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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800712/outcomes-achieved-with-use-of-a-prefabricated-roll-on-total-contact-cast
#1
Jonathan F Arnold, Valerie Marmolejo
BACKGROUND: The total contact cast (TCC) is considered the gold standard for offloading of plantar diabetic foot ulcerations, yet its use remains suboptimal for a variety of reasons. Prefabricated TCC systems have been developed to help enhance TCC use. The primary objective of this study was to determine if healing rates obtained with use of a prefabricated roll-on TCC were similar to those reported with conventional TCC use. Secondary outcomes measured were the incidence of iatrogenic ulceration, amputation, and recurrent ulceration, and patient tolerance of the device...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799142/what-to-do-in-failed-hemispherotomy-our-clinical-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
REVIEW
Andrea Bartoli, Y El Hassani, B Jenny, S Momjian, C M Korff, M Seeck, S Vulliemoz, K Schaller
Hemispherotomy is an established surgical technique to cure or palliate selected, mostly young patients suffering from refractory epilepsy. However, a few patients continue to have seizures despite the surgical hemispherical disconnection. We present a case series of patients who underwent redo hemispherotomy after a first unsuccessful hemispherical disconnection and provide a roadmap for subsequent workup and treatment. The institutional database of epilepsy surgery was reviewed. Twenty-four patients who underwent hemispherotomies for refractory epilepsy were identified between 2007 and 2016...
August 10, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798661/multisensory-based-rehabilitation-approach-translational-insights-from-animal-models-to-early-intervention
#3
REVIEW
Giulia Purpura, Giovanni Cioni, Francesca Tinelli
Multisensory processes permit combinations of several inputs, coming from different sensory systems, allowing for a coherent representation of biological events and facilitating adaptation to environment. For these reasons, their application in neurological and neuropsychological rehabilitation has been enhanced in the last decades. Recent studies on animals and human models have indicated that, on one hand multisensory integration matures gradually during post-natal life and development is closely linked to environment and experience and, on the other hand, that modality-specific information seems to do not benefit by redundancy across multiple sense modalities and is more readily perceived in unimodal than in multimodal stimulation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797004/-lanthanic-presentation-in-first-episode-psychosis-predicts-long-service-delay-the-challenge-of-detecting-masked-psychosis
#4
Erling Inge Kvig, Beate Brinchmann, Cathrine Moe, Steinar Nilssen, Tor Ketil Larsen, Knut Sørgaard
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Studies of pathways to care in first-episode psychosis have documented a substantial treatment delay occurring after patients enter mental health services. An initial presentation with neurotic rather than psychotic symptoms is common in first-episode psychosis. The term "lanthanic patient" has been used to refer to patients presenting with a reason for help-seeking that is unrelated to the underlying pathology. The aim of this study is to explore whether a lanthanic presentation is related to prolonged service delay...
August 11, 2017: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795440/single-site-neural-tube-closure-in-human-embryos-revisited
#5
Bernadette S de Bakker, Stan Driessen, Bastiaan Jd Boukens, Maurice Jh van den Hoff, Roelof-Jan Oostra
Introduction Since the multi-site closure theory was first proposed in 1991 as explanation for the preferential localizations of neural tube defects, the closure of the neural tube has been debated. Although the multi-site closure theory is much cited in clinical literature, single-site closure is most apparent in literature concerning embryology. Inspired by Victor Hamburgers (1900-2001) statement that "our real teacher has been and still is the embryo, who is, incidentally, the only teacher who is always right", we decided to critically review both theories of neural tube closure...
August 10, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794896/prevalence-of-and-associations-with-agitation-in-residents-with-dementia-living-in-care-homes-marque-cross-sectional-study
#6
Gill Livingston, Julie Barber, Louise Marston, Penny Rapaport, Deborah Livingston, Sian Cousins, Sarah Robertson, Francesca La Frenais, Claudia Cooper
BACKGROUND: Agitation is reportedly the most common neuropsychiatric symptom in care home residents with dementia. AIMS: To report, in a large care home survey, prevalence and determinants of agitation in residents with dementia. METHOD: We interviewed staff from 86 care homes between 13 January 2014 and 12 November 2015 about residents with dementia with respect to agitation (Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory (CMAI)), quality of life (DEMQOL-proxy) and dementia severity (Clinical Dementia Rating)...
July 2017: BJPsych Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791474/acetylcholine-nicotinic-receptor-subtypes-in-chromaffin-cells
#7
REVIEW
Manuel Criado
In the adrenal gland, acetylcholine released on stimulation of the sympathetic splanchnic nerve activates neuronal-type nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) in chromaffin cells and triggers catecholamine secretion. At least two subtypes of nAChRs have been described in bovine chromaffin cells. The main subtype, a heteromeric assembly of α3, β4 and perhaps α5 subunits, is involved in the activation step of the catecholamine secretion process and is not blocked by the snake toxin α-bungarotoxin. The other is α-bungarotoxin-sensitive, and its functional role has not yet been well defined...
August 8, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790422/spiral-form-of-the-human-cochlea-results-from-spatial-constraints
#8
M Pietsch, L Aguirre Dávila, P Erfurt, E Avci, T Lenarz, A Kral
The human inner ear has an intricate spiral shape often compared to shells of mollusks, particularly to the nautilus shell. It has inspired many functional hearing theories. The reasons for this complex geometry remain unresolved. We digitized 138 human cochleae at microscopic resolution and observed an astonishing interindividual variability in the shape. A 3D analytical cochlear model was developed that fits the analyzed data with high precision. The cochlear geometry neither matched a proposed function, namely sound focusing similar to a whispering gallery, nor did it have the form of a nautilus...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780750/ischemic-colitis-of-the-colon-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#9
Yahya Ozel, H Kubra Elcioglu, Z Ayca Cevikelli, Ilyas Kudas, Sarfraz Ahmad, Hafize Uzun, Cumhur Topal, Serife Aktas, Levent Kabasakal
This study focuses on two inflammatory diseases, viz., "diabetes mellitus (DM)" that causes serious complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, and "ischemic colitis" which is evoked by DM. Ischemic colitis originates from the reduction in mesenteric blood flow to the colon with existence of the occlusive or non-occlusive reasons. Our study objective was to provide early diagnostic approach for ischemic colitis in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: (i) control use of 0...
August 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779904/ixabepilone-and-carboplatin-for-hormone-receptor-positive-her2-neu-negative-and-triple-negative-metastatic-breast-cancer
#10
Cynthia Osborne, Jagathi D Challagalla, Charles F Eisenbeis, Frankie Ann Holmes, Marcus A Neubauer, Nicholas W Koutrelakos, Carlos A Taboada, Sasha J Vukelja, Sharon T Wilks, Mary Ann Allison, Praveen Reddy, Scot Sedlacek, Yunfei Wang, Lina Asmar, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
BACKGROUND: Hormonal therapies and single-agent sequential chemotherapeutic regimens are the standards of care for HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC). However, treating patients with hormone-refractory and triple negative (TN) MBC remains challenging. We report the results of combined ixabepilone and carboplatin in a single-arm phase II trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present prospective analysis of hormone receptor-positive (HR(+))/HER2(-) and TN MBC cohorts, patients could have received 0 to 2 chemotherapy regimens for MBC before enrollment...
July 10, 2017: Clinical Breast Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771907/xeroderma-pigmentosum-clinical-practice-guidelines
#11
Shinichi Moriwaki, Fumio Kanda, Masaharu Hayashi, Daisuke Yamashita, Yoshitada Sakai, Chikako Nishigori
Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a genetic photosensitive disorder in which patients are highly susceptibe to skin cancers on the sun-exposed body sites. In Japan, more than half of patients (30% worldwide) with XP show complications of idiopathic progressive, intractable neurological symptoms with poor prognoses. Therefore, this disease does not merely present with dermatological symptoms, such as photosensitivity, pigmentary change and skin cancers, but is "an intractable neurological and dermatological disease"...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770976/non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-nsaids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#12
REVIEW
Christopher Eccleston, Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770975/paracetamol-acetaminophen-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
REVIEW
Tess E Cooper, Emma Fisher, Brian Anderson, Nick Mr Wilkinson, David G Williams, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Pain is a common feature of childhood and adolescence around the world, and for many young people, that pain is chronic. The World Health Organization guidelines for pharmacological treatments for children's persisting pain acknowledge that pain in children is a major public health concern of high significance in most parts of the world. While in the past, pain was largely dismissed and was frequently left untreated, views on children's pain have changed over time, and relief of pain is now seen as important...
August 2, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769581/clinical-utility-of-nitisinone-for-the-treatment-of-hereditary-tyrosinemia-type-1-ht-1
#14
REVIEW
Anibh Martin Das
Medical therapy for hereditary hepatorenal tyrosinemia (hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, HT-1) with nitisinone was discovered incidentally, and is a by-product of agrochemistry. It blocks the catabolic pathway of tyrosine, thereby leading to a reduction in the accumulation of toxic metabolites in HT-1. It has to be combined with a low-protein diet supplemented with amino acid mixtures devoid of tyrosine and phenylalanine. This treatment option has completely changed the clinical course of patients suffering from HT-1 who used to die in the first few months to years of life from liver failure, renal dysfunction, and/or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2017: Application of Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768837/vitamin-d-in-the-spectrum-of-prediabetes-and-cardiovascular-autonomic-dysfunction
#15
REVIEW
Rumyana Dimova, Tsvetalina Tankova, Nevena Chakarova
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble secosteroid hormone with pleiotropic effects. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D coordinates the biosynthesis of neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, which regulate cardiovascular autonomic function and may explain its putative role in the development of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN). CAN is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with diabetes and prediabetes and is associated with an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766982/serum-met-5-enkephalin-levels-are-reduced-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-restored-by-low-dose-naltrexone
#16
Michael D Ludwig, Ian S Zagon, Patricia J McLaughlin
Low-dose naltrexone is a widely used off-label therapeutic prescribed for a variety of immune-related disorders. The mechanism underlying low-dose naltrexone's efficacy for fatigue, Crohn's disease, fibromyalgia, and multiple sclerosis is, in part, intermittent blockade of opioid receptors followed by upregulation of endogenous opioids. Short, intermittent blockade by naltrexone specifically blocks the opioid growth factor receptor resulting in biofeedback events that increase production of the endogenous opioid growth factor (OGF) (chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin) facilitating interactions between opioid growth factor and opioid growth factor receptor that ultimately, result in inhibited cell proliferation...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759177/breastfeeding-outcomes-after-oxytocin-use-during-childbirth-an-integrative-review
#17
REVIEW
Elise N Erickson, Cathy L Emeis
INTRODUCTION: Despite widespread use of exogenous synthetic oxytocin during the birth process, few studies have examined the effect of this drug on breastfeeding. Based on neuroscience research, endogenous oxytocin may be altered or manipulated by exogenous administration or by blocking normal function of the hormone or receptor. Women commonly cite insufficient milk production as their reason for early supplementation, jeopardizing breastfeeding goals. Researchers need to consider the role of birth-related medications and interventions on the production of milk...
July 2017: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757918/low-doses-of-amitriptyline-pregabalin-and-gabapentin-are-preferred-for-management-of-neuropathic-pain-in-india-is-there-a-need-for-revisiting-dosing-recommendations
#18
Sanjay Vasant Kamble, Salman Abdulrehman Motlekar, Lyndon Lincoln D'souza, Vinay Nanda Kudrigikar, Sameer Eknath Rao
BACKGROUND: Current therapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain is often unsatisfactory. Considerable variation in treatment pattern still exists in spite of availability of sufficient literature from various guidelines. Recent Indian market data suggested that the utilization (sale) of drugs such as amitriptyline, pregabalin, and gabapentin was more for low-dose unit packs than that of the high-dose unit packs, raising the belief that these drugs are prescribed at a lower dose than is actually recommended in the guidelines...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756769/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-the-icu-clinical-considerations-and-consensus
#19
REVIEW
James S Krinsley, J Geoffrey Chase, Jan Gunst, Johan Martensson, Marcus J Schultz, Fabio S Taccone, Jan Wernerman, Julien Bohe, Christophe De Block, Thomas Desaive, Pierre Kalfon, Jean-Charles Preiser
Glucose management in intensive care unit (ICU) patients has been a matter of debate for almost two decades. Compared to intermittent monitoring systems, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) can offer benefit in the prevention of severe hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia by enabling insulin infusions to be adjusted more rapidly and potentially more accurately because trends in glucose concentrations can be more readily identified. Increasingly, it is apparent that a single glucose target/range may not be optimal for all patients at all times and, as with many other aspects of critical care patient management, a personalized approach to glucose control may be more appropriate...
July 31, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28755978/duration-of-isoflurane-based-surgical-anesthesia-determines-severity-of-brain-injury-and-neurological-deficits-after-a-transient-focal-ischemia-in-young-adult-rats
#20
Nikhil Gaidhani, Fen Sun, Derek Schreihofer, Victor V Uteshev
Tremendous efforts and funds invested in discovery of novel drug treatments for ischemic stroke have so far failed to deliver clinically efficacious therapies. The reasons for these failures are not fully understood. An indiscriminate use of isoflurane-based surgical anesthesia with or without nitrous oxide may act as an unconstrained, untraceable source of data variability, potentially causing false-positive or false-negative results. To test this hypothesis, a common transient suture middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) model of ischemic stroke in young adult male rats was used to determine the impact of a typical range of anesthesia durations required for this model on data variability (i...
July 27, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
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