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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207937/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-involved-in-the-aggravation-of-periodontitis-by-diabetes
#1
Xiaoyu Sun, Yixin Mao, Panpan Dai, Xumin Li, Weiyan Gu, Huining Wang, Gang Wu, Jianfeng Ma, Shengbin Huang
AIM: To elucidate whether mitochondrial dysfunction contributes to aggravated periodontitis in diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 64 wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups: control, periodontitis, diabetes, and diabetic periodontitis. Two weeks after induction of diabetes, periodontitis was induced by silk ligation for 2 weeks and thereafter evaluated by assessing alveolar bone loss and apoptosis of periodontium cells. Mitochondrial oxidative stress was detected by MitoSOX staining...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198702/epigenetic-clock-analysis-of-diet-exercise-education-and-lifestyle-factors
#2
Austin Quach, Morgan E Levine, Toshiko Tanaka, Ake T Lu, Brian H Chen, Luigi Ferrucci, Beate Ritz, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian L Neuhouser, Jeannette M Beasley, Linda Snetselaar, Robert B Wallace, Philip S Tsao, Devin Absher, Themistocles L Assimes, James D Stewart, Yun Li, Lifang Hou, Andrea A Baccarelli, Eric A Whitsel, Steve Horvath
Behavioral and lifestyle factors have been shown to relate to a number of health-related outcomes, yet there is a need for studies that examine their relationship to molecular aging rates. Toward this end, we use recent epigenetic biomarkers of age that have previously been shown to predict all-cause mortality, chronic conditions, and age-related functional decline. We analyze cross-sectional data from 4,173 postmenopausal female participants from the Women's Health Initiative, as well as 402 male and female participants from the Italian cohort study, Invecchiare nel Chianti...
February 14, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197123/altered-regional-gray-matter-volume-in-obese-men-a-structural-mri-study
#3
Bin Zhang, Xiao Tian, Derun Tian, Jinhong Wang, Qiming Wang, Chunshui Yu, Chunbo Li, Jijun Wang
Obesity is associated with a number of health problems, especial insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes. Our previous study showed that obese males had decreased neural activity in the orbital frontal cortex (OFC) and increased activity in the left putamen (Zhang et al., 2015b), which could indicate altered eating behaviors in obesity related to a hyper-functioning striatum and hypo-functioning inhibitory control. Accordingly, our goal of the current study was to determine whether there are alterations in the brain structures within these two neural systems in obese individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193782/mitochondrial-mass-and-activity-as-a-function-of-body-composition-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Laura C O'Brien, Rodney C Wade, Liron Segal, Qun Chen, Jeannie Savas, Edward J Lesnefsky, Ashraf S Gorgey
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is accompanied by deterioration in body composition and severe muscle atrophy. These changes put individuals at risk for insulin resistance, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. To determine the relationships between skeletal muscle mitochondrial mass, activity, and body composition, 22 men with motor complete SCI were studied. Body composition assessment was performed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle to measure citrate synthase (CS) and complex III (CIII) activity...
February 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191538/lipodystrophy-hiv-related-and-fgf21-a-new-marker-to-follow-the-progression-of-lipodystrophy
#5
Stefano Benedini, Livio Luzi
Recently new evidence about fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) highlights the opportunities to use this molecule in new pharmaceutical formulations to combat type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. It is well known that HIV is per se a condition of insulin resistance and in particular the patient with HIV-related lipodystrophy has a condition strictly related to metabolic syndrome. Lipodystrophy is associated with severe metabolic side effects, including dyslipidemia, hepatic insulin resistance, and lipid oxidation impairment...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183304/genistein-treatment-improves-fracture-resistance-in-obese-diabetic-mice
#6
Britton Odle, Nathan Dennison, Layla Al-Nakkash, Tom L Broderick, Jeffrey H Plochocki
BACKGROUND: Obese, type two diabetics are at an increased risk for fracturing their limb bones in comparison to the general population. Phytoestrogens like as the soy isoflavone genistein have been shown to protect against bone loss. In this study, we tested the effects of genistein treatment on femurs of ob/ob mice, a model for obesity and type two diabetes mellitus. METHODS: Twenty six-week-old female mice were divided into obese (ob/ob) control, obese genistein-treated, lean (ob/+) control, and lean genistein-treated groups (n = 5 each)...
January 9, 2017: BMC Endocrine Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177734/association-between-dietary-inflammatory-index-dii-and-risk-of-pre-diabetes-a-case-control-study
#7
Farhad Vahid, Nitin Shivappa, Mohsen Karamati, Alireza Jafari Naeini, James R Hebert, Sayed Hossein Davoodi
BACKGROUND: The possible relationship between diet-related inflammation and the risk of pre-diabetes requires further investigation, especially in non-Western populations. We examined the ability of the dietary inflammatory index (DII) to predict the risk of pre-diabetes in a case-control study conducted at specialized centers in Esfahan, Iran. METHODS: A total of 214 incident cases of pre-diabetes were selected with the non-random sampling procedure; and 200 controls randomly selected from the same clinics were frequency-matched on age (±5 years) and sex...
December 15, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174289/vascular-effects-of-obestatin-in-lean-and-obese-subjects
#8
Francesca Schinzari, Augusto Veneziani, Nadia Mores, Angela Barini, Nicola Di Daniele, Carmine Cardillo, Manfredi Tesauro
Obese patients have impaired vasodilator reactivity and increased endothelin (ET)-1-mediated vasoconstriction, two abnormalities contributing to vascular dysfunction. Obestatin, a product of the ghrelin gene, in addition to favorable effects on glucose and lipid metabolism, has shown nitric oxide (NO)-dependent vasodilator properties in experimental models. Given these premises, we compared the effects of exogenous obestatin on forearm flow in lean and obese subjects and assessed its influence on ET-1-dependent vasoconstrictor tone in obesity...
February 7, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166744/effect-of-large-weight-reductions-on-measured-and-estimated-kidney-function
#9
Bernt Johan von Scholten, Frederik Persson, Maria S Svane, Tine W Hansen, Sten Madsbad, Peter Rossing
BACKGROUND: When patients experience large weight loss, muscle mass may be affected followed by changes in plasma creatinine (pCr). The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimated GFR (eGFR) include pCr. We hypothesised that a large weight loss reduces muscle mass and pCr causing increase in eGFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area. METHODS: Prospective, intervention study including 19 patients...
February 6, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165405/circulating-docosahexaenoic-acid-associates-with-insulin-dependent-skeletal-muscle-and-whole-body-glucose-uptake-in-older-women-born-from-normal-weight-mothers
#10
Robert M Badeau, Miikka-Juhani Honka, Marco Bucci, Patricia Iozzo, Johan G Eriksson, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance...
February 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150034/association-of-dpp-4-activity-with-bmd-body-composition-and-incident-hip-fracture-the-cardiovascular-health-study
#11
L D Carbone, P Bůžková, H A Fink, J A Robbins, M Bethel, C M Isales, W D Hill
: There was no association of plasma DPP-4 activity levels with bone mineral density (BMD), body composition, or incident hip fractures in a cohort of elderly community-dwelling adults. INTRODUCTION: Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-4) inactivates several key hormones including those that stimulate postprandial insulin secretion, and DPP-4 inhibitors (gliptins) are approved to treat diabetes. While DPP-4 is known to modulate osteogenesis, the relationship between DPP-4 activity and skeletal health is uncertain...
February 2, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143858/phenotyping-of-adipose-liver-and-skeletal-muscle-insulin-resistance-and-response-to-pioglitazone-in-spontaneously-obese-rhesus-monkeys
#12
Jin Shang, Stephen F Previs, Stacey Conarello, Keefe Chng, Yonghua Zhu, Sandra C Souza, Michael Staup, Ying Chen, Dan Xie, Emanuel Zycband, Karni Schlessinger, Victoria Plamadeala Johnson, Gladys Arreaza, Franklin Liu, Diane Levitan, Liangsu Wang, Margaret van Heek, Mark Erion, Yixin Wang, David E Kelley
Insulin resistance and diabetes can develop spontaneously with obesity and aging in rhesus monkeys, highly similar to the natural history of obesity, insulin resistance and progression to type 2 diabetes in humans. The current studies in obese rhesus were undertaken to assess hepatic and adipose contributions to systemic insulin resistance, currently a gap in our knowledge, and to benchmark the responses to pioglitazone (PIO). A 2-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, with tracer-based glucose flux estimates, was used to measure insulin resistance and in an intervention study was repeated following six weeks of PIO treatment (3 mg/kg)...
January 31, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141700/endothelial-and-perivascular-adipose-tissue-abnormalities-in-obesity-related-vascular-dysfunction-novel-targets-for-treatment
#13
Francesca Schinzari, Manfredi Tesauro, Carmine Cardillo
The heavy impact of obesity on the development and progression of cardiovascular disease has sparked sustained efforts to uncover the mechanisms linking excess adiposity to vascular dysfunction. In addition to its well-established role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, the endothelium has been increasingly recognized as a key player in modulating healthy adipose tissue expansion in response to excess calories by providing adipocyte precursors and driving angiogenesis. When this increased storage need is unmet, excessive deposition of fat occurs at ectopic locations, including perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139540/transcriptome-profiling-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-in-a-novel-obese-rat-model-wnin-ob-its-comparison-with-other-animal-models
#14
Siva Sankara Vara Prasad Sakamuri, Uday Kumar Putcha, Giridharan Nappan Veettil, Vajreswari Ayyalasomayajula
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Adipose tissue dysfunction in obesity is linked to the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. We studied the differential gene expression in retroperitoneal adipose tissue of a novel obese rat model, WNIN/Ob, to understand the possible underlying transcriptional changes involved in the development of obesity and associatedcomorbidities in this model. METHODS: Four month old, male WNIN/Ob lean and obese rats were taken, blood was collected and tissues were dissected...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133708/tadalafil-improves-lean-mass-and-endothelial-function-in-nonobese-men-with-mild-ed-luts-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-characterization
#15
Antonio Aversa, Simona Fittipaldi, Davide Francomano, Viviana M Bimonte, Emanuela A Greco, Clara Crescioli, Luigi Di Luigi, Andrea Lenzi, Silvia Migliaccio
PURPOSE: Phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitor administration in diabetic men with erectile dysfunction (ED) is associated with reduced waist circumference. We evaluated potential effects of daily tadalafil administration on body composition and investigated its possible mechanism(s) of action in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells in vitro. METHODS: Forty-three men on stable caloric intake (mean age 48.5 ± 7; BMI 25.5 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) complaining mild ED and/or low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) were randomly assigned to receive tadalafil (TAD) 5 mg/daily (once-a-day=OAD-TAD; n = 23) or 20 mg on-demand (on-demand=OD-TAD; n = 20) for 2 months...
January 30, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123946/endospanin1-affects-oppositely-body-weight-regulation-and-glucose-homeostasis-by-differentially-regulating-central-leptin-signaling
#16
Virginie Vauthier, Clara Roujeau, Patty Chen, Chamsy Sarkis, Stéphanie Migrenne, Toru Hosoi, Koichiro Ozawa, Yves Rouillé, Marc Foretz, Jacques Mallet, Jean-Marie Launay, Christophe Magnan, Ralf Jockers, Julie Dam
: The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) is a major integration center for energy and glucose homeostasis that responds to leptin. Resistance to leptin in the ARC is an important component of the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Recently, we showed that Endospanin1 (Endo1) is a negative regulator of the leptin receptor (OBR) that interacts with OBR and retains the receptor inside the cell, leading to a decreased activation of the anorectic STAT3 pathway. Endo1 is up-regulated in the ARC of high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice, and its silencing in the ARC of lean and obese mice prevents and reverses the development of obesity...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123936/metabolomic-profiling-identifies-potential-pathways-involved-in-the-interaction-of-iron-homeostasis-with-glucose-metabolism
#17
Lars Stechemesser, Sebastian K Eder, Andrej Wagner, Wolfgang Patsch, Alexandra Feldman, Michael Strasser, Simon Auer, David Niederseer, Ursula Huber-Schönauer, Bernhard Paulweber, Stephan Zandanell, Sandra Ruhaltinger, Daniel Weghuber, Elisabeth Haschke-Becher, Christoph Grabmer, Eva Rohde, Christian Datz, Thomas K Felder, Elmar Aigner
OBJECTIVE: Elevated serum ferritin has been linked to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and adverse health outcomes in subjects with the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS). As the mechanisms underlying the negative impact of excess iron have so far remained elusive, we aimed to identify potential links between iron homeostasis and metabolic pathways. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 163 patients, allocated to one of three groups: (1) lean, healthy controls (n = 53), (2) MetS without hyperferritinemia (n = 54) and (3) MetS with hyperferritinemia (n = 56)...
January 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116808/lipocalin-2-expression-and-serum-levels-as-early-predictors-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-obese-women
#18
Nearmeen M Rashad, Amal S El-Shal, Rasha L Etewa, Fady M Wadea
Obesity and diabetes are increasing in epidemic proportions globally. Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) is an inflammatory adipocytokine and obesity-related marker of low-grade inflammation. We aimed to investigate, for first time, the possible role of LCN-2 expression and serum levels in prediction of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among obese Egyptian women. This study included 188 obese women and 180 controls. Obese women were subdivided into three subgroups according to their fasting blood glucose, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), IGT and T2DM...
February 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112773/combination-of-recreational-soccer-and-caloric-restricted-diet-reduces-markers-of-protein-catabolism-and-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#19
M Vieira de Sousa, R Fukui, P Krustrup, S Dagogo-Jack, M E Rossi da Silva
BACKGROUND: Moderate calorie-restricted diets and exercise training prevent loss of lean mass and cardiovascular risk. Because adherence to routine exercise recommendation is generally poor, we utilized recreational soccer training as a novel therapeutic exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. OBJECTIVE: We compared the effects of acute and chronic soccer training plus calorie-restricted diet on protein catabolism and cardiovascular risk markers in T2D...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112681/acute-dietary-fat-intake-initiates-alterations-in-energy-metabolism-and-insulin-resistance
#20
Elisa Álvarez Hernández, Sabine Kahl, Anett Seelig, Paul Begovatz, Martin Irmler, Yuliya Kupriyanova, Bettina Nowotny, Peter Nowotny, Christian Herder, Cristina Barosa, Filipa Carvalho, Jan Rozman, Susanne Neschen, John G Jones, Johannes Beckers, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Michael Roden
BACKGROUND: Dietary intake of saturated fat is a likely contributor to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and insulin resistance, but the mechanisms that initiate these abnormalities in humans remain unclear. We examined the effects of a single oral saturated fat load on insulin sensitivity, hepatic glucose metabolism, and lipid metabolism in humans. Similarly, initiating mechanisms were examined after an equivalent challenge in mice. METHODS: Fourteen lean, healthy individuals randomly received either palm oil (PO) or vehicle (VCL)...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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