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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161801/impact-of-sarcopenia-on-long-term-mortality-and-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-undergoing-hemodialysis
#1
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Sung Gyun Kim, Ji-Eun Oh, Young-Ki Lee, Jung-Woo Noh, Hyung Jik Kim, Young Rim Song
Background/Aims: A high body mass index (BMI) is known to correlate with better survival in patients on hemodialysis (HD). However, the impacts of body composition and sarcopenia on survival have not been well studied in this population. Methods: One hundred and forty-two prevalent HD patients were recruited and followed prospectively for up to 4.5 years. Low muscle mass (measured using a portable, whole-body, bioimpedance spectroscopic device) was defined as a lean tissue index (LTI) two standard deviations (SD) or more below the normal gender-specific mean for young people...
November 23, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158495/the-prevalence-of-muscle-wasting-sarcopenia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-varies-with-ethnicity-due-to-differences-in-muscle-mass-measured-by-bioimpedance
#2
Suree Yoowannakul, Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Sarcopenia is associated with increased mortality. European and North American recommended screening for low muscle mass uses gender specific cut points, with no adjustment for ethnicity. We wished to determine whether the prevalence of sarcopenia was altered by ethnicity in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We measured appendicular lean mass indexed to height (ALMI) in PD patients by segmental bioimpedance and determined sarcopenia using different cut off points for reduced muscle mass...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158250/increased-liver-fatty-acid-uptake-is-partly-reversed-and-liver-fat-content-normalized-after-bariatric-surgery
#3
Heidi Immonen, Jarna C Hannukainen, Nobuyuki Kudomi, Jussi Pihlajamäki, Virva Saunavaara, Jukka Laine, Paulina Salminen, Terho Lehtimäki, Tam Pham, Patricia Iozzo, Pirjo Nuutila
OBJECTIVE: Changes in liver fatty acid metabolism are important in understanding the mechanisms of diabetes remission and metabolic changes after bariatric surgery. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Liver fatty acid uptake (LFU), blood flow, and fat content (LFC) were measured in 25 obese subjects before bariatric surgery and 6 months after using positron emission tomography/computed tomography and MRS; 14 lean individuals served as the control subjects. RESULTS: The increased LFU in obese subjects was associated with body adiposity...
November 20, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158062/effect-of-change-in-fluid-status-evaluated-by-bioimpedance-techniques-on-body-composition-in-hemodialysis-patients
#4
Samer R Abbas, Stephan Thijssen, Erik L Penne, Jochen G Raimann, Li Liu, Murat H Sipahioglu, Eric Seibert, Yuedong Wang, Yuqi Chen, Qingqing Xiao, Nathan W Levin, Peter Kotanko, Fansan Zhu
OBJECTIVE: This prospective study uses calf bioimpedance spectroscopy (cBIS) to guide the attainment of dry weight (DWcBIS) in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether body composition is altered when fluid status is reduced to DWcBIS. METHODS: Target post-HD weight was gradually reduced from baseline (BL) until DWcBIS was achieved. DWcBIS was defined as the presence of both flattening of the curve of extracellular resistance and the attainment calf normalized resistivity in the normal range during the dialysis treatment...
November 18, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154942/levels-of-palmitic-acid-ester-of-hydroxystearic-acid-pahsa-are-reduced-in-the-breast-milk-of-obese-mothers
#5
Marie Brezinova, Ondrej Kuda, Jana Hansikova, Martina Rombaldova, Laurence Balas, Kristina Bardova, Thierry Durand, Martin Rossmeisl, Marcela Cerna, Zbynek Stranak, Jan Kopecky
To achieve optimal development of a newborn, breastfeeding is extensively recommended, but little is known about the role of non-nutritive bioactive milk components. We aimed to characterize the fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), namely palmitic acid hydroxystearic acids (PAHSAs)-endogenous lipids with anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, in human breast milk. Breast milk samples from 30 lean (BMI=19-23) and 23 obese (BMI>30) women were collected 72h postpartum. Adipose tissue and milk samples were harvested from C57BL/6J mice...
November 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137102/lateral-medullary-infarction-with-similar-features-of-brown-sequard-syndrome-caused-by-vertebrobasilar-dysplasia-and-klippel-feil-syndrome-a-case-report
#6
Jingzhe Han, Duanhua Cao, Guomei Ma, Tingting Wang, Ye Ji, Zhilei Kang
RATIONALE: Patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) are always anomaly associated with vertebrobasilar dysplasia. That may present commonly as infarction of brainstem, medulla, and cerebellum. In this article, we reported a rare case of lateral medullary infarction (LMI) with similar features of Brown Sequard syndrome caused by vertebrobasilar dysplasia and KFS, and the 2 rare conditions that are causally related. The case is being reported because of its unusual and rare presentation...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129613/pgc-1%C3%AE-functions-as-a-co-suppressor-of-xbp1s-to-regulate-glucose-metabolism
#7
Jaemin Lee, Mario Andrés Salazar Hernández, Thomas Auen, Patrick Mucka, Justin Lee, Umut Ozcan
OBJECTIVE: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis by activating HNF4α and FoxO1. PGC-1α expression in the liver is highly elevated in obese and diabetic conditions, leading to increased hepatic glucose production. We previously showed that the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1s) suppresses FoxO1 activity and hepatic gluconeogenesis. The shared role of PGC-1α and XBP1s in regulating FoxO1 activity and gluconeogenesis led us to investigate the probable interaction between PGC-1α and XBP1s and its role in glucose metabolism...
October 28, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114246/variation-of-carbohydrate-active-enzyme-patterns-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-italian-healthy-subjects-and-type-2-diabetes-patients
#8
Matteo Soverini, Silvia Turroni, Elena Biagi, Sara Quercia, Patrizia Brigidi, Marco Candela, Simone Rampelli
The human gut microbiota (GM) has been associated, to date, with various complex functions, essentials for the host health. Among these, it is certainly worth noting the degradation of the so-called microbiota-accessible carbohydrates (MACs), which the GM breaks down through specific enzymes, referred to as carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes). This degradation constitutes the first step in the production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), key microbial small molecules having multiple health-promoting effects for the host organism...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113498/decreased-serum-microrna-21-level-is-associated-with-obesity-in-healthy-and-type-2-diabetic-subjects
#9
Samira Ghorbani, Roya Mahdavi, Behnam Alipoor, Ghodratollah Panahi, Ensieh Nasli Esfahani, Farideh Razi, Mohhammad Taghikhani, Reza Meshkani
BACKGROUND: Recently, much attention has been paid to the role of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel biomarkers for various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of a subset of miRNAs in serum samples of the diabetic and healthy subjects. METHODS: Forty two healthy and 45 T2D subjects participated in this study. Serum miR-21, miR-126, and miR-146a levels were measured using real-time PCR. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in the serum level of miR-21, miR-126, and miR-146a between the diabetic and non-diabetic groups...
November 7, 2017: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110300/dissociation-of-intramyocellular-lipid-storage-and-insulin-resistance-in-trained-athletes-and-type-2-diabetes-patients-involvement-of-perilipin-5
#10
Anne Gemmink, Sabine Daemen, Bram Brouwers, Peter R Huntjens, Gert Schaart, Esther Moonen-Kornips, Johanna Jörgensen, Joris Hoeks, Patrick Schrauwen, Matthijs K C Hesselink
Intramyocellular lipids (IMCL) hamper insulin sensitivity albeit not in endurance-trained athletes (Trained). Compared to type 2 diabetes patients (T2DM), Trained subjects have high levels of Perilipin 5 (PLIN5). Here, we tested if the fraction of PLIN5 coated LDs is a determinant of skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity and contributes to the athlete's paradox. Muscle biopsies were taken from 8 Trained, Lean sedentary, Obese and T2DM subjects. Trained, Obese and T2DM subjects were matched for total IMCL content...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106398/asprosin-is-a-centrally-acting-orexigenic-hormone
#11
Clemens Duerrschmid, Yanlin He, Chunmei Wang, Chia Li, Juan C Bournat, Chase Romere, Pradip K Saha, Mark E Lee, Kevin J Phillips, Mahim Jain, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Monica Farias, Qi Wu, Dianna M Milewicz, V Reid Sutton, David D Moore, Nancy F Butte, Michael J Krashes, Yong Xu, Atul R Chopra
Asprosin is a recently discovered fasting-induced hormone that promotes hepatic glucose production. Here we demonstrate that asprosin in the circulation crosses the blood-brain barrier and directly activates orexigenic AgRP(+) neurons via a cAMP-dependent pathway. This signaling results in inhibition of downstream anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-positive neurons in a GABA-dependent manner, which then leads to appetite stimulation and a drive to accumulate adiposity and body weight. In humans, a genetic deficiency in asprosin causes a syndrome characterized by low appetite and extreme leanness; this is phenocopied by mice carrying similar mutations and can be fully rescued by asprosin...
November 6, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104746/multimodal-imaging-for-the-detection-of-brown-adipose-tissue-activation-in-women-a-pilot-study-using-nirs-and-infrared-thermography
#12
Valentina Hartwig, Letizia Guiducci, Martina Marinelli, Laura Pistoia, Tommaso Minutoli Tegrimi, Giorgio Iervasi, Alfredo Quinones-Galvan, Antonio L'Abbate
Purpose: A clear link between obesity and brown adipose tissue (BAT) dysfunction has been recently demonstrated. The purpose of this pilot study is to determine if near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) 2D imaging together with infrared thermography (IRT) is capable of identifying thermal and vascular response in the supraclavicular (SCV) areas after the ingestion of an oral glucose load as a thermogenic stimulation. Method: We studied two groups of women (obese versus lean) for discerning their different responses...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099978/glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-gip-inhibits-bone-resorption-independently-of-insulin-and-glycemia
#13
Mikkel B Christensen, Asger Lund, Salvatore Calanna, Niklas R Jørgensen, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
Context: The gut hormone GIP causes postprandial insulin release and inhibits bone resorption assessed by carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTX). Objective: To clarify if GIP affects biomarkers involved in bone homeostasis independently of insulin release and glycemic level. Design: Randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study with 5 study days. Patients: Ten lean male C-peptide-negative patients with type 1 diabetes...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096403/impact-of-lean-mass-and-bone-density-on-glomerular-filtration-rate-estimation-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#14
Corinne Isnard Bagnis, Laurence Pieroni, Rachida Inaoui, Philippe Maksud, Stéphanie Lallauret, Marc-Antoine Valantin, Roland Tubiana, Christine Katlama, Gilbert Deray, Marie Courbebaisse, Jérôme Tourret, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel
CONTEXT: Chronic kidney disease is a frequent complication in persons living with HIV/AIDS. Although previous studies have suggested that the CKD-EPI formula is appropriate to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in HIV-positive adults with normal kidney function, the optimal way to estimate GFR in those with Stage 3 chronic kidney disease is not known. Moreover, the impact of muscle mass on creatinine level and GFR estimation is unknown. AIM AND METHODS: Our study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of different diagnostic tests available compared to the gold standard measurement of GFR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094215/insulin-resistance-and-glycine-metabolism-in-humans
#15
REVIEW
M Adeva-Andany, G Souto-Adeva, E Ameneiros-Rodríguez, C Fernández-Fernández, C Donapetry-García, A Domínguez-Montero
Plasma glycine level is low in patients with obesity or diabetes and the improvement of insulin resistance increases plasma glycine concentration. In prospective studies, hypoglycinemia at baseline predicts the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and higher serum glycine level is associated with decreased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Consistently, plasma glycine concentration is lower in the lean offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. Among patients with type 2 diabetes, hypoglycinemia occurs before clinical manifestations of the disease, but the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying glycine deficit and its potential clinical repercussions are unclear...
November 1, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073286/differential-adipokine-receptor-expression-on-circulating-leukocyte-subsets-in-lean-and-obese-children
#16
Genoveva Keustermans, Laila B van der Heijden, Berlinda Boer, Rianne Scholman, Roos Nuboer, Gerard Pasterkamp, Berent Prakken, Wilco de Jager, Eric Kalkhoven, Arieke J Janse, Henk S Schipper
BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity prevalence has increased worldwide and is an important risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The production of inflammatory adipokines by obese adipose tissue contributes to the development of T2D and CVD. While levels of circulating adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin have been established in obese children and adults, the expression of adiponectin and leptin receptors on circulating immune cells can modulate adipokine signalling, but has not been studied so far...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073165/negative-legacy-of-obesity
#17
Kohsuke Shirakawa, Jin Endo, Yoshinori Katsumata, Tsunehisa Yamamoto, Masaharu Kataoka, Sarasa Isobe, Naohiro Yoshida, Keiichi Fukuda, Motoaki Sano
Obesity promotes excessive inflammation, which is associated with senescence-like changes in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. We have reported that a unique population of CD44hi CD62Llo CD4+ T cells that constitutively express PD-1 and CD153 exhibit cellular senescence and cause VAT inflammation by producing large amounts of osteopontin. Weight loss improves glycemic control and reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors, but its long-term effects on cardiovascular events and longevity in obese individuals with T2DM are somewhat disappointing and not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069856/association-of-lower-body-mass-index-with-increased-glycemic-variability-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-a-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#18
Jian Wang, Rengna Yan, Juan Wen, Xiaocen Kong, Huiqin Li, Peihua Zhou, Honghong Zhu, Xiaofei Su, Jianhua Ma
Previous studies have indicated that the pathogenesis of diabetes differs between obese and lean patients. We investigated whether newly diagnosed Chinese diabetic patients with different body mass indices (BMIs) have different glycemic variability, and we assessed the relationship between BMI and glycemic variability. This was a cross-sectional study that included 169 newly diagnosed and drug-naïve type 2 diabetic patients (mean age, 51.33 ± 9.83 years; 110 men). The clinical factors and results of the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test were all recorded...
September 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068148/impact-of-obesity-on-annual-medical-expenditures-and-diabetes-care-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Chisato Kusunoki-Tsuji, Shin-Ichi Araki, Shinji Kume, Masami Chin-Kanasaki, Norihisa Osawa, Katsutaro Morino, Osamu Sekine, Satoshi Ugi, Atsunori Kashiwagi, Hiroshi Maegawa
AIM/INTRODUCTION: Diabetes and obesity are important health and economic concerns. We investigated the influence of obesity on diabetes control, the annual medical expenditures, and medications in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes who were relatively lean in comparison to those in Western countries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 402 Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes were enrolled and their annual medical expenditures investigated. Obesity was defined as body mass index over 25 kg/m(2) , according to the obesity classifications from the Japan Society for the Study of Obesity...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067487/epigenetic-modifications-of-the-zfp-znf423-gene-control-murine-adipogenic-commitment-and-are-dysregulated-in-human-hypertrophic-obesity
#20
Michele Longo, Gregory A Raciti, Federica Zatterale, Luca Parrillo, Antonella Desiderio, Rosa Spinelli, Ann Hammarstedt, Shahram Hedjazifar, Jenny M Hoffmann, Cecilia Nigro, Paola Mirra, Francesca Fiory, Pietro Formisano, Claudia Miele, Ulf Smith, Francesco Beguinot
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Subcutaneous adipocyte hypertrophy is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of type 2 diabetes, and predicts its future development independent of obesity. In humans, subcutaneous adipose tissue hypertrophy is a consequence of impaired adipocyte precursor cell recruitment into the adipogenic pathway rather than a lack of precursor cells. The zinc finger transcription factor known as zinc finger protein (ZFP) 423 has been identified as a major determinant of pre-adipocyte commitment and maintained white adipose cell function...
October 24, 2017: Diabetologia
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