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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227921/directionally-sensitive-peripheral-nerve-recording-bipolar-nerve-cuff-design
#1
Parisa Sabetian, Milos R Popovic, Paul B Yoo, Parisa Sabetian, Milos R Popovic, Paul B Yoo
Although bipolar nerve cuff electrodes (NCEs) are used in clinical neurostimulation therapies (e.g., epilepsy, obstructive sleep apnea), the use of this electrode as part of a closed-up controlled system is very limited. The literature points to high noise content (i.e., poor signal-to-noise ratio, SNR) as the primary reason for not using bipolar NCEs to record neural activity. In fact, over the past several decades, the pseudo-tripolar NCEs, the symmetric configuration of this electrode array (i.e., electrically-shorted side contacts) makes it very difficult to obtain directional information from the recorded neural activity (efferent vs...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224875/-thiamine-in-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder-and-wernicke-s-encephalopathy
#2
D J Brinkman, J K Bekema, M A Kuijenhoven, J W Wijnia, M J H J Dekker, M A van Agtmael
- Patients with alcohol use disorder frequently have a thiamine deficiency.- A potential life-threatening complication of thiamine deficiency is Wernicke's encephalopathy.- Since it is clinically difficult to recognize Wernicke's encephalopathy, this condition is often treated inadequately. - Early supplementation of thiamine is important to avoid irreversible neurological damage. - There are differences between the Dutch guidelines regarding the supplementation of thiamine for the treatment of alcoholic use disorder, and those for Wernicke's encephalopathy...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224442/report-of-the-primary-outcomes-for-gait-mechanics-in-men-of-the-acl-sports-trial-secondary-prevention-with-and-without-perturbation-training-does-not-restore-gait-symmetry-in-men-1-or-2-years-after-acl-reconstruction
#3
Jacob John Capin, Ryan Zarzycki, Amelia Arundale, Kathleen Cummer, Lynn Snyder-Mackler
BACKGROUND: Movement asymmetries during walking are common after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction and may influence the early development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis. Preoperative neuromuscular training (like perturbation training, which is neuromuscular training requiring selective muscle activation in response to surface perturbations) improves gait asymmetries and functional outcomes among people who are ACL-deficient, but the effect of postoperative perturbation training on gait mechanics after ACL reconstruction is unknown...
February 21, 2017: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223809/a-review-of-the-efficacy-of-atomoxetine-in-the-treatment-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-and-adult-patients-with-common-comorbidities
#4
REVIEW
David B Clemow, Chris Bushe, Michele Mancini, Michael H Ossipov, Himanshu Upadhyaya
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder that is often diagnosed during childhood, but has also increasingly been recognized to occur in adults. Importantly, up to 52% of children (including adolescents) and 87% of adults with ADHD also have a comorbid psychiatric disorder. The presence of a comorbid disorder has the potential to impact diagnosis and could affect treatment outcomes. Atomoxetine is a nonstimulant treatment for ADHD. Despite numerous published studies regarding efficacy of atomoxetine in the treatment of ADHD in patients with comorbid disorders, there is limited information about the impact of individual common comorbid disorders on the efficacy of atomoxetine for ADHD, especially with regard to adults...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222615/clinical-associations-biological-risk-factors-and-outcomes-of-cerebral-venous-sinus-thrombosis
#5
Hafize Nalan Gunes, Burcu Gokce Cokal, Selda Keskin Guler, Tahir Kurtulus Yoldas, Umit Yavuz Malkan, Cemile Sencer Demircan, Mehmet Ilker Yon, Zeynep Yoldas, Gursel Gunes, Ibrahim Celalettin Haznedaroglu
Objective Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a rare cerebrovascular disease affecting young adults. The majority of the patients are female. The aim of this study is to assess the clinical associations, risk factors and outcomes of the patients with CVST. Methods The data of 75 patients with CVST admitted to our hospital between 2006 and 2016 were reviewed. Demographic and clinical features and the thrombophilic risk factors of the patients were recorded. The localizations of the thrombi were determined and modified Rankin score at the time of onset and discharge were calculated...
December 2016: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#6
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212715/novel-biomarkers-of-heart-failure
#7
A Savic-Radojevic, M Pljesa-Ercegovac, M Matic, D Simic, S Radovanovic, T Simic
Although substantial improvements have been made in majority of cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) remains a major health problem, with both increasing incidence and prevalence over the past decades. For that reason, the number of potential biomarkers that could contribute to diagnosis and treatment of HF patients is, almost exponentially, increasing over the recent years. The biomarkers that are, at the moment, more or less ready for use in everyday clinical practice, reflect different pathophysiological processes present in HF...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212175/advances-in-epilepsy-gene-discovery-and-implications-for-epilepsy-diagnosis-and-treatment
#8
Joseph D Symonds, Sameer M Zuberi, Michael R Johnson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epilepsy genetics is shifting from the academic pursuit of gene discovery to a clinical discipline based on molecular diagnosis and stratified medicine. We consider the latest developments in epilepsy genetics and review how gene discovery in epilepsy is influencing the clinical classification of epilepsy and informing new therapeutic approaches and drug discovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies highlighting the importance of mutation in GABA receptors, NMDA receptors, potassium channels, G-protein coupled receptors, mammalian target of rapamycin pathway and chromatin remodeling are discussed...
February 15, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210838/urinary-ngal-deficiency-in-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#9
Catherine S Forster, Kathryn Johnson, Viral Patel, Rebecca Wax, Nancy Rodig, Jonathan Barasch, Richard Bachur, Richard S Lee
INTRODUCTION: Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203577/ertapenem-induced-encephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-normal-renal-function
#10
S Scott Sutton, Mark Jumper, Sean Cook, Babatunde Edun, Michael D Wyatt
Drug-induced neurotoxicity is a rare adverse reaction associated with ertapenem. Encephalopathy is a type of neurotoxicity that is defined as a diffuse disease of the brain that alters brain function or structure. We report a patient with normal renal function who developed ertapenem-induced encephalopathy manifesting as altered mental status, hallucinations, and dystonic symptoms. The patient's symptoms improved dramatically following ertapenem discontinuation, consistent with case reports describing ertapenem neurotoxicity in renal dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203571/evolutionary-history-of-multiple-dural-fistula
#11
Braulio Martinez-Burbano, Edgar Patricio Correa Diaz, Carolina Jácome Sánchez
Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) are abnormal communications between arteries and veins or dural venous sinuses, which sit between the sheets of the dura. They represent 10% to 15% of intracranial vascular malformations. Clinical manifestations and prognosis depend on the pattern of venous drainage and location. The clinical presentation of DAVF may be mistaken for vascular or nonvascular brain pathologies. For that reason, within the differential diagnosis come a wide range of conditions, such as secondary headaches, encephalopathies, dementias including those with rapid progression, neurodegenerative diseases, inflammatory processes, or tumors typically at the orbital level or in the cavernous sinus...
October 2016: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194647/cofilin-mediates-lps-induced-microglial-cell-activation-and-associated-neurotoxicity-through-activation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-jak-stat-pathway
#12
Qasim Alhadidi, Zahoor A Shah
Microglial cells are activated in response to different types of injuries or stress in the CNS. Such activation is necessary to get rid of the injurious agents and restore tissue homeostasis. However, excessive activation of microglial cells is harmful and contributes to secondary injury. Pertinently, microglial cell activity was targeted in many preclinical and clinical studies but such strategy failed in clinical trials. The main reason behind the failed attempts is the complexity of the injury mechanisms which needs either a combination therapy or targeting a process that is involved in multiple pathways...
February 13, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193203/first-insight-into-the-somatic-mutation-burden-of-neurofibromatosis-type-2-associated-grade-i-and-grade-ii-meningiomas-a-case-report-comprehensive-genomic-study-of-two-cranial-meningiomas-with-vastly-different-clinical-presentation
#13
Ramita Dewan, Alexander Pemov, Amalia S Dutra, Evgenia D Pak, Nancy A Edwards, Abhik Ray-Chaudhury, Nancy F Hansen, Settara C Chandrasekharappa, James C Mullikin, Ashok R Asthagiri, John D Heiss, Douglas R Stewart, Anand V Germanwala
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is a rare autosomal dominant nervous system tumor predisposition disorder caused by constitutive inactivation of one of the two copies of NF2. Meningiomas affect about one half of NF2 patients, and are associated with a higher disease burden. Currently, the somatic mutation landscape in NF2-associated meningiomas remains largely unexamined. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we present an in-depth genomic study of benign and atypical meningiomas, both from a single NF2 patient...
February 13, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192894/remote-ischemic-preconditioning-in-cardiac-anesthesia-a-review-focusing-on-translation
#14
Christian Stoppe, Patrick Meybohm, Carina Benstoem, Andreas Goetzenich
INTRODUCTION: Remote Ischaemic Conditioning (RIC) is a powerful cardioprotective strategy. Its clinical application is simple, cheap and so far free from secondary side effects. Given the heterogeneous results of recent large-scale clinical trials, its clinical relevant benefit is still doubted. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Following a MEDLINE-based search on all publications concerning RIC in experimental or clinical settings, this review focuses on the translation from bench to bedside...
February 13, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191626/intermittent-auscultation-ia-of-fetal-heart-rate-in-labour-for-fetal-well-being
#15
REVIEW
Ruth Martis, Ova Emilia, Detty S Nurdiati, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: The goal of fetal monitoring in labour is the early detection of a hypoxic baby. There are a variety of tools and methods available for intermittent auscultation (IA) of the fetal heart rate (FHR). Low- and middle-income countries usually have only access to a Pinard/Laënnec or the use of a hand-held Doppler device. Currently, there is no robust evidence to guide clinical practice on the most effective IA tool to use, timing intervals and length of listening to the fetal heart for women during established labour...
February 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190429/the-scope-of-neurology-of-critical-illness
#16
E F M Wijdicks
Critical illness increases the probability of a neurologic complication. There are many reasons to consult a neurologist in a critically ill patient and most often it is altered alertness with no intuitive plausible explanation. Other common clinical neurologic problems facing the intensive care specialist and consulting neurologist in everyday decisions are coma following prolonged cardiovascular surgery, newly perceived motor asymmetry, seizures or other abnormal movements, and generalized muscle weakness...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188346/-clinical-indications-for-high-resolution-mri-diagnostics-of-the-peripheral-nervous-system
#17
T Godel, M Weiler
CLINICAL/METHODICAL ISSUE: Peripheral neuropathies are common and diagnostically often challenging disorders. Difficulties particularly exist in lesion localization and recognition of complex spatial lesion patterns. STANDARD DIAGNOSTIC METHODS: Medical history taking, neurological examination, neurophysiological tests and nerve ultrasonography represent the gold standard in the diagnosis of peripheral nerve lesions but have known methodical limitations. METHODICAL INNOVATIONS: The use of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) is an additional diagnostic imaging tool recently developed for the high-resolution visualization of long segments of peripheral nerves...
February 10, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187804/decompressive-craniectomy-in-acute-brain-injury
#18
D A Brown, E F M Wijdicks
Decompressive surgery to reduce pressure under the skull varies from a burrhole, bone flap to removal of a large skull segment. Decompressive craniectomy is the removal of a large enough segment of skull to reduce refractory intracranial pressure and to maintain cerebral compliance for the purpose of preventing neurologic deterioration. Decompressive hemicraniectomy and bifrontal craniectomy are the most commonly performed procedures. Bifrontal craniectomy is most often utilized with generalized cerebral edema in the absence of a focal mass lesion and when there are bilateral frontal contusions...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187801/management-of-acute-neuromuscular-disorders
#19
E F M Wijdicks
Imminent neuromuscular respiratory failure is recognized by shortness of breath, restlessness, and tachycardia and is often followed by tachypnea, constantly interrupting speech, asynchronous breathing and sometimes paradoxical breathing and use of scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles. Once a patient presents with such a constellation of signs, there are some difficult decisions to be made and include assessment of the severity of respiratory failure and in particular when to intubate. Failure of the patient to manage secretions as a result of oropharyngeal weakness rather than neuromuscular respiratory weakness may be another reason for acute intubation...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187760/case-report-subacute-tetraplegia-in-an-immunocompromised-patient
#20
Daniel Zeller, Anke Heidemeier, Götz Ulrich Grigoleit, Wolfgang Müllges
BACKGROUND: Clinical reasoning in Neurology is based on general associations which help to deduce the site of the lesion. However, even "golden principles" may occasionally be deceptive. Here, we describe the case of subacute flaccid tetraparesis due to motor cortical lesions. To our knowledge, this is the first report to include an impressive illustration of nearly symmetric motor cortical involvement of encephalitis on brain MRI. CASE PRESENTATION: A 51 year old immunocompromized man developed a high-grade pure motor flaccid tetraparesis over few days...
February 10, 2017: BMC Neurology
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