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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433851/dna-methylation-regulates-gene-expression-in-intracranial-aneurysms
#1
Lanbing Yu, Jia Wang, Shuo Wang, Dong Zhang, Yuanli Zhao, Rong Wang, Jizong Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Different gene expression profiles are observed in intracranial aneurysm tissue. Understanding these genes and what regulates their expression will help us understand intracranial aneurysm pathogenesis. We investigated whether differences in DNA methylation regulate gene expression in intracranial aneurysms. METHODS: Twenty intracranial aneurysm tissues were compared with 20 matched samples from the superficial temporal artery as controls. We detected the gene expression profiles in these samples using Human U133 Plus 2...
April 19, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433068/the-role-of-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase-1-2-in-glucose-stimulated-insulin-secretion
#2
Ben Niu, Heng Su, Xue-Shan Xia, Qiu He, Yuan-Ming Xue, Xin-Ming Yan
Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) is one of the important physiological characteristics of islet β cells, and extracellular-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase family that regulates this process. The inflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β can inhibit the insulin secretion of pancreatic β cells, but the exact mechanism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect of IL-1β on GSIS in βTC-6 cells and its relation with the ERK1/2 signal transduction pathway...
May 2017: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432900/lysophosphatidic-acid-induces-expression-of-genes-in-human-oral-keratinocytes-involved-in-wound-healing
#3
Hong Huynh Thorlakson, Stian Andre Engen, Olav Schreurs, Karl Schenck, Inger Johanne Schytte Blix
OBJECTIVE: Epithelial cells participate in wound healing by covering wounds, but also as important mediators of wound healing processes. Topical application of the phospholipid growth factor lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) accelerates dermal wound healing and we hypothesized that LPA can play a role in human oral wound healing through its effects on human oral keratinocytes (HOK). DESIGN: HOK were isolated from gingival biopsies and exposed to LPA. The LPA receptor profile, signal transduction pathways, gene expression and secretion of selected cytokines were analyzed...
April 13, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432464/insights-into-autosomal-dominant-polycystic-kidney-disease-by-quantitative-mass-spectrometry-based-proteomics
#4
REVIEW
Britta Diedrich, Jörn Dengjel
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is a common monogenetic disorder that is caused by mutations in the genes PKD1 and PKD2 encoding polycystin-1 and polycystin-2, respectively. Polycystin-1 and -2 form a complex, interact with several proteins involved in signal transduction and localize to discrete subcellular positions, most importantly the primary cilium. Whereas the causative mutations leading to ADPKD are known, the underlying deregulated cellular pathways are not well understood. In the current review, we introduce state-of-the-art mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic techniques and summarize their use in kidney and ADPKD research...
April 21, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432294/genome-wide-identification-characterization-of-the-mads-box-gene-family-in-chinese-jujube-and-their-involvement-in-flower-development
#5
Liman Zhang, Jin Zhao, Chunfang Feng, Mengjun Liu, Jiurui Wang, Yafei Hu
MADS-box genes encode transcription factors that are involved in plant development control (particularly in floral organogenesis) and signal transduction pathways, though a comprehensive analysis of MADS-box family proteins in Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is still missing. Here, we report a genome-wide analysis of the MADS-box gene family in Chinese jujube. Based on phylogenetic analyses, 52 jujube MADS-box genes were classified into 25 MIKC(C)-type, 3 MIKC(*)-type, 16 Mα, 5 Mβ and 3 Mγ genes. 37 genes were randomly distributed across all 12 putative chromosomes...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432271/knockdown-of-prdx2-sensitizes-colon-cancer-cells-to-5-fu-by-suppressing-the-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway
#6
Jun Xu, Shouru Zhang, Rong Wang, Xingye Wu, Li Zeng, Zhongxue Fu
Although, 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains widely used in adjuvant therapy in patients with colon cancer, resistance to 5-FU-based chemotherapy is an important reason for treatment failure. Recent studies have reported that an enhanced reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging system shows drug resistance to 5-FU. Peroxiredoxin-2 (PRDX2), is an important member of the ROS scavenging system, and may be a potential target that promotes chemosensitivity to 5-FU in colon cancer. Here, we depleted PRDX2 by PRDX2-shRNA-LV transduction in two colon cancer cell lines and found that in vitro PRDX2 knockdown facilitates cell death and apoptosis in 5-FU-treated colon cancer cells...
April 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431022/cpp1-phosphatase-mediated-signaling-crosstalk-between-hog1-and-cek1-mitogen-activated-protein-kinases-is-involved-in-the-phenotypic-transition-in-candida-albicans
#7
Fu-Sheng Deng, Ching-Hsuan Lin
Cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth and differentiation mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been well characterized in fungi. However, the mechanisms of signaling crosstalk between MAPKs to ensure signaling specificity are largely unknown. Previous work showed that activation of the Candida albicans Cek1 MAPK pathway resulted in opaque cell formation and filamentation, which mirrored the phenotypes to hog1Δ. Additionally, deleting the HOG1 gene stimulated Cek1p...
April 20, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430858/mapping-genes-for-calcium-signaling-and-their-associated-human-genetic-disorders
#8
Matthias Hörtenhuber, Enrique M Toledo, Erik Smedler, Ernest Arenas, Seth Malmersjö, Lauri Louhivuori, Per Uhlén
Motivation: Signal transduction via calcium ions (Ca 2+ ) represents a fundamental signaling pathway in all eukaryotic cells. A large portion of the human genome encodes proteins used to assemble signaling systems that can transduce signals with diverse spatial and temporal dynamics. Results: Here, we provide a map of all of the genes involved in Ca 2+ signaling and link these genes to human genetic disorders. Using Gene Ontology terms and genome databases, 1,805 genes were identified as regulators or targets of intracellular Ca 2+ signals...
April 19, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428953/tetraspanins-function-as-regulators-of-cellular-signaling
#9
REVIEW
Christina M Termini, Jennifer M Gillette
Tetraspanins are molecular scaffolds that distribute proteins into highly organized microdomains consisting of adhesion, signaling, and adaptor proteins. Many reports have identified interactions between tetraspanins and signaling molecules, finding unique downstream cellular consequences. In this review, we will explore these interactions as well as the specific cellular responses to signal activation, focusing on tetraspanin regulation of adhesion-mediated (integrins/FAK), receptor-mediated (EGFR, TNF-α, c-Met, c-Kit), and intracellular signaling (PKC, PI4K, β-catenin)...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428870/gene-expression-profiling-during-the-embryo-to-larva-transition-in-the-giant-red-sea-urchin-mesocentrotus-franciscanus
#10
Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia, Gretchen E Hofmann
In echinoderms, major morphological transitions during early development are attributed to different genetic interactions and changes in global expression patterns that shape the regulatory program for the specification of embryonic territories. In order more thoroughly to understand these biological and molecular processes, we examined the transcriptome structure and expression profiles during the embryo-to-larva transition of a keystone species, the giant red sea urchin Mesocentrotus franciscanus. Using a de novo assembly approach, we obtained 176,885 transcripts from which 60,439 (34%) had significant alignments to known proteins...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428788/the-protective-role-of-type-i-interferons-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#11
REVIEW
Kevin P Kotredes, Brianna Thomas, Ana M Gamero
The immune system of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract manages the significant task of recognizing and eliminating pathogens while maintaining tolerance of commensal bacteria. Dysregulation of this delicate balance can be detrimental, resulting in severe inflammation, intestinal injury, and cancer. Therefore, mechanisms to relay important signals regulating cell growth and immune reactivity must be in place to support GI homeostasis. Type I interferons (IFN-I) are a family of pleiotropic cytokines, which exert a wide range of biological effects including promotion of both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427431/from-inflammation-to-gastric-cancer-the-importance-of-hedgehog-gli-signaling-in-helicobacter-pylori-induced-chronic-inflammatory-and-neoplastic-diseases
#12
REVIEW
Silja Wessler, Linda M Krisch, Dominik P Elmer, Fritz Aberger
Infections with the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are closely associated with the development of inflammatory disorders and neoplastic transformation of the gastric epithelium. Drastic changes in the micromilieu involve a complex network of H. pylori-regulated signal transduction pathways leading to the release of proinflammatory cytokines, gut hormones and a wide range of signaling molecules. Besides controlling embryonic development, the Hedgehog/GLI signaling pathway also plays important roles in epithelial proliferation, differentiation, and regeneration of the gastric physiology, but also in the induction and progression of inflammation and neoplastic transformation in H...
April 20, 2017: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426875/bisphenol-a-activates-egfr-and-erk-promoting-proliferation-tumor-spheroid-formation-and-resistance-to-egfr-pathway-inhibition-in-estrogen-receptor-negative-inflammatory-breast-cancer-cells
#13
Scott J Sauer, Michael Tarpley, Imran Shah, Akshay V Save, H Kim Lyerly, Steven R Patierno, Kevin P Williams, Gayathri R Devi
Emerging evidence from epidemiological studies suggests a link between environmental chemical exposure and progression of aggressive breast cancer subtypes. Of all clinically distinct types of breast cancers, the most lethal phenotypic variant is inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). Overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR/HER2) along with estrogen receptor (ER) negativity is common in IBC tumor cells, which instead of a solid mass present as rapidly proliferating diffuse tumor cell clusters. Our previous studies have demonstrated a role of an adaptive response of increased antioxidants in acquired resistance to EGFR-targeting drugs in IBC...
March 1, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425109/alcoholic-cardiomyopathy-disrupted-protein-balance-and-impaired-cardiomyocyte-contractility
#14
Jennifer L Steiner, Charles H Lang
Alcoholic cardiomyopathy (ACM) can develop after consumption of relatively large amounts of alcohol over time or from acute binge drinking. Of the many factors implicated in the etiology of ACM, chronic perturbation in protein balance has been strongly implicated. This review focuses on recent contributions (since 2010) in the area of protein metabolism and cardiac function related to ACM. Data reviewed include that from in vitro and preclinical in vivo animal studies where alcohol or an oxidative metabolite was studied and outcome measures in either cardiomyocytes or whole heart pertaining to protein synthesis or degradation were reported...
April 20, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424580/the-role-of-microrna-in-the-modulation-of-the-melanocortinergic-system
#15
REVIEW
Adel Derghal, Mehdi Djelloul, Jérôme Trouslard, Lourdes Mounien
The central control of energy balance involves a highly regulated neuronal network within the hypothalamus and the dorsal vagal complex. In these structures, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons are known to reduce meal size and to increase energy expenditure. In addition, leptin, a peripheral signal that relays information regarding body fat content, modulates the activity of melanocortin pathway neurons including POMC-, Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)/Neuropeptide Y (NPY)-, melanocortin receptors (MC3R and MC4R)-expressing neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424511/response-of-peanut-arachis-hypogaea-roots-to-the-presence-of-beneficial-and-pathogenic-fungi-by-transcriptome-analysis
#16
Kun Hao, Feng Wang, Xiangqun Nong, Mark Richard McNeill, Shaofang Liu, Guangjun Wang, Guangchun Cao, Zehua Zhang
Entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae obtain survival benefit meanwhile promote the nutrient absorption of root as an endophyte. However, little is known concerning molecular mechanisms in the process. We performed the transcriptome sequencing of A. hypogaea roots inoculated M. anisopliae and pathogenic Fusarium axysporum, respectively. There were 81323 unigenes from 132023 transcripts. Total 203 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) respond to the two fungi, including specific 76 and 34 DEGs distributed respectively in M...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423567/cxcr1-2-pathways-in-paclitaxel-induced-neuropathic-pain
#17
Brandolini Laura, Benedetti Elisabetta, Ruffini Pier Adelchi, Russo Roberto, Cristiano Loredana, Antonosante Andrea, d'Angelo Michele, Castelli Vanessa, Giordano Antonio, Allegretti Marcello, Cimini Annamaria
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a type of neuropathic pain that represents a frequent and serious consequence of chemotherapy agents. Over the last years, significant progress has been achieved in elucidating the underlying pathogenesis of CIPN. The interference of taxanes with microtubule has been proposed as a mechanism that leads to altered axonal transport and to permanent neurological damages. The inflammatory process activated by chemotherapeutic agents has been considered as a potential trigger of nociceptive process in CIPN...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423515/preclinical-therapeutic-efficacy-of-a-novel-blood-brain-barrier-penetrant-dual-pi3k-mtor-inhibitor-with-preferential-response-in-pi3k-pten-mutant-glioma
#18
Dimpy Koul, Shuzhen Wang, Shaofang Wu, Norihiko Saito, Siyuan Zheng, Feng Gao, Isha Kaul, Masaki Setoguchi, Kiyoshi Nakayama, Kumiko Koyama, Yoshinobu Shiose, Erik P Sulman, Yasuhide Hirota, W K Alfred Yung
Glioblastoma (GBM) is an ideal candidate disease for signal transduction targeted therapy because the majority of these tumors harbor genetic alterations that result in aberrant activation of growth factor signaling pathways. Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome 10, mutations in the tumor suppressor gene PTEN, and PI3K mutations are molecular hallmarks of GBM and indicate poor prognostic outcomes in many cancers. Consequently, inhibiting the PI3K pathway may provide therapeutic benefit in these cancers. PI3K inhibitors generally block proliferation rather than induce apoptosis...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423042/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-enhances-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-human-synovial-fibroblasts-by-inhibiting-microrna-519b-synthesis
#19
Shu-Jui Kuo, Wei-Hung Yang, Shan-Chi Liu, Chun-Hao Tsai, Horng-Chaung Hsu, Chih-Hsin Tang
BACKGROUND: Osteoarthritis (OA) is manifested by synovial inflammation and cartilage destruction that is directly linked to synovitis, joint swelling and pain. In the light of the role of synovium in the pathogenesis and the symptoms of OA, synovium-targeted therapy is a promising strategy to mitigate the symptoms and progression of OA. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), a secreted homodimeric protein, possesses unique and potent anti-inflammatory and immune-regulatory properties in many cell types...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421082/insights-into-the-structure-function-and-ion-mediated-signaling-pathways-transduced-by-plant-integrin-linked-kinases
#20
Sorina C Popescu, Elizabeth K Brauer, Gizem Dimlioglu, George V Popescu
Kinases facilitate detection of extracellular signals and set in motion cellular responses for plant adaptation and survival. Some of the energy utilized for kinase signal processing is produced through the activity of ion transporters. Additionally, the synergy between cellular ions and signal transduction influences plant response to pathogens, and their growth and development. In plants, the signaling elements that connect cell wall and membrane sensors with ion homeostasis and transport-mediated processes are largely unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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