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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526728/genetic-subtraction-profiling-identifies-candidate-mirnas-involved-in-rice-female-gametophyte-abortion
#1
Liyu Yang, Ya Wu, Wenliang Wang, Bigang Mao, Bingran Zhao, Jianbo Wang
Female gametophyte is an important participant in sexual reproduction of plants. The molecular mechanism of its development has received much attention in recent years. As important regulators of gene expression, miRNAs have been certified to play a significant role in many biological processes of plants including sexual reproduction. In this study, to investigate the potential regulatory effects of miRNAs on rice female gametophytes abortion, we used the high-throughput sequencing method to compare the miRNA transcriptome in ovules of a high frequency female-sterile line (fsv1) and a rice wild-type line (Gui 99) during ovule development...
May 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526413/tcr-crosslinking-promotes-crk-adaptor-protein-binding-to-tyrosine-phosphorylated-cd3%C3%AE-chain
#2
Guangyu Dong, Rachel Kalifa, Pulak Ranjan Nath, Sigal Gelkop, Noah Isakov
T cell antigen receptor (TCR) binding of a peptide antigen presented by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the context of surface MHC molecules initiates signaling events that regulate T cell activation, proliferation and differentiation. A key event in the activation process is the phosphorylation of the conserved tyrosine residues within the CD3 chain immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs), which operate as docking sites for SH2 domain-containing effector proteins. Phosphorylation of the CD3ζ ITAMs renders the CD3 chain capable of binding the ζ-chain associated protein 70 kDa (ZAP70), a protein tyrosine kinase that is essential for T cell activation...
May 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526240/endocrine-actions-of-vitamin-d-in-skin-relevance-for-photocarcinogenesis-of-non-melanoma-skin-cancer-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Jörg Reichrath, Roman Saternus, Thomas Vogt
The skin represents a pivotal organ for the human body's vitamin D endocrine system, being both the site of ultraviolet (UV)-B-induced vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for the pluripotent effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and other biologically active vitamin D metabolites. As many other steroid hormones, 1,25(OH)2D3 exerts its effects via two independent signal transduction pathways: the classical genomic and the non-genomic pathway. While non-genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 are in part exerted via effects on intracellular calcium, genomic effects are mediated by the vitamin D receptor (VDR)...
May 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526057/recognition-of-a-structural-domain-rwdbd-in-gcn1-proteins-that-interacts-with-the-rwd-domain-containing-proteins
#4
Ramachandran Rakesh, Rangachari Krishnan, Evelyn Sattlegger, Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
The protein Gcn1 (General control non-derepressible 1) is found in virtually all eukaryotes, and is a key component of the general amino acid control signal transduction pathway. This pathway is best known for its importance for cells to sense and overcome amino acid starvation. Gcn1 directly binds to the RWD (RING finger-containing proteins, WD-repeat-containing proteins, and yeast DEAD (DEXD)-like helicases) domain of the protein kinase Gcn2, and this is essential for delivering the starvation signal to Gcn2...
May 19, 2017: Biology Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526038/phosphorylation-of-tau-at-y18-but-not-tau-fyn-binding-is-required-for-tau-to-modulate-nmda-receptor-dependent-excitotoxicity-in-primary-neuronal-culture
#5
Takashi Miyamoto, Liana Stein, Reuben Thomas, Biljana Djukic, Praveen Taneja, Joseph Knox, Keith Vossel, Lennart Mucke
BACKGROUND: Hyperexcitability of neuronal networks can lead to excessive release of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, which in turn can cause neuronal damage by overactivating NMDA-type glutamate receptors and related signaling pathways. This process (excitotoxicity) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions, ranging from childhood epilepsies to stroke and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Reducing neuronal levels of the microtubule-associated protein tau counteracts network hyperexcitability of diverse causes, but whether this strategy can also diminish downstream excitotoxicity is less clear...
May 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525976/the-adaptation-of-colorectal-cancer-cells-when-forming-metastases-in-the-liver-expression-of-associated-genes-and-pathways-in-a-mouse-model
#6
Derya Bocuk, Alexander Wolff, Petra Krause, Gabriela Salinas, Annalen Bleckmann, Christina Hackl, Tim Beissbarth, Sarah Koenig
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men and women. Systemic disease with metastatic spread to distant sites such as the liver reduces the survival rate considerably. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in gene expression that occur on invasion and expansion of CRC cells when forming metastases in the liver. METHODS: The livers of syngeneic C57BL/6NCrl mice were inoculated with 1 million CRC cells (CMT-93) via the portal vein, leading to the stable formation of metastases within 4 weeks...
May 19, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523007/transcriptomic-identification-of-drought-related-genes-and-ssr-markers-in-sudan-grass-based-on-rna-seq
#7
Yongqun Zhu, Xia Wang, Linkai Huang, Chaowen Lin, Xinquan Zhang, Wenzhi Xu, Jianhua Peng, Zhou Li, Haidong Yan, Fuxiang Luo, Xie Wang, Li Yao, Dandan Peng
Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense) is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522862/expression-profiling-of-mrnas-and-long-non-coding-rnas-in-aged-mouse-olfactory-bulb
#8
Ming Wang, Wei Liu, Jian Jiao, Jingyun Li, Chengshuo Wang, Luo Zhang
Age-related decline in olfactory function affects the quality of life in elderly people and also potentially represents an early clinical symptom of neurodegenerative disorder. Olfactory bulb (OB) plays a central role in olfactory information transmitting and signal processing. The mechanisms underlying this impairment remain unclear. In the current study, microarray was used to investigate differentially expressed protein coding genes (PCGs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in OBs from three groups of mice of different ages (2 months-old young adults, 6 months-old mature adults and 20 months-old aged adults), for their potential roles in olfactory impairment...
May 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522574/single-cell-immune-profiling-by-mass-cytometry-of-newly-diagnosed-chronic-phase-chronic-myeloid-leukaemia-treated-with-nilotinib
#9
Stein-Erik Gullaksen, Jørn Skavland, Sonia Gavasso, Vinko Tosevski, Krzysztof Warzocha, Claudia Dumrese, Augustin Ferrant, Tobias Gedde-Dahl, Andrzej Hellmann, Jeroen Janssen, Boris Labar, Alois Lang, Waleed Majeed, Georgi Mihaylov, Jesper Stentoft, Leif Stenke, Josef Thaler, Noortje Thielen, Gregor Verhoef, Jaroslava Voglova, Gert Ossenkoppele, Andreas Hochhaus, Henrik Hjorth-Hansen, Satu Mustjoki, Sieghart Sopper, Francis Giles, Kimmo Porkka, Dominik Wolf, Bjørn Tore Gjertsen
Monitoring of single cell signal transduction in leukemic cellular subsets has been proposed to provide deeper understanding of disease biology and prognostication, but has so far not been tested in a clinical trial of targeted therapy. We developed a complete mass cytometry analysis pipeline for characterization of intracellular signal transduction patterns in the major leukocyte subsets of chronic phase chronic myeloid leukaemia. Changes in phosphorylated Bcr-Abl1 and its involved signalling pathways were readily identifiable in peripheral blood single cells already within 3 hours of per oral nilotinib dosing...
May 18, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521727/comparative-genomic-analysis-of-innate-immunity-reveals-novel-and-conserved-components-in-crustacean-food-crop-species
#10
Alvina G Lai, A Aziz Aboobaker
BACKGROUND: Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. RESULTS: Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species...
May 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521410/effect-of-momordica-charantia-protein-on-proliferation-apoptosis-and-the-akt-signal-transduction-pathway-in-the-human-endometrial-carcinoma-ishikawa-h-cell-line-in-vitro
#11
Hang-Zhi Gu, Rong-Rong Lin, Han-Chu Wang, Xue-Jie Zhu, Yan Hu, Fei-Yun Zheng
Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common female malignancies, and there is an urgent requirement to explore new therapeutic strategies. In the present study, Ishikawa H cells were treated with Momordica charantia protein (MCP30). The cell morphology, growth inhibition rate, cell cycle distribution, and expression of phosphate and tensin homolog, P-AKT and AKT were measured. DNA fragmentation analysis and Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining assay were used to analyze cell apoptosis...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521278/scaffold-protein-jlp-mediates-tcr-initiated-cd4-t-cell-activation-and-cd154-expression
#12
Qi Yan, Cheng Yang, Qiang Fu, Zhaowei Chen, Shan Liu, Dou Fu, Rahmat N Rahman, Ryota Nakazato, Katsuji Yoshioka, Sam K P Kung, Guohua Ding, Huiming Wang
CD4(+) T-cell activation and its subsequent induction of CD154 (CD40 ligand, CD40L) expression are pivotal in shaping both the humoral and cellular immune responses. Scaffold protein JLP regulates signal transduction pathways and molecular trafficking inside cells, thus represents a critical component in maintaining cellular functions. Its role in regulating CD4(+) T-cell activation and CD154 expression, however, is unclear. Here, we demonstrated expression of JLP in mouse tissues of lymph nodes, thymus, spleen, and also CD4(+) T cells...
May 15, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521076/phase-i-study-of-perifosine-monotherapy-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-refractory-neuroblastoma
#13
Kimikazu Matsumoto, Hiroyuki Shichino, Hiroshi Kawamoto, Yoshiyuki Kosaka, Motoaki Chin, Koji Kato, Hideo Mugishima
PURPOSE: Perifosine is an alkylphospholipid analog that inhibits or modulates signaling through signal transduction pathways such as Akt, which is enhanced in neuroblastoma (NB) by activation of tyrosine kinase receptors. We conducted a phase I study of perifosine in Japanese patients with recurrent or refractory NB. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: All patients enrolled were over 2 years of age; all had refractory or relapsed NB and a performance status of greater than 50%...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521061/extracellular-camp-activates-molecular-signalling-pathways-associated-with-sperm-capacitation-in-bovines
#14
Carlos Agustín I Alonso, Claudia E Osycka-Salut, Luciana Castellano, Andreína Cesari, Nicolás Di Siervi, Adrián Mutto, Anders Johannisson, Jane M Morrell, Carlos Davio, Silvina Perez-Martinez
STUDY QUESTION: Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? SUMMARY ANSWER: Extracellular cAMP-induced sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520221/rap1b-is-an-effector-of-axin2-regulating-crosstalk-of-signaling-pathways-during-skeletal-development
#15
Takamitsu Maruyama, Ming Jiang, Alycia Abbott, H-M Ivy Yu, Qirong Huang, Magdalena Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Emily I Chen, Wei Hsu
Recent identification and isolation of suture stem cells capable of long term self-renewal, clonal expanding and differentiating demonstrate their essential role in calvarial bone development, homeostasis and injury repair. These bona fide stem cells express high level of Axin2 and are able to mediate bone regeneration and repair in a cell autonomous fashion. The importance of Axin2 is further demonstrated by its genetic inactivation in mice causing skeletal deformities resembling craniosynostosis in humans...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516374/role-of-lps-elicited-signaling-in-triggering-gastric-mucosal-inflammatory-responses-to-h-pylori-modulatory-effect-of-ghrelin
#16
REVIEW
B L Slomiany, A Slomiany
Infection with Helicobacter pylori is a primary culprit in the etiology of gastric disease, and its cell-wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is recognized as a potent endotoxin responsible for triggering a pattern of the mucosal inflammatory responses. The engagement by the LPS of gastric mucosal Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) leads to initiation of signal transduction events characterized by the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, induction of phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PLC)/protein kinase C (PKC)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, and up-regulation in Src/Akt...
May 17, 2017: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515912/accelerated-carcinogenesis-following-liver-resection-in-chronically-inflamed-livers-a-window-of-opportunity-for-treatment
#17
Amir Sonnenblick, Tamar Zahavi
The long-term prognosis following resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unsatisfactory as a result of a high incidence of recurrence. Prevention of recurrence is the most important strategy to improve the long-term survival results. The role of hepatectomy itself, as an accelerator of carcinogenesis, has not been adequately evaluated in HCC patients. Studies in animal models have revealed a link between liver regeneration under chronic inflammation and hepatic tumorigenesis. Inhibiting different signal transduction pathways during liver regeneration without compromising the ability of the liver to regenerate appears to be a rational strategy and may decrease HCC development and recurrence...
May 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515735/time-course-transcriptome-analysis-of-compatible-and-incompatible-pollen-stigma-interactions-in-brassica-napus-l
#18
Tong Zhang, Changbin Gao, Yao Yue, Zhiquan Liu, Chaozhi Ma, Guilong Zhou, Yong Yang, Zhiqiang Duan, Bing Li, Jing Wen, Bin Yi, Jinxiong Shen, Jinxing Tu, Tingdong Fu
Brassica species exhibit both compatible and incompatible pollen-stigma interactions, however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, RNA-seq technology was applied in a comprehensive time-course experiment (2, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min) to explore gene expression during compatible/incompatible pollen-stigma interactions in stigma. Moderate changes of gene expression were observed both in compatible pollination (PC) and incompatible pollination (PI) within 10 min, whereas drastic changes showed up by 30 min, especially in PI...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514675/metabolic-regulation-of-the-immune-humoral-response
#19
REVIEW
Mark Boothby, Robert C Rickert
Productive humoral responses require that naive B cells and their differentiated progeny move among distinct micro-environments. In this review, we discuss how studies are beginning to address the nature of these niches as well as the interplay between cellular signaling, metabolic programming, and adaptation to the locale. Recent work adds evidence to the expectation that B cells at distinct stages of development or functional subsets are influenced by the altered profiles of nutrients and metabolic by-products that distinguish these sites...
May 16, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514442/architecture-of-the-human-interactome-defines-protein-communities-and-disease-networks
#20
Edward L Huttlin, Raphael J Bruckner, Joao A Paulo, Joe R Cannon, Lily Ting, Kurt Baltier, Greg Colby, Fana Gebreab, Melanie P Gygi, Hannah Parzen, John Szpyt, Stanley Tam, Gabriela Zarraga, Laura Pontano-Vaites, Sharan Swarup, Anne E White, Devin K Schweppe, Ramin Rad, Brian K Erickson, Robert A Obar, K G Guruharsha, Kejie Li, Spyros Artavanis-Tsakonas, Steven P Gygi, J Wade Harper
The physiology of a cell can be viewed as the product of thousands of proteins acting in concert to shape the cellular response. Coordination is achieved in part through networks of protein-protein interactions that assemble functionally related proteins into complexes, organelles, and signal transduction pathways. Understanding the architecture of the human proteome has the potential to inform cellular, structural, and evolutionary mechanisms and is critical to elucidating how genome variation contributes to disease...
May 17, 2017: Nature
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