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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786448/serum-rbp4-positively-correlates-with-triglyceride-level-but-not-with-bmi-fat-mass-and-insulin-resistance-in-healthy-obese-and-non-obese-individuals
#1
Emilia Korek, Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska-Maciejewska, Hanna Krauss, Małgorzata Łagiedo-Żelazowska, Barbara Kołodziejczak, Paweł Bogdański
PURPOSE: Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) has recently been identified as an adipokine possibly involved in the development of impaired glucose metabolism. We aimed to test serum RBP4 in healthy non-obese individuals and in patients with well-characterized phenotype: obesity without confounding effects of diabetes, metabolic syndrome or dyslipidemia. Additionally, we examined whether serum RBP4 is associated with anthropometric parameters, insulin resistance and blood lipid parameters...
May 22, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783856/increased-aqp7-abundance-in-skeletal-muscle-from-obese-men-with-type-2-diabetes
#2
Janne Lebeck, Esben Søndergaard, Søren Nielsen
AQP7 facilitates the transport of glycerol across cell membranes. In mice, fasting and refeeding regulate adipose tissue AQP7 abundance and a role in controlling triglyceride accumulation in adipose tissue has been proposed. AQP7 is also expressed in skeletal muscle, where its function remains to be determined. Here, the abundance of AQP7 in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and skeletal muscle was evaluated in the overnight fasted and postprandial state in eight lean and eight obese men with type 2 diabetes (T2D)...
May 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779969/increased-malondialdehyde-vs-reduced-sirtuin-1-in-relation-with-adiposity-atherogenicity-and-hematological-indices-in-metabolic-syndrome-patients-with-and-without-prediabetes
#3
Samar Abu Rkhaya, Nailya Bulatova, Violet Kasabri, Randa Naffa, Reema Alquoqa
BACKGROUND: Sirtuin 1 (SIRT 1) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were implicated in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathophysiology. AIMS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate both SIRT 1 and MDA in 30 lean healthy control, 31 normoglycemic MetS subjects and 30 MetS-Pre/T2DM drug naïve. C orrelation studies were established for both biomarkers with adiposity indices [conicity index (CI), waist circumference (WC), weight-to-height (WHtR) ratio, weight-to-hip (WHR) ratio, hip circumference (HC), and body adiposity index (BAI)], hematological indices [red cell distribution width (RDW), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet-to-lymphcyte ratio (PLR), neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio (MLR)] and atherogenicity indices (atherogenicity index of plasma (AIP = log10 TG/HDL-C ratio), TC/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios]...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766286/attenuation-of-the-association-between-sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-diabetes-risk-by-adiposity-adjustment-a-secondary-analysis-of-national-health-survey-data
#4
Yi Jing, Thang S Han, Majid M Alkhalaf, Michael E J Lean
PURPOSE: While weight gain and obesity are the dominant factors, dietary sugar and specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) has been implicated in causing type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We assessed how much of the apparent effect of SSB is explained by adiposity, but not captured by adjustment for BMI, which is a poor index of body fat. METHODS: We examined data from 5187 adults (mean age 50.8 years, SD = 16.4, 172 (3.3%) T2DM), from the Scottish Health Survey 2003 and 2008-2010 databases...
May 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758041/acute-effects-of-insulin-on-circulating-natriuretic-peptide-levels-in-humans
#5
Katherine N Bachmann, Serpil Muge Deger, Aseel Alsouqi, Shi Huang, Meng Xu, Jane F Ferguson, Yan Ru Su, Kevin D Niswender, T Alp Ikizler, Thomas J Wang
BACKGROUND: The natriuretic peptide hormones play an important role in salt and blood pressure regulation. In observational studies, obesity and insulin resistance have been consistently associated with lower concentrations of natriuretic peptides. It has been proposed that insulin influences natriuretic peptide production. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the acute effects of insulin administration on natriuretic peptide concentrations. METHODS: 31 men and women (11 lean, 10 overweight, and 10 obese), ages 30-70 years, without cardiovascular disease or overt diabetes underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic insulin clamp...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755291/transcription-factor-co-expression-networks-of-adipose-rna-seq-data-reveal-regulatory-mechanisms-of-obesity
#6
Ruta Skinkyte-Juskiene, Lisette J A Kogelman, Haja N Kadarmideen
Background: Transcription Factors (TFs) control actuation of genes in the genome and are key mediators of complex processes such as obesity. Master Regulators (MRs) are the genes at the top of a regulation hierarchy which regulate other genes. Objective: To elucidate clusters of highly co-expressed TFs (modules), involved pathways, highly inter-connected TFs (hub-TFs) and MRs leading to obesity and leanness, using porcine model for human obesity. Methods: We identified 817 expressed TFs in RNA-Sequencing dataset representing extreme degrees of obesity (DO; lean, obese)...
May 2018: Current Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752393/cardiac-structural-remodeling-longitudinal-systolic-strain-and-torsional-mechanics-in-lean-and-nonlean-dysglycemic-chinese-adults
#7
Jiun-Lu Lin, Kuo-Tzu Sung, Cheng-Huang Su, Tzu-Hsun Chou, Chi-In Lo, Jui-Peng Tsai, Shun-Chuan Chang, Yau-Huei Lai, Kuang-Chun Hu, Chia-Yuan Liu, Chun-Ho Yun, Chung-Lieh Hung, Hung-I Yeh, Carolyn S P Lam
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus and pre-diabetes mellitus are associated with lower body mass indices and increased risk of cardiovascular events (including heart failure) at lower glucose thresholds in Chinese compared with Western cohorts. However, the extent of cardiac remodeling and regulation on cardiac mechanics in lean and nonlean dysglycemic Chinese adults is understudied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied 3950 asymptomatic Chinese (aged 49.7±10.7 years; 65% male; body mass index: 24...
May 2018: Circulation. Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750251/effect-of-aerobic-exercise-training-and-essential-amino-acid-supplementation-for-24-weeks-on-physical-function-body-composition-and-muscle-metabolism-in-healthy-independent-older-adults-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Melissa M Markofski, Kristofer Jennings, Kyle L Timmerman, Jared M Dickinson, Christopher S Fry, Michael S Borack, Paul T Reidy, Rachel R Deer, Amanda Randolph, Blake B Rasmussen, Elena Volpi
Background: Essential amino acids (EAA) and aerobic exercise (AE) acutely and independently stimulate skeletal muscle protein anabolism in older adults. Objective: In this Phase 1, double blind, placebo controlled, randomized clinical trial, we determined if chronic EAA supplementation, AE training, or a combination of the two interventions could improve muscle mass and function by stimulating muscle protein synthesis. Methods: We phone screened 971, enrolled 109, and randomized 50 independent, low-active, non-frail, non-diabetic older adults (age 72±1 yrs)...
May 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745794/visceral-adipose-tissue-tracks-more-closely-with-metabolic-dysfunction-than-intrahepatic-triglyceride-in-non-diabetic-lean-asians
#9
Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Yu Chung Chooi, John Choo, Suresh Anand Sadananthan, Navin Michael, S Sendhil Velan, Melvin Khee-Shing Leow, Faidon Magkos
BACKGROUND: Increased visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) are important risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes in obese subjects. The relative contribution of these ectopic fat depots to cardiometabolic risk differs between populations, depends on the degree of obesity and the level of cardiorespiratory fitness, and is difficult to dissect because VAT and IHTG typically co-vary. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an isolated increase in VAT or IHTG on insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion in apparently healthy normal-weight Asian subjects...
May 10, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739849/a-novel-inhibitor-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-stimulates-myocardial-carbohydrate-oxidation-in-diet-induced-obesity
#10
Cheng-Yang Wu, Santhosh Satapati, Wenjun Gui, Richard M Wynn, Gaurav Sharma, Mingliang Lou, Xiangbing Qi, Shawn C Burgess, Craig Malloy, Chalermchai Khemtong, A Dean Sherry, David Chuang, Matthew E Merritt
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a key control point of energy metabolism and is subject to regulation by multiple mechanisms, including post-translational phosphorylation by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK). Pharmacological modulation of PDC activity could provide a new treatment for diabetic cardiomyopathy, as dysregulated substrate selection is concomitant with decreased heart function. Dichloroacetate (DCA), a classic PDK inhibitor, has been used to treat diabetic cardiomyopathy, but the lack of specificity and side effects of DCA indicate a more specific inhibitor of PDK is needed...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738558/inflammatory-signatures-distinguish-metabolic-health-in-african-american-women-with-obesity
#11
Gerald V Denis, Paola Sebastiani, Kimberly A Bertrand, Katherine J Strissel, Anna H Tran, Jaromir Slama, Nilton D Medina, Guillaume Andrieu, Julie R Palmer
Obesity-driven Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a systemic inflammatory condition associated with cardiovascular disease. However, plasma cytokines and tissue inflammation that discriminate T2D risk in African American women with obese phenotypes are not well understood. We analyzed 64 circulating cytokines and chemokines in plasma of 120 African American women enrolled in the Black Women's Health Study. We used regression analysis to identify cytokines and chemokines associated with obesity, co-morbid T2D and hypertension, and compared results to obese women without these co-morbidities, as well as to lean women without the co-morbidities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732719/evaluation-of-visceral-adipose-tissue-oxygenation-by-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-mri-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#12
Hong-Jian Shi, Yan-Feng Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Zhi-Chun Lin, Wei Cai, Tao Chen, Bin Yuan, Xiu-Long Niu, Han-Ying Li, Wen Shu, Yu-Ming Li, Fei Yuan, Xin Zhou, Zhuoli Zhang
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) to evaluate visceral adipose tissue (VAT) oxygenation in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and its associations with systemic metaflammation. METHODS: Five-week-old ZDF rats and Zucker lean (ZL) rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 18 weeks. A baseline BOLD-MRI scan of perirenal adipose tissue was performed after 8 weeks of HFD feeding, and then the rats were randomized to receive pioglitazone or a vehicle for the following 10 weeks...
May 7, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731750/macrophage-lamin-a-c-regulates-inflammation-and-the-development-of-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance
#13
Youngjo Kim, Princess Wendy Bayona, Miri Kim, Jiyeon Chang, Sunmin Hong, Yoona Park, Andrea Budiman, Yong-Jin Kim, Chang Yong Choi, Woo Seok Kim, Jongsoon Lee, Kae Won Cho
Obesity-induced chronic low-grade inflammation, in particular in adipose tissue, contributes to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism by which obesity induces adipose tissue inflammation has not been completely elucidated. Recent studies suggest that alteration of the nuclear lamina is associated with age-associated chronic inflammation in humans and fly. These findings led us to investigate whether the nuclear lamina regulates obesity-mediated chronic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725649/impact-of-misclassification-of-obesity-by-body-mass-index-on-mortality-in-patients-with-ckd
#14
Ting-Yun Lin, Paik-Seong Lim, Szu-Chun Hung
Introduction: Unlike the general population, a higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with greater survival among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). This "obesity paradox" may be due to limitations of BMI as a measure of adiposity in CKD. Both BMI and body fat percentage (BF%) are used to classify obesity, but outcomes may vary. Therefore, we investigated the 2 different cutoffs for diagnosing obesity (BMI ≥28 kg/m2 or BF% >25% for men and >35% for women) and the impact on all-cause mortality in CKD...
March 2018: KI Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723655/effects-of-aging-and-insulin-resistant-states-on-protein-anabolic-responses-in-older-adults
#15
REVIEW
Jose A Morais, Kathryn Wright Jacob, Stéphanie Chevalier
Insulin is the principal postprandial anabolic hormone and resistance to its action could contribute to sarcopenia. We developed different types of hyperinsulinemic clamp protocols to measure simultaneously glucose and protein metabolism in insulin resistant states (older adults, obesity, diabetes, etc.). To define effects of healthy aging in response to insulin, we employed the hyperinsulinemic, euglycemic and isoaminoacidemic (HYPER-1) clamp. The net whole-body anabolic (protein balance) response to hyperinsulinemia was lower in the elderly vs young (p = 0...
May 1, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721017/elevated-and-correlated-expressions-of-mir-24-mir-30d-mir-146a-and-sfrp-4-in-human-abdominal-adipose-tissue-play-a-role-in-adiposity-and-insulin-resistance
#16
Yury O Nunez Lopez, Gabriella Garufi, Magdalena Pasarica, Attila A Seyhan
Objective: We explored the relationships among microRNAs (miRNAs) and SFRP4, as they relate to adipose tissue functions including lipolysis, glucose and glycerol turnover, and insulin sensitivity. Methods: Abdominal adipose tissue (AbdAT) levels of thirteen microRNAs (miRNAs), SFRP4, and VEGF in lean nondiabetic subjects ( n = 7), subjects with obesity ( n = 5), and subjects with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) ( n = 5) were measured by qPCR. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp...
2018: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720160/brazilian-propolis-ethanol-extract-and-its-component-kaempferol-induce-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-from-macrophages-of-mice-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#17
Hiroshi Kitamura, Natsuko Saito, Junpei Fujimoto, Ken-Ichi Nakashima, Daisuke Fujikura
BACKGROUND: Brazilian green propolis is produced by mixing secretions from Africanized honey bees with exudate, mainly from Baccharis dracunculifolia. Brazilian propolis is especially rich in flavonoids and cinammic acid derivatives, and it has been widely used in folk medicine owing to its anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, tumoricidal, and analgesic effects. Moreover, it is applied to prevent metabolic disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and arteriosclerosis. Previously, we demonstrated that propolis ethanol extract ameliorated type 2 diabetes in a mouse model through the resolution of adipose tissue inflammation...
May 2, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718281/comprehensive-endocrine-metabolic-evaluation-of-patients-with-alstr%C3%A3-m-syndrome-compared-to-bmi-matched-controls
#18
Joan C Han, Daniela P Reyes-Capo, Chia-Ying Liu, James C Reynolds, Evrim Turkbey, Ismail Baris Turkbey, Joy Bryant, Jan D Marshall, Jürgen K Naggert, William A Gahl, Jack A Yanovski, Meral Gunay-Aygun
Background: Alström syndrome (AS), a monogenic form of obesity, is caused by recessive mutations in the centrosome- and basal body-associated gene, ALMS1. AS is characterized by retinal dystrophy, sensory hearing loss, cardiomyopathy, childhood obesity, and metabolic derangements. Objective: We sought to characterize the endocrine and metabolic features of AS while accounting for obesity as a confounder by comparing patients with AS to BMI-matched controls. Methods: We evaluated 38 patients with AS (age 2-38y) who were matched with 76 controls (age 2-48y) by age, sex, race, and BMI...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717705/-handling-of-hypermetabolism-in-major-burn-injuries
#19
Kaveh Borhani-Khomani, Martin Risom Vestergaard, Rikke Holmgaard
Multitrauma, critical illness and major burn injuries give rise to a stress response with a consequential increase in resting energy expenditure. Especially for burn trauma patients, this stress response is severe and prolonged and may cause a reduced lean muscle mass, loss of peripheral fatty tissue, hyperglycaemia and stress-induced diabetes. This review provides an overview of current strategies to attenuate the hypermetabolic stress response in order to improve the clinical outcome for these patients.
April 23, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710852/association-of-insulin-resistance-with-bone-strength-and-bone-turnover-in-menopausal-chinese-singaporean-women-without-diabetes
#20
Maria Kalimeri, Francesca Leek, Nan Xin Wang, Huann Rong Koh, Nicole C Roy, David Cameron-Smith, Marlena C Kruger, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry, John J Totman
Insulin resistance (IR) is accompanied by increased areal or volumetric bone mineral density (aBMD or vBMD), but also higher fracture risk. Meanwhile, imbalances in bone health biomarkers affect insulin production. This study investigates the effect of IR on proximal femur and lumbar spine BMD, femoral neck bending, compressive and impact strength indices (Composite Strength Indices) and circulating levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-telopeptide of Type I collagen (CTx-1) and 25(OH) Vitamin D₃, in a cohort of 97 healthy, non-obese, menopausal Chinese-Singaporean women...
April 30, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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