insulin. Therefore, many of the drug discovery programs are based on the concept of stimulating glucose uptake in these tissues. Improvement of glucose metabolism has been assessed based on blood parameters, but these merely reflect the systemic reaction to the drug administered. We have conducted basic studies to investigate the usefulness of glucose uptake measurement in various muscle and adipose tissues in pharmacological tests using disease-model animals...
April 11, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396734/low-lean-tissue-mass-is-an-independent-risk-factor-for-mortality-in-patients-with-stages-4-and-5-non-dialysis-chronic-kidney-disease
#9
Almudena Vega, Soraya Abad, Nicolás Macías, Inés Aragoncillo, Alba Santos, Isabel Galán, Santiago Cedeño, Juan Manuel López-Gómez
Background: Mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease (CKD) is higher than in the general population. Body composition predicts mortality. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of body composition on mortality in patients with stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis CKD. Methods: We performed a prospective study of 356 patients with stages 4 and 5 non-dialysis CKD. At baseline, we recorded general characteristics, history of cardiovascular events, body composition, serum inflammatory markers, nutrition and cardiac biomarkers...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392407/actions-of-pgla-am1-and-its-a14k-and-a20k-analogues-and-their-therapeutic-potential-as-anti-diabetic-agents
#10
Bosede O Owolabi, Vishal Musale, Opeolu O Ojo, R Charlotte Moffett, Mary K McGahon, Tim M Curtis, J Michael Conlon, Peter R Flatt, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab
PGLa-AM1 (GMASKAGSVL(10)GKVAKVALKA(20)AL.NH2) was first identified in skin secretions of the frog Xenopus amieti (Pipidae) on the basis of its antimicrobial properties. PGLa-AM1 and its [A14K] and [A20K] analogues produced a concentration-dependent stimulation of insulin release from BRIN-BD11 rat clonal β-cells without cytotoxicity at concentrations up to 3 μM. In contrast, the [A3K] was cytotoxic at concentrations ≥ 30 nM. The potency and maximum rate of insulin release produced by the [A14K] and [A20K] peptides were significantly greater than produced by PGLa-AM1...
April 6, 2017: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388927/exposure-to-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-induces-neuroinflammation-derangement-of-hippocampal-neurons-and-cognitive-changes-in-rat-offspring
#11
Billy Vuong, Gary Odero, Stephanie Rozbacher, Mackenzie Stevenson, Stephanie M Kereliuk, Troy J Pereira, Vernon W Dolinsky, Tiina M Kauppinen
BACKGROUND: Birth cohort studies link gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) with impaired cognitive performance in the offspring. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated GDM induces chronic neuroinflammation and disturbs the development of neuronal circuitry resulting in impaired cognitive abilities in the offspring. METHODS: In rats, GDM was induced by feeding dams a diet high in sucrose and fatty acids. Brains of neonatal (E20) and young adult (15-week-old) offspring of GDM and lean dams were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, cytokine assay, and western blotting...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382531/resistance-training-for-glycemic-control-muscular-strength-and-lean-body-mass-in-old-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
JungHoon Lee, DoHoun Kim, ChangKeun Kim
INTRODUCTION: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) in elderly patients is associated with accelerated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. However, there are few meta-analysis reviews which investigate the effects of resistance training (RT) on glycemic control and skeletal muscle in the patients. METHODS: Three electronic databases were searched (from the earliest date available to November 2016). Studies were included according to the inclusion criteria: T2D patients at least 60 years old, fasting plasma glucose of at least 7...
April 5, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376869/differential-circulating-concentrations-of-adipokines-glucagon-and-adropin-in-a-clinical-population-of-lean-overweight-and-diabetic-cats
#13
Rizaldy C Zapata, Melissa D Meachem, Natalia Cavalca Cardoso, Susan O Mehain, Chantal J McMillan, Elisabeth R Snead, Prasanth K Chelikani
BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia, dysregulated adipokine secretion and alteration in glucagon and adropin concentrations are important obesity-related factors in the pathophysiology of human Type 2 diabetes; however, their roles in the pathophysiology of feline diabetes mellitus are relatively unknown. Here, we determined the concentrations of circulating leptin, adiponectin, pro-inflammatory cytokines, glucagon, adropin, triglycerides, and cholesterol, in non-diabetic lean and overweight cats and newly diagnosed diabetic cats...
April 4, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376855/effects-of-the-sglt2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-on-hdl-cholesterol-particle-size-and-cholesterol-efflux-capacity-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Gian Paolo Fadini, Benedetta Maria Bonora, Giancarlo Zatti, Nicola Vitturi, Elisabetta Iori, Maria Cristina Marescotti, Mattia Albiero, Angelo Avogaro
BACKGROUND: Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) reduce glucose levels, body weight, and blood pressure, possibly resulting in cardiovascular protection. In phase III trials, SGLT2i were shown to increase HDL cholesterol. We aimed to evaluate whether the SGLT2i dapagliflozin affects HDL function in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. METHODS: Thirty-three type 2 diabetic patients were randomized to receive dapagliflozin 10 mg or placebo for 12 weeks on top of their glucose lowering medications...
April 4, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375568/fludrocortisone-therapy-for-persistent-hyperkalaemia
#15
S J H Dobbin, J R Petrie, M E J Lean, G A McKay
Hyperkalaemia is often seen in individuals with renal impairment and may be exacerbated, particularly in diabetic nephropathy, by hyporeninaemic aldosterone deficiency (type 4 renal tubular acidosis) which may, in turn, be caused or complicated by chronic interstitial nephritis or drug therapy (Table 1). Fludrocortisone is a synthetic corticosteroid with mineralocorticoid activity that increases sodium resorption and promotes potassium excretion in the distal convoluted renal tubule. It therefore seems a logical option to reverse hyperkalaemia in type 4 renal tubular acidosis; however, we can find no published guideline recommending this use [1,2]...
April 4, 2017: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364255/microrna-184-is-a-downstream-effector-of-albuminuria-driving-renal-fibrosis-in-rats-with-diabetic-nephropathy
#16
Cristina Zanchi, Daniela Macconi, Piera Trionfini, Susanna Tomasoni, Daniela Rottoli, Monica Locatelli, Michael Rudnicki, Jo Vandesompele, Pieter Mestdagh, Giuseppe Remuzzi, Ariela Benigni, Carlamaria Zoja
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Renal fibrosis is a common complication of diabetic nephropathy and is a major cause of end-stage renal disease. Despite the suggested link between renal fibrosis and microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in diabetic nephropathy, the identification of the specific miRNAs involved is still incomplete. The aim of this study was to investigate miRNA profiles in the diabetic kidney and to identify potential downstream targets implicated in renal fibrosis. METHODS: miRNA expression profiling was investigated in the kidneys of 8-month-old Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats during overt nephropathy...
March 31, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359370/ramadan-model-of-intermittent-fasting-for-28%C3%A2-d-had-no-major-effect-on-body-composition-glucose-metabolism-or-cognitive-functions-in-healthy-lean-men
#17
Nina M Harder-Lauridsen, Astrid Rosenberg, Fabiana B Benatti, Julie A Damm, Carsten Thomsen, Erik L Mortensen, Bente K Pedersen, Rikke Krogh-Madsen
OBJECTIVES: There has been a parallel increase in the incidence of obesity and diabetes as well as the number of daily meals. However, evidence is lacking regarding the role of intermittent fasting. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a Ramadan model of intermittent fasting (RIF; 14 h of daytime abstinence from food and drinking) for 28 d on body composition, glucose metabolism, and cognitive function. METHODS: Ten healthy, lean men were included in a nonrandomized, crossover, intervention study...
May 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347650/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-betatrophin-as-a-new-determinant-of-type-2-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#18
Miriam Ejarque, Marianne Borlaug, Nuria Vilarrasa, Bruno Martinez-Perez, Gemma Llauradó, Ana Megía, Thomas Helland, Cristina Gutierrez, Carolina Serena, Oddry Folkestad, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Ana Casajoana, Rosa Fradera, José Miguel González-Clemente, Miguel López, Arne C Mohn, Bjørn G Nedrebø, Ruben Nogueiras, Gunnar Mellgren, Johan Fernø, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell
This work aimed to explore the link between angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) and weight loss after metabolic surgery. In the cross-sectional study (n = 100), circulating ANGPTL8 concentrations were significantly lower in morbidly obese than in lean subjects, and strikingly lower in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conversely, ANGPTL8 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was higher in morbidly obese patients, particularly in those with T2DM, whereas its expression in visceral adipose tissue was unchanged...
March 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346464/sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-and-anti-lipolytic-response-to-iv-glucose-load-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-obese-and-obese-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#19
Uwe Schumann, Christopher P Jenkinson, Andreas Alt, Martina Zügel, Jürgen M Steinacker, Marion Flechtner-Mors
The study aim was to investigate the effect of endogenous insulin release on lipolysis in subcutaneous adipose tissue after adrenergic stimulation in obese subjects diagnosed with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In 14 obese female T2D subjects, or 14 obese non-T2D controls, glycerol concentration was measured in response to the α1,2,ß-agonist norepinephrine, the α1-agonist norfenefrine and the ß2-agonist terbutaline (each 10-4 M), using the microdialysis technique. After 60 minutes of stimulation, an intravenous glucose load (0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345790/metabolic-responses-to-exogenous-ghrelin-in-obesity-and-early-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-in-humans
#20
Robyn A Tamboli, Joseph Antoun, Reem M Sidani, B Austin Clements, Emily A Eckert, Pam Marks-Shulman, Bruce D Gaylinn, D Brandon Williams, Ronald H Clements, Vance L Albaugh, Naji N Abumrad
AIMS: Ghrelin is a gastric-derived hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion and has a multi-faceted role in the regulation of energy homeostasis, including glucose metabolism. Circulating ghrelin concentrations are modulated in response to nutritional status, but responses to ghrelin in altered metabolic states are poorly understood. We investigated the metabolic effects of ghrelin in obesity and early after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed central and peripheral metabolic responses to acyl ghrelin infusion (1 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) ) in healthy, lean subjects (n = 9) and non-diabetic, obese subjects (n = 9) before and two weeks after RYGB...
March 27, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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