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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933189/insulin-resistance-of-protein-anabolism-accompanies-that-of-glucose-metabolism-in-lean-glucose-tolerant-offspring-of-persons-with-type-2-diabetes
#1
Sergio A Burgos, Vikram Chandurkar, Michael A Tsoukas, Stéphanie Chevalier, José A Morais, Marie Lamarche, Errol B Marliss
OBJECTIVE: To test whether protein anabolic resistance is an early defect in type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Seven lean, normoglycemic T2D offspring (T2D-O) and eight matched participants without family history (controls; C) underwent a 3-hour hyperinsulinemic (40 mU/m(2)/min), euglycemic (5.5 mmol/L) and isoaminoacidemic clamp. Whole-body glucose and protein kinetics were measured with d-[3-(3)H]glucose and l-[l-(13)C]leucine, respectively...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931035/diabetic-phenotype-in-the-small-intestine-of-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#2
Henning Hvid, Stina Rikke Jensen, Brent M Witgen, Christian Fledelius, Jesper Damgaard, Charles Pyke, Thomas Bovbjerg Rasmussen
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In contrast to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced rodent models of diabetes, there are no thorough characterizations of the intestinal phenotype and the underlying changes in the global gene-expression of genetic models of diabetes, such as the Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. The aim of the present study was to characterize the intestine in the ZDF rat. METHODS: The intestine of ZDF rats and lean controls was examined macroscopically and histologically, and ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) was performed in samples of jejunal mucosa...
December 9, 2016: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931017/lean-body-weight-and-metformin-are-insufficient-to-prevent-endometrial-hyperplasia-in-mice-harboring-inactivating-mutations-in-pten
#3
David A Iglesias, Qian Zhang, Joseph Celestino, Charlotte C Sun, Melinda S Yates, Rosemarie E Schmandt, Karen H Lu
OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a major risk factor for endometrial cancer. We evaluated whether obesity exacerbates progression of endometrial hyperplasia (EH) using the PRCre/+ PTENflox/+ mouse model and examined if the type 2 diabetes drug, metformin, could prevent EH. METHODS: Twenty obese (PRCre/+ PTENflox/+) mice were maintained on a high-fat diet, while 20 lean mice ate a matching low-fat diet. Ten mice from each group received metformin (1,000 mg/day) in drinking water...
December 9, 2016: Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926473/growth-differentiation-factor-15-increases-following-oral-glucose-ingestion-effect-of-meal-composition-and-obesity
#4
Marie Helene Schernthaner-Reiter, Dominik Kasses, Christina Tugendsam, Michaela Riedl, Slobodan Peric, Gerhard Prager, Michael Krebs, Miriam Promintzer-Schifferl, Martin Clodi, Anton Luger, Greisa Vila
OBJECTIVE: Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a cardiovascular biomarker belonging to the transforming growth factor-β superfamily. Increased GDF15 concentrations are associated with insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity. We investigated the physiological effects of meal composition and obesity on the regulation of systemic GDF15 levels. DESIGN: Lean (n = 8) and obese (n = 8) individuals received a carbohydrate- or fat-rich meal, a 75 g oral glucose load (OGTT) or short-term fasting...
December 2016: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913848/increased-fetal-adiposity-prior-to-diagnosis-of-gestational-diabetes-in-south-asians-more-evidence-for-the-thin-fat-baby
#5
Hema Venkataraman, Uma Ram, Sam Craik, Anuradhai Arungunasekaran, Suresh Seshadri, Ponnusamy Saravanan
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with an increased future risk of obesity in the offspring. Increased adiposity has been observed in the newborns of women with GDM. Our aim was to examine early fetal adiposity in women with GDM. METHODS: Obstetric and sonographic data was collated for 153 women with GDM and 178 controls from a single centre in Chennai, India. Fetal head circumference (HC), abdominal circumference (AC), femur length (FL) and biparietal diameter (BPD) were recorded at 11, 20 and 32 weeks...
December 2, 2016: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911357/characterization-of-metabolic-status-in-nonhuman-primates-with-the-intravenous-glucose-tolerance-test
#6
Michael Staup, George Aoyagi, TeQuana Bayless, Yixin Wang, Keefe Chng
The intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) plays a key role in the characterization of glucose homeostasis. When taken together with serum biochemical profiles, inclusive of blood glucose levels in both the fed and fasted state, HbA1c, insulin levels, clinical history of diet, body composition, and body weight status, an assessment of normal and abnormal glycemic control can be made. Interpretation of an IVGTT is done through measurement of changes in glucose and insulin levels over time in relation to the dextrose challenge...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881389/changes-in-skeletal-muscle-and-organ-size-after-a-weight-loss-intervention-in-overweight-and-obese-type-2-diabetic-patients
#7
Dympna Gallagher, David E Kelley, John Thornton, Lawrence Boxt, Xavier Pi-Sunyer, Edward Lipkin, Ebenezer Nyenwe, Isaiah Janumala, Stanley Heshka
BACKGROUND: The effect of a weight-loss intervention on the masses of lean tissues and organs in humans is not well known. OBJECTIVE: We studied the effects of a diet and exercise weight-loss intervention on skeletal muscle (SM) mass and selected organs over 2 y using MRI in overweight adults with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Participants were 53 women and 39 men [mean ± SD: age 58 ± 7 y; body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) 32 ± 3] enrolled in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) trial and randomly assigned to an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) or diabetes support and education (DSE) on whom 2 y of data were collected...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875537/effect-of-l-tryptophan-and-l-leucine-on-gut-hormone-secretion-appetite-feelings-and-gastric-emptying-rates-in-lean-and-non-diabetic-obese-participants-a-randomized-double-blind-parallel-group-trial
#8
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Simon Häfliger, Julian Meili, Alison Doody, Jens F Rehfeld, Jürgen Drewe, Christoph Beglinger, Bettina Wölnerhanssen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) play a role as satiation factors. Strategies to enhance satiation peptide secretion could provide a therapeutic approach for obesity. Carbohydrates and lipids have been extensively investigated in relation to peptide release. In contrast, the role of proteins or amino acids is less clear. Our aim was to compare the effects of the amino acids L-tryptophan (L-trp) and L-leucine (L-leu) separately on gastric emptying and gut peptide secretion...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871838/chronic-insulin-infusion-induces-reversible-glucose-intolerance-in-lean-rats-yet-ameliorates-glucose-intolerance-in-obese-rats
#9
Shereen M Hamza, Miranda M Sung, Fei Gao, Carrie-Lynn Soltys, Nancy P Smith, Patrick E MacDonald, Peter E Light, Jason R B Dyck
: Background Although insulin resistance (IR) is a key factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), the precise role of insulin in the development of IR remains unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether chronic basal insulin infusion is causative in the development of glucose intolerance. Methods Normoglycemic lean rats surgically instrumented with i.v. catheters were infused with insulin (3mU/kg/min) or physiological saline for 6weeks. At infusion-end, plasma insulin levels along with glucose tolerance were assessed Results 6weeks of insulin infusion induced glucose intolerance and impaired insulin response in healthy rats...
November 18, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871471/endocan-expression-is-increased-in-the-placenta-from-obese-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Padma Murthi, Ramona Sarkis, Ratana Lim, Caitlyn Nguyen-Ngo, Anita Pratt, Stella Liong, Martha Lappas
INTRODUCTION: Endocan, a member of the proteoglycan family, is involved in a wide range of diseases including obesity and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of (i) maternal obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) on placental endocan expression; and (ii) endocan knockdown on markers of inflammation. METHODS: Endocan mRNA and protein expression was determined in human placenta from (i) lean and obese and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) pregnant women (n = 10 patients per group); and (ii) women with GDM and BMI-matched NGT women (n = 40 patients per group)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870654/dietary-fatty-acid-metabolism-in-prediabetes
#11
Christophe Noll, André C Carpentier
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Experimental evidences are strong for a role of long-chain saturated fatty acids in the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Ectopic accretion of triglycerides in lean organs is a characteristic of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and has been linked to end-organ complications. The contribution of disordered dietary fatty acid (DFA) metabolism to lean organ overexposure and lipotoxicity is still unclear, however. DFA metabolism is very complex and very difficult to study in vivo in humans...
November 18, 2016: Current Opinion in Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869909/altered-levels-of-circulating-cytokines-and-micrornas-in-lean-and-obese-individuals-with-prediabetes-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Yury O Nunez Lopez, Gabriella Garufi, Attila A Seyhan
Today obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) have both reached epidemic proportions. However, our current understanding of the primary mechanisms leading to these diseases is still limited due to the complex multifactorial nature of the underlying phenomena. We hypothesize that the levels of specific cytokines and miRNAs vary across the diabetes spectrum and unique signatures associated with them may serve as early biomarkers of the disease and provide insights into respective pathogenetic mechanisms. In this study, we measured the circulating levels of cytokines and microRNAs (miRNAs) in lean and obese humans with prediabetes (n = 21), T2D (n = 17), and healthy controls (n = 20) (ORIGINS trial, NCT02226640)...
November 21, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866192/dietary-genistein-rescues-reduced-basal-chloride-secretion-in-diabetic-jejunum-via-sex-dependent-mechanisms
#13
Shawn Catmull, Faisal Masood, Sydney Schacht, Robert Dolan, Daniel Stegman, Lana Leung, Layla Al-Nakkash
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The goal of this study was to determine the effect of dietary genistein (naturally occurring phytoestrogen) on jejunal secretory function in a clinically relevant model of diabetes and obesity, the leptin-defIcient ob/ob mouse. METHODS: We measured transepithelial short circuit current (Isc), across freshly isolated segments of jejunum from 12-week old male and female ob/ob and lean C57Bl/6J mice fed a genistein diet (600 mg genistein/kg diet) for 4-weeks...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865092/control-of-bone-and-fat-mass-by-oxytocin
#14
Ez-Zoubir Amri, Didier F Pisani
Osteoporosis and overweight/obesity constitute major worldwide public health burdens. Aging is associated with a decrease in hormonal secretion, lean mass and bone mass, and an increase in fat accumulation. It is established that both obesity and osteoporosis are affected by genetic and environmental factors, bone remodeling and adiposity are both regulated through the hypothalamus and sympathetic nervous system. Oxytocin (OT), belongs to the pituitary hormone family and regulates the function of peripheral target organs, its circulating levels decreased with age...
November 1, 2016: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861364/a-prospective-study-of-impaired-fasting-glucose-and-type-2-diabetes-in-china-the-kailuan-study
#15
Anand Vaidya, Liufu Cui, Lixia Sun, Bing Lu, Shuohua Chen, Xing Liu, Yong Zhou, Xiurong Liu, Xiaobing Xie, Frank B Hu, Shouling Wu, Xiang Gao
The worldwide prevalence and incidence of diabetes and obesity are increasing in pandemic proportions. This is particularly relevant for China, where an extremely large population is growing, aging, and urbanizing. We thus conducted a prospective study to examine the prevalence and incidence of impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes, the rate at which fasting blood glucose rises, and the major modifiable risk factors associated with these outcomes in a large Chinese population from the Kailuan prospective study...
November 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855341/the-relationship-of-fasting-hyperglycemia-to-changes-in-fat-and-muscle-mass-after-exercise-training-in-type-2-diabetes
#16
Swaytha V Yalamanchi, Kerry J Stewart, Nan Ji, Sherita H Golden, Adrian Dobs, Diane M Becker, Dhananjay Vaidya, Brian G Kral, Rita R Kalyani
AIMS: Exercise training (ET) has been variably associated with body composition changes among persons with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The degree to which these changes are related to hyperglycemia remains unclear. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of baseline fasting glucose (FG) to the magnitude of muscle gains and fat loss after ET in individuals with T2DM. METHODS: Participants were enrolled in the SHAPE-2 trial, a six month supervised aerobic and resistance training intervention (three days/week), at Johns Hopkins...
October 10, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853030/the-prevalence-and-characteristics-of-latent-autoimmune-diabetes-in-adults-subset-among-type-two-diabetes-mellitus-patients-in-northern-nigeria
#17
Salisu Babura Muazu, Innocent Okpe, Felicia Anumah
INTRODUCTION: Latent autoimmune diabetes in adult (LADA) is a form of Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that occurs in adult or with advancing age. It commonly occurs in people aged ≥30 years and is characterized by initial response to oral hypoglycemic agents, lean body mass, and presence of glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibody (GAD-Ab). It exhibits rapid deterioration of the pancreatic β-cells secretory function due to the destructive action of the autoantibodies. The prevalence of LADA among T2DM patients varies among population due to different diagnostic criteria, patients' characteristics, the assay used, and genetic predisposition...
October 2016: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843552/remission-of-pre-diabetes-to-normal-glucose-tolerance-in-obese-adults-with-high-protein-versus-high-carbohydrate-diet-randomized-control-trial
#18
Frankie B Stentz, Amy Brewer, Jim Wan, Channing Garber, Blake Daniels, Chris Sands, Abbas E Kitabchi
OBJECTIVE: Remission of pre-diabetes to normal is an important health concern which has had little success in the past. This study objective was to determine the effect on remission of pre-diabetes with a high protein (HP) versus high carbohydrate (HC) diet and effects on metabolic parameters, lean and fat body mass in prediabetic, obese subjects after 6 months of dietary intervention. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited and randomized 24 pre-diabetes women and men to either a HP (30% protein, 30% fat, 40% carbohydrate; n=12) or HC (15% protein, 30% fat, 55% carbohydrate; n=12) diet feeding study for 6 months in this randomized controlled trial...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826567/impact-of-a-12-week-aerobic-exercise-training-program-on-anthropometric-and-metabolic-parameters-of-a-group-of-type-2-diabetes-cameroonian-women-aged-%C3%A2-50-years
#19
Yves Dahjio, Jean Jacques N Noubiap, Marcel Azabji-Kenfack, Mickael Essouma, Gabriel Ekali Loni, Arnold Ewane Onana, Mesmin Dehayem, Angeline Mvom, Maurice Njock Tadjore, Eugene Sobngwi
BACKGROUND: We examined whether aerobic exercise could have an impact on anthropometric and metabolic parameters of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years. METHODS: We enrolled 23 T2DM Cameroonian women aged ≥50 years regularly followed at the National Obesity Center of Yaounde, Cameroon, in a 12-week aerobic exercise program monitored by a pedometer. Exercise intensity was progressively set between 55% and 75% of maximum heart rate...
October 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821438/akkermansia-muciniphila-improves-metabolic-profiles-by-reducing-inflammation-in-chow-diet-fed-mice
#20
Shaoqian Zhao, Wen Liu, Jiqiu Wang, Juan Shi, Yingkai Sun, Weiqing Wang, Guang Ning, Ruixin Liu, Jie Hong
Abnormal shifts in the composition of gut microbiota contribute to the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases, including obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The crosstalk between gut microbes and the host affects the inflammatory status and glucose tolerance of the individuals, but the underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated completely. In this study, we treated the lean chow diet-fed mice with Akkermansia muciniphila, which is thought to be inversely correlated with inflammation status and body weight in rodents and humans, and we found that A...
January 2017: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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