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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778748/protein-kinases-are-involved-in-the-cardioprotective-effects-activated-by-platelet-glycoprotein-iib-iiia-inhibitor-tirofiban-at-reperfusion-in-rats-in-vivo
#1
Shih-Tai Chang, Ya-Ting Yang, Chi-Ming Chu, Kuo-Li Pan, Jen-Te Hsu, Ju-Feng Hsiao, Yu-Sheng Lin, Chang-Min Chung
The thrombolytic effect of platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors (GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors) in myocardial infarction has been well established. Nevertheless, data on the mechanism of the cardioprotective effect of GP IIb/IIIa inhibitors in ischemic-reperfusion injury (IR) are lacking. Sprague-Dawley rats received 120min of coronary ischemia and 180min of reperfusion. A GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor was given via continuous intravenous infusion at a rate of 2 ug/kg/min 30min prior to reperfusion with/without inhibitors of PKCε (chelerythrine), PI3 kinase and Akt (wortmannin), p38 MAPK (SB203582), p42/44 MAPK (PD98059) and ERK1/2 (u0126) 15min prior to the GP IIb/IIIa inhibitor...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777502/oxi1-kinase-plays-a-key-role-in-resistance-of-arabidopsis-towards-aphids-myzus-persicae
#2
Tahsin Shoala, Martin G Edwards, Marc R Knight, Angharad M R Gatehouse
Plants have co-evolved with a diverse array of pathogens and insect herbivores and so have evolved an extensive repertoire of constitutive and induced defence mechanisms activated through complex signalling pathways. OXI1 kinase is required for activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and is an essential part of the signal transduction pathway linking oxidative burst signals to diverse downstream responses. Furthermore, changes in the levels of OXI1 appear to be crucial for appropriate signalling...
May 17, 2018: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777486/physiological-and-quantitative-proteomic-analyses-unraveling-potassium-deficiency-stress-response-in-alligator-weed-alternanthera-philoxeroides-l-root
#3
Li-Qin Li, Lun Liu, Wei Zhuo, Qian Chen, Sheng Hu, Shuang Peng, Xi-Yao Wang, Yi-Fei Lu, Li-Ming Lu
Physiological and iTRAQ based proteomic analysis provided new insights into potassium deficiency stress response in alligator weed root. Alligator weed (Alternanthera philoxeroides) has a strong ability to adapt to potassium deficiency (LK) stress. Proteomic changes in response to this stress are largely unknown in alligator weed. In this study, we investigated physiological and molecular mechanisms under LK using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation to characterize proteome-level changes in this plant...
May 18, 2018: Plant Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777151/integrated-proteomics-genomics-metabolomics-approaches-reveal-oxalic-acid-as-pathogenicity-factor-in-tilletia-indica-inciting-karnal-bunt-disease-of-wheat
#4
Vishakha Pandey, Manoj Singh, Dinesh Pandey, Anil Kumar
Tilletia indica incites Karnal bunt (KB) disease in wheat. To date, no KB resistant wheat cultivar could be developed due to non-availability of potential biomarkers related to pathogenicity/virulence for screening of resistant wheat genotypes. The present study was carried out to compare the proteomes of T. indica highly (TiK) and low (TiP) virulent isolates. Twenty one protein spots consistently observed as up-regulated/differential in the TiK proteome were selected for identification by MALDI-TOF/TOF. Identified sequences showed homology with fungal proteins playing essential role in plant infection and pathogen survival, including stress response, adhesion, fungal penetration, invasion, colonization, degradation of host cell wall, signal transduction pathway...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777057/glycogen-synthase-kinase-3-gsk-3-activity-regulates-mrna-methylation-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#5
Kelsie J Faulds, Jennifer N Egelston, Laura J Sedivy, Matthew K Mitchell, Sanjana Garimella, Hanna Kozlowski, Angelo D'Alessandro, Kirk C Hansen, Jeremy L Balsbaugh, Christopher J Phiel
Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (Gsk-3) activity regulates multiple signal transduction pathways, and is also a key component of the network responsible for maintaining stem cell pluripotency. Genetic deletion of Gsk-3α and Gsk-3β or inhibition of Gsk-3 activity via small molecules promotes stem cell pluripotency, yet the mechanism underlying the role for Gsk-3 in this process remains ambiguous. Another cellular process that has been shown to affect stem cell pluripotency is mRNA methylation (m6 A). Here, we describe an intersection between these components - the regulation of m6 A by Gsk-3...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776381/wnt-signaling-in-multiple-myeloma-a-central-player-in-disease-with-therapeutic-potential
#6
REVIEW
Ingrid Spaan, Reinier A Raymakers, Anja van de Stolpe, Victor Peperzak
Multiple myeloma is the second most frequent hematological malignancy in the western world and remains incurable, predominantly due to acquired drug resistance and disease relapse. The highly conserved Wnt signal transduction pathway, which plays a key role in regulating cellular processes of proliferation, differentiation, migration, and stem cell self-renewal, is associated with multiple aspects of disease. Bone homeostasis is severely disturbed by Wnt antagonists that are secreted by the malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776333/transcriptomic-analysis-of-genes-in-soybean-in-response-to-peronospora-manshurica-infection
#7
Hang Dong, Shuangfeng Shi, Chong Zhang, Sihui Zhu, Mei Li, Jie Tan, Yue Yu, Liping Lin, Shirong Jia, Xujing Wang, Yuanhua Wu, Yuhui Liu
BACKGROUND: Soybean downy mildew (SDM), caused by Peronospora manshurica (Pm), is a major fungal disease in soybean. To date, little is known regarding the defense mechanism at molecular level and how soybean plants response to Pm infection. In this study, differential gene expression in SDM-resistant (HR) and SDM-susceptible (HS) genotype was analyzed by RNA-seq to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) following Pm infection. RESULTS: Of a total of 55,017 genes mapped to the soybean reference genome sequences, 2581 DEGs were identified...
May 18, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774119/periostin-a-signal-transduction-intermediate-in-tgf-%C3%AE-induced-emt-in-u-87mg-human-glioblastoma-cells-and-its-inhibition-by-anthocyanidins
#8
Amira Ouanouki, Sylvie Lamy, Borhane Annabi
Periostin is a secreted protein that is highly expressed in glioblastoma cells as compared to normal brain tissue, and is therefore considered as a potential biomarker in therapeutic modalities. Its contribution in the cancer cells invasive phenotype is, however, poorly understood. This work investigates the role of periostin in U-87 MG glioblastoma cell invasion, cell migration and in Transforming Growth Factor β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Periostin gene silencing, using small interfering RNA, decreased TGF-β-induced mesenchymal marker expression of fibronectin and vimentin, partly through reduced Smad2, Akt and Fak phosphorylation as well as U-87 MG cell invasion and migration...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774100/differential-proteomic-profile-of-leukemic-cd34-progenitor-cells-from-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-patients
#9
Maria Rosaria Ricciardi, Valentina Salvestrini, Roberto Licchetta, Simone Mirabilii, Mattia Forcato, Gabriele Gugliotta, Simona Salati, Fausto Castagnetti, Gianantonio Rosti, Massimo Breccia, Giuliana Alimena, Rossella Manfredini, Silvio Bicciato, Roberto Massimo Lemoli, Agostino Tafuri
Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) is a stem cell disease sustained by a rare population of quiescent cells which are to some extent resistant to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). BCR-ABL oncogene activates multiple cross-talking signal transduction pathways (STP), such as RAS/MEK/ERK, PI3K/Akt, Wnt and STAT5, contributing to abnormal proliferation of clonal cells. From this perspective, the aim of this study was to analyze the expression and activation profile of STP involved in the mechanisms of cell proliferation/quiescence and survival of the progenitor CD34+ cells from chronic phase (CP) CML...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774029/lfa-1-in-t-cell-migration-and-differentiation
#10
REVIEW
Brandon L Walling, Minsoo Kim
Maintenance of homeostatic immune surveillance and development of effective adaptive immune responses require precise regulation of spatial and temporal lymphocyte trafficking throughout the body to ensure pathogen clearance and memory generation. Dysregulation of lymphocyte activation and migration can lead to impaired adaptive immunity, recurrent infections, and an array of autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation. Central to the recruitment of T cells, integrins are cell surface receptors that regulate adhesion, signal transduction, and migration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773994/biological-roles-of-aberrantly-expressed-glycosphingolipids-and-related-enzymes-in-human-cancer-development-and-progression
#11
REVIEW
Dinghao Zhuo, Xiang Li, Feng Guan
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs), which consist of a hydrophobic ceramide backbone and a hydrophilic carbohydrate residue, are an important type of glycolipid expressed in surface membranes of all animal cells. GSLs play essential roles in maintenance of plasma membrane stability, in regulation of numerous cellular processes (including adhesion, proliferation, apoptosis, and recognition), and in modulation of signal transduction pathways. GSLs have traditionally been classified as ganglio-series, lacto-series, or globo-series on the basis of their diverse types of oligosaccharide chains...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773652/stromal-gli-signaling-regulates-the-activity-and-differentiation-of-prostate-stem-and-progenitor-cells
#12
Qianjin Li, Omar A Alsaidan, Sumit Rai, Meng Wu, Huifeng Shen, Zanna Beharry, Luciana L Almada, Martin E Fernandez-Zapico, Lianchun Wang, Houjian Cai
Interactions between cells in the stroma and epithelium facilitate prostate stem cell activity and tissue regeneration capacity. Numerous molecular signal transduction pathways, including the induction of sonic hedgehog (Shh) to activate the Gli transcription factors, are known to mediate the crosstalk of these two cellular compartments. However, the details of how these signaling pathways regulate prostate stem and progenitor cell activity remain elusive. Here we demonstrate that while cell autonomous epithelial Shh-Gli signaling is essential to determine the expression levels of basal cell markers and the renewal potential of epithelial stem and progenitor cells, stromal Gli signaling regulates prostate stem and progenitor cell activity by increasing the number and size of prostate spheroids in vitro...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773060/cyclic-peptides-that-govern-signal-transduction-pathways-from-prokaryotes-to-multi-cellular-organisms
#13
Ryan W Mull, Anthony Harrington, Lucia A Sanchez, Yftah Tal-Gan
Cyclic peptide scaffolds are key components of signal transduction pathways in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms since they act as chemical messengers that activate or inhibit specific cognate receptors. In prokaryotic organisms these peptides are utilized in non-essential pathways, such as quorum sensing, that are responsible for virulence and pathogenicity. In the more evolved eukaryotic systems, cyclic peptide hormones play a key role in the regulation of the overall function of multicellular organisms, mainly through the endocrine system...
May 17, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769399/dissecting-and-culturing-animal-cap-explants
#14
Kevin S Dingwell, James C Smith
The animal cap explant is a simple but adaptable tool available to developmental biologists. The use of animal cap explants in demonstrating the presence of mesoderm-inducting activity in the Xenopus embryo vegetal pole is one of many elegant examples of their worth. Animal caps respond to a range of growth factors (e.g., Wnts, FGF, TGF-β), making them especially useful for studying signal transduction pathways and gene regulatory networks. Explants are also suitable for examining cell behavior and have provided key insights into the molecular mechanisms controlling vertebrate morphogenesis...
May 16, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769325/the-ancient-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-signaling-system-is-a-master-regulator-of-energy-and-carbon-metabolism-in-algae
#15
Rishiram Ramanan, Quynh-Giao Tran, Dae-Hyun Cho, Jae-Eun Jeong, Byung-Hyuk Kim, Sang-Yoon Shin, Sae-Hae Choi, Kwang-Hyeon Liu, Dae-Soo Kim, Seon-Jin Lee, Jose L Crespo, Hee-Gu Lee, Hee-Mock Oh, Hee-Sik Kim
Algae undergo a complete metabolic transformation under stress by arresting cell growth, inducing autophagy, and hyper-accumulating biofuel precursors such as triacylglycerols and starch. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind this stress-induced transformation are still unclear. Here, we use biochemical, mutational, and 'omics' approaches to demonstrate that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling mediates the homeostasis of energy molecules and influences carbon metabolism in algae. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, the inhibition and knockdown (KD) of algal class III PI3K led to significantly decreased cell growth, altered cell morphology, and higher lipid and starch contents...
May 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765419/low-magnitude-of-compression-enhances-biosynthesis-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-towards-nucleus-pulposus-cells-via-the-trpv4-dependent-pathway
#16
Yibo Gan, Bing Tu, Pei Li, Jixing Ye, Chen Zhao, Lei Luo, Chengmin Zhang, Zetong Zhang, Linyong Zhu, Qiang Zhou
Mesenchymal stem cell- (MSC-) based therapy is regarded as a promising tissue engineering strategy to achieve nucleus pulposus (NP) regeneration for the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). However, it is still a challenge to promote the biosynthesis of MSC to meet the requirement of NP regeneration. The purpose of this study was to optimize the compressive magnitude to enhance the extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition towards discogenesis of MSCs. Thus, we constructed a 3D culture model for MSCs to bear different magnitudes of compression for 7 days (5%, 10%, and 20% at the frequency of 1...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765327/cardiovascular-adaptive-homeostasis-in-exercise
#17
Kelvin J A Davies
Adaptive Homeostasis has been defined as, "The transient expansion or contraction of the homeostatic range in response to exposure to sub-toxic, non-damaging, signaling molecules or events, or the removal or cessation of such molecules or events." (Davies, 2016). I propose that one of the most significant examples of adaptive homeostasis may be the adaptation of the cardiovascular system to exercise training. In particular, endurance type training involves the generation of increased levels of free radicals such as ubisemiquinone, superoxide, nitric oxide, and other (non-radical) reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), in a repetitive manner, typically several times per week...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765148/cancer-subtype-identification-using-somatic-mutation-data
#18
Marieke Lydia Kuijjer, Joseph Nathaniel Paulson, Peter Salzman, Wei Ding, John Quackenbush
BACKGROUND: With the onset of next-generation sequencing technologies, we have made great progress in identifying recurrent mutational drivers of cancer. As cancer tissues are now frequently screened for specific sets of mutations, a large amount of samples has become available for analysis. Classification of patients with similar mutation profiles may help identifying subgroups of patients who might benefit from specific types of treatment. However, classification based on somatic mutations is challenging due to the sparseness and heterogeneity of the data...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765007/from-intra-to-extracellular-vesicles-extracellular-vesicles-in-developmental-signalling
#19
REVIEW
Ana-Citlali Gradilla, Eléanor Simon, Gustavo Aguilar, Isabel Guerrero
Signalling from cell-to-cell is fundamental for determining differentiation and patterning. This communication can occur between adjacent and distant cells. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-based structures thought to facilitate the long-distance movement of signalling molecules. EVs have recently been found to allow the transport of two major developmental signalling pathways: Hedgehog and Wnt. These signalling molecules undergo crucial post-translational lipid modifications, which anchor them to membranes and impede their free release into the extracellular space...
May 15, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763908/connexin-43-modulates-osteogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-through-gsk-3beta-beta-catenin-signaling-pathways
#20
Fei-Xiang Lin, Gui-Zhou Zheng, Bo Chang, Rong-Chun Chen, Qi-Hao Zhang, Peng Xie, Da Xie, Guo-Yong Yu, Qin-Xiao Hu, De-Zhong Liu, Shi-Xin Du, Xue-Dong Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are multipotent precursors that give rise to osteoblasts, and contribute directly to bone formation. Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous gap junction protein expressed in bone cell types, and plays crucial roles in regulating intercellular signal transmission for bone development, differentiation and pathology. However, the precise role and mechanism of Cx43 in BMSCs are less known. Here, we investigate the function of Cx43 in osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro...
May 10, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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