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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647705/revolution-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke-care-a-practical-guide-to-mechanical-thrombectomy
#1
REVIEW
Matthew Evans, Phil White, Peter Cowley, David Werring
Rapid, safe and effective arterial recanalisation to restore blood flow and improve functional outcome remains the primary goal of hyperacute ischaemic stroke management. The benefit of intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for patients with severe stroke due to large artery occlusion is limited; early recanalisation is generally less than 30% for carotid, proximal middle cerebral artery or basilar artery occlusion. Since November 2014, nine positive randomised controlled trials of mechanical thrombectomy for large vessel occlusion in the anterior circulation have led to a revolution in the care of patients with acute ischaemic stroke...
June 24, 2017: Practical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646556/injury-induced-maladaption-and-dysregulation-of-calcium-channel-alpha-2-delta-subunit-proteins-and-its-contribution-to-neuropathic-pain-development
#2
REVIEW
Nian Gong, John Park, Z David Luo
Voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs) play important roles in physiological functions including modulations of neurotransmitter release, neuronal network activities, intracellular signaling pathways, and gene expression. Some pathological conditions, including nerve injuries, can cause dysregulation of VGCCs and their subunits. This in turn can lead to functional maladaption of VGCCs and their subunits, which can contribute to development of disorders such as pain sensations. This review summarized recent findings related to maladaptive changes of dysregulated VGCC alpha-2-delta-1 subunit (Cav α2 δ1 ) with a focus on exploration of mechanisms underlying contribution of Cav α2 δ1 to pain signal transduction...
June 23, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645127/-high-prevalence-of-antipsychotic-medication-use-in-dementia-patients-in-german-neuropsychiatric-practices
#3
Jens Bohlken, Anke Booker, Karel Kostev
Background The aim of the present study was to examine inpatients as well as patients living at home with respect to the frequency of antipsychotic medication use and to determine the factors leading to initial use of antipsychotics following dementia diagnosis. Methods This study included patients aged 60 years and over with an initial diagnosis of all-cause dementia (index date) by German psychiatrists in Disease Analyzer database (IMS Health). The main outcome measure was the proportion of patients who initially received an antipsychotic prescription after the index date...
June 2017: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642541/can-uk-undergraduate-dental-programmes-provide-training-in-non-surgical-facial-aesthetics
#4
T W M Walker, F Gately, S Stagnell, A Kerai, C Mills, S Thomas
Aim Recently, more and more dentists have found themselves engaging in the delivery of non-surgical facial aesthetics (NSFA) as part of their regular practice routine. NSFA is a growing field in aesthetic medicine that is practised by a range of clinicians including doctors, dentists and registered prescriber nurses and is an industry estimated to be worth over £3 billion in the UK alone. In the past few years, several public scandals in aesthetic medicine have prompted reactions by several bodies including the Government and Royal Colleges...
June 23, 2017: British Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639706/exercise-for-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-for-improving-maternal-and-fetal-outcomes
#5
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Gilles Ceysens, Michel Boulvain
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with both short- and long-term complications for the mother and her baby. Exercise interventions may be useful in helping with glycaemic control and improve maternal and infant outcomes.The original review on Exercise for diabetic pregnant women has been split into two new review titles reflecting the role of exercise for pregnant women with gestational diabetes and for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. Exercise for pregnant women with gestational diabetes for improving maternal and fetal outcomes (this review) Exercise for pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes for improving maternal and fetal outcomes OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of exercise interventions for improving maternal and fetal outcomes in women with GDM...
June 22, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638328/protocol-for-the-reconstructing-consciousness-and-cognition-reccognition-study
#6
Kaitlyn L Maier, Andrew R McKinstry-Wu, Ben Julian A Palanca, Vijay Tarnal, Stefanie Blain-Moraes, Mathias Basner, Michael S Avidan, George A Mashour, Max B Kelz
Important scientific and clinical questions persist about general anesthesia despite the ubiquitous clinical use of anesthetic drugs in humans since their discovery. For example, it is not known how the brain reconstitutes consciousness and cognition after the profound functional perturbation of the anesthetized state, nor has a specific pattern of functional recovery been characterized. To date, there has been a lack of detailed investigation into rates of recovery and the potential orderly return of attention, sensorimotor function, memory, reasoning and logic, abstract thinking, and processing speed...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631967/reasons-for-referral-and-findings-of-clinical-neuropsychological-assessment-in-youth-with-mental-illness-a-clinical-file-audit
#7
Tina-Marie Proffitt, Warrick J Brewer, Emma M Parrish, Patrick D McGorry, Kelly A Allott
Study aims were to 1) determine the characteristics and reasons for referral for Clinical Neuropsychological Assessment (CNA) and 2) characterize the findings and recommendations contained in the CNA reports, of clients attending a youth mental health service. File audit of all CNA reports (N = 140) of youth attending a mental health service. Cognitive performances on neuropsychological tests that were administered to >50% of clients were examined. Referral reasons, findings, and recommendations for future treatment were coded and described from neuropsychological files...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628732/understanding-neurophobia-reasons-behind-impaired-understanding-and-learning-of-neuroanatomy-in-cross-disciplinary-healthcare-students
#8
Muhammad Asim Javaid, Shelly Chakraborty, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens, André Toulouse
Recent studies have highlighted a fear or difficulty with the study and understanding of neuroanatomy among medical and healthcare students. This has been linked with a diminished confidence of clinical practitioners and students to manage patients with neurological conditions. The underlying reasons for this difficulty have been queried among a broad cohort of medical, dental, occupational therapy, and speech and language sciences students. Direct evidence of the students' perception regarding specific difficulties associated with learning neuroanatomy has been provided and some of the measures required to address these issues have been identified...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625624/peripheral-type-small-cell-lung-cancer-is-associated-with-better-survival-and-higher-frequency-of-interstitial-lung-disease
#9
Nobuhiro Kanaji, Kenichiro Sakai, Yutaka Ueda, Hiroshi Miyawaki, Tomoya Ishii, Naoki Watanabe, Nobuyuki Kita, Kyuichi Kadota, Norimitsu Kadowaki, Shuji Bandoh
OBJECTIVES: Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) can be subgrouped into central and peripheral types according to the location of the primary lesion. However, the clinical differences between these two types remain unclear. This study compared their clinical features. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data on 231 patients with pathologically diagnosed SCLC were retrospectively subgrouped into central or peripheral types. Progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), treatments, responses to first-line therapy, and frequency of interstitial lung disease (ILD) were compared between the two groups...
June 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623408/plexiform-neurofibroma-causing-an-ossifying-subperiosteal-haematoma-a-rare-case-in-the-tibia-of-an-11-year-old-girl
#10
Anton Lavell, Christopher W Jones, Daniel Wong, Peter Counsel, Richard Carey-Smith
Ossifying subperiosteal haematoma is an exceedingly rare manifestation of Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1). We report an interesting case of plexiform neurofibroma causing a rapidly growing tibial mass as a result of subperiosteal haemorrhage, in an 11-year-old girl with previously undiagnosed NF-1. This reflects a precursor of the more mature periosteal ossification seen in cases traditionally termed "subperiosteal cysts". A previously well young girl was referred by her general practitioner with an increasingly large, mildly tender, soft lump on the anterior aspect of her right tibia...
June 16, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616731/renal-nerve-stimulation-for-treatment-of-neurocardiogenic-syncope-a-review-from-perspective-of-commercialization-potential
#11
REVIEW
B O'Brien, H Zafar, F Sharif
A strong evidence of outcomes for vasovagal syncope is not easily identified. It would seem reasonable that the proposed Mayo Clinic technology would be reserved for cases with severe recurrent or refractory syncope. However, recurrence levels are relatively low, and while some predictive methods have been proposed, recurrence is also influenced by the interaction that occurs during screening and examinations, i.e. recurrence diminishes once an initial diagnosis has been made. Finally, a key factor in being able to identify suitable patients relates to understanding the relative significance of the vasodepression and cardioinhibitory components-the therapy is best suited to patients that have a significant level of both components...
June 14, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615894/unknown-patients-and-neurology-casualty-services-in-an-indian-metropolitan-city-a-decades-experience
#12
Achary Umesh, Guru S Gowda, Channaveerachari Naveen Kumar, Dwarakanath Srinivas, Bharath Rose Dawn, Ragasudha Botta, Ravi Yadav, Suresh Bada Math
OBJECTIVES: A large number of unknown patients without any personal, family, or other identification details represent a unique problem in the neurological emergency services of developing countries like India in a context of legal, humanitarian, and treatment issues. These patients pose a diagnostic and management challenge to treating physicians and staff. There are sparse data on these patients. The objective of this study was to know the clinical, socio-demographic, and investigational profile of "unknown" patients...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615892/molecular-genetics-of-epilepsy-a-clinician-s-perspective
#13
REVIEW
Vikas Dhiman
Epilepsy is a common neurological problem, and there is a genetic basis in almost 50% of people with epilepsy. The diagnosis of genetic epilepsies makes the patient assured of the reasons of his/her seizures and avoids unnecessary, expensive, and invasive investigations. Last decade has shown tremendous growth in gene sequencing technologies, which have made genetic tests available at the bedside. Whole exome sequencing is now being routinely used in the clinical setting for making a genetic diagnosis. Genetic testing not only makes the diagnosis but also has an effect on the management of the patients, for example, the role of sodium channels blockers in SCN1A+ Dravet syndrome patients and usefulness of ketogenic diet therapy in SLC2A1+ generalized epilepsy patients...
April 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608534/recent-advances-in-the-development-of-t-type-calcium-channel-blockers-for-pain-intervention
#14
REVIEW
Terrance P Snutch, Gerald W Zamponi
Cav3.2 T-type calcium channels are important regulators of pain signals in afferent pain pathway, and their activities are dysregulated during various chronic pain states. Therefore it stands to reason that inhibiting T-type calcium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons and in the spinal dorsal horn can be targeted for pain relief. This is supported by early pharmacological studies with T-type channel blockers such as ethosuximide, and by analgesic effects of siRNA depletion of Cav3.2 channels. In the past five years, considerable effort has been applied towards identifying novel classes of T-type calcium channel blockers...
June 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607751/assessment-of-treatment-patterns-associated-with-injectable-disease-modifying-therapy-among-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#15
J Nicholas, J J Ko, Y Park, P Navaratnam, H S Friedman, F R Ernst, V Herrera
BACKGROUND: Availability of oral disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) may affect injectable DMT (iDMT) treatment patterns. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper is to evaluate iDMT persistency, reasons for persistency lapses, and outcomes among newly diagnosed RRMS patients. METHODS: Medical records of 300 RRMS patients initiated on iDMT between 2008 and 2013 were abstracted from 18 US-based neurology clinics...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis Journal—Experimental, Translational and Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605011/use-of-the-ketogenic-diet-to-manage-refractory-epilepsy-in-cdkl5-disorder-experience-of-100-patients
#16
Zhan Lim, Kingsley Wong, Heather E Olson, Ann M Bergin, Jenny Downs, Helen Leonard
OBJECTIVE: Pathogenic variants involving the CDKL5 gene result in a severe epileptic encephalopathy, often later presenting with features similar to Rett syndrome. Cardinal features of epilepsy in the CDKL5 disorder include early onset at a median age of 6 weeks and poor response to antiepileptic drugs. The ketogenic diet (KD) was first introduced in the 1920s as a treatment option for refractory epilepsy in children. This study investigated use of the KD in the CDKL5 disorder and its influences on seizures...
June 12, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604243/the-use-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-to-measure-change-in-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease-clinical-trials
#17
Bob Olsson, Jonathan M Schott, Kaj Blennow, Henrik Zetterberg
All recent phase 3 trials of potentially disease-modifying therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) have so far failed. Potential reasons include enrolling subjects whose disease is too advanced or who do not have AD pathology, or simply incorrect drug targets. The goal of disease-modifying AD trials is to halt the progress of neuronal damage and death and this can be assessed in vivo using cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. Areas covered: The authors conducted a literature search of the use of CSF biomarkers in disease-modifying AD clinical trials using PubMed...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600013/management-of-small-incidental-intracranial-aneurysms
#18
REVIEW
Jan-Karl Burkhardt, Arnau Benet, Michael T Lawton
Advances in neuroimaging and its widespread use for screening have increased the diagnosis of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs), including small-sized UIAs. The clinical management of these small-sized UIAs requires a patient-specific judgment of the risk of aneurysm rupture, if not treated, versus the risk of complications from surgical or endovascular treatment. Experienced cerebrovascular teams recommend treating small UIAs in young patients or in patients with more than one aneurysm rupture risk factor who also have a reasonable life expectancy...
July 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596842/effects-of-resveratrol-on-drug-and-carcinogen-metabolizing-enzymes-implications-for-cancer-prevention
#19
REVIEW
Ariane R Guthrie, H-H Sherry Chow, Jessica A Martinez
Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grape skins and peanuts that has demonstrated many health benefits including protection against aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, neurological decline, and cancer. The anticancer properties of resveratrol have been attributed to a variety of mechanisms, including its general inhibition of phase I metabolism and induction of phase II metabolism. The effects of resveratrol on these enzymes, however, are still unclear, as in vitro evidence often contrasts with animal studies and clinical trials...
February 2017: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596533/breaking-barriers-to-novel-analgesic-drug-development
#20
REVIEW
Ajay S Yekkirala, David P Roberson, Bruce P Bean, Clifford J Woolf
Acute and chronic pain complaints, although common, are generally poorly served by existing therapies. This unmet clinical need reflects a failure to develop novel classes of analgesics with superior efficacy, diminished adverse effects and a lower abuse liability than those currently available. Reasons for this include the heterogeneity of clinical pain conditions, the complexity and diversity of underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, and the unreliability of some preclinical pain models. However, recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of pain are beginning to offer opportunities for developing novel therapeutic strategies and revisiting existing targets, including modulating ion channels, enzymes and G-protein-coupled receptors...
June 9, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
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