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signal transduction pathway

Han-Yu Jiang, Jin-Lin Zhang, Jiang-Wei Yang, Hui-Ling Ma
Creeping bentgrass ( Agrostis stolonifera ) is the preferred green lawn grass, with excellent turf characteristics but poor disease resistance. At present, the mechanisms of disease resistance in creeping bentgrass are poorly understood, especially the ethylene signal transduction pathway under the induced systemic resistance (ISR) response. In this study, butanediol (BDO), as a new type of disease-resistance compound, was applied to creeping bentgrass seedlings to induce the ISR response. Then, we measured ethylene production and related enzyme activities...
March 20, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Hua Tao, Xu Zhou, Bin Zhao, Keshen Li
According to an update from the World Health Organization, approximately 50 million people worldwide suffer from epilepsy, and nearly one-third of these individuals are resistant to the currently available antiepileptic drugs, which has resulted in an insistent pursuit of novel strategies for seizure treatment. Recently, methylglyoxal (MG) was demonstrated to serve as a partial agonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptor and to play an inhibitory role in epileptic activities. However, MG is also a substrate in the generation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that function by activating the receptor of AGEs (RAGE)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Yuhua Chen, Lingling Meng, Haitao Shang, Qian Dou, Zhiwen Lu, Liping Liu, Zhijun Wang, Xingxing He, Yuhu Song
βII-Spectrin (β2SP), a Smad3/4 adaptor protein during transforming growth factor (TGF) β/Smad signal pathway, plays a critical role in suppressing hepatocarcinogenesis. Dedifferentiation is a distinctive feature of cancer progression. Therefore, we investigated whether the disruption of β2SP contributed to tumorigenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through the dedifferentiation. Down-regulation of β2SP in hepatocytes was observed in cirrhotic liver and HCC. The level of β2SP expression was closely associated with the differentiation status of hepatocytes in rat model of hepatocarcinogenesis and clinical specimens...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Lina Wang, Wenli Feng, Xiao Yang, Feifei Yang, Rong Wang, Qian Ren, Xiaofan Zhu, Guoguang Zheng
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) participates in both physiological and pathological processes through the posttranslational regulation of intracellular signal transduction pathways. F-box and WD-40 domain protein 11 (Fbxw11) is a component of the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex. Fbxw11 regulates various signal transduction pathways, and it may have pathological roles in tumorigenesis. However, the role of Fbxw11 in the development of leukemia and the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown...
March 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Qiang Guo, Ian T Major, Gregg A Howe
Induced plant resistance depends on the production of specialized metabolites that repel attack by biotic aggressors and is often associated with reduced growth of vegetative tissues. Despite progress in understanding the signal transduction networks that control growth-defense tradeoffs, much remains to be learned about how growth rate is coordinated with changes in metabolism during growth-to-defense transitions. Here, we highlight recent advances in jasmonate research to suggest how a major branch of plant immunity is dynamically regulated to calibrate growth-defense balance with shifts in carbon availability...
March 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
Jing Li, Yong-Jun He, Lu Zhou, Yang Liu, Mingmin Jiang, Li Ren, Huoying Chen
BACKGROUND: The anthocyanins are highly enriched in eggplants (Solanum melongena L.) with purple peel. However, our previous study showed that anthocyanins biosynthesis in eggplant cultivar 'Lanshan Hexian' was completely regulated by light and color becomes evident at most 2 days after exposure to light. In the present investigation, transcriptome study was made to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of light-induced anthocyanin biosynthesis in eggplant (Solanum melongena L...
March 20, 2018: BMC Genomics
Stephanie Portillo-Ledesma, Lía M Randall, Derek Parsonage, Joaquín Dalla Rizza, P Andrew Karplus, Leslie B Poole, Ana Denicola, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta
Two-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prx) have a three-step catalytic cycle consisting of (1) reduction of peroxide and formation of sulfenic acid on the enzyme, (2) condensation of the sulfenic acid with a thiol to form disulfide, also known as resolution, and (3) reduction of the disulfide by a reductant protein. By following changes in protein fluorescence, we have studied the pH dependence of reaction 2 in human peroxiredoxins 1, 2 and 5, and in Salmonella typhimurium AhpC and obtained rate constants for the reaction and p Ka values of the thiol and sulfenic acid involved for each system...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry
Hua Zhang, Yumei Cao, Yuru Chen, Guangxi Li, Hanshu Yu
The present study investigated the inhibitory effects of apatinib on the proliferation of the SMMC-7721 hepatocellular carcinoma cell line to explore the possible mechanism. The MTT assay was used to detect the inhibitory effects of the different concentrations of apatinib on the proliferation of SMMC-7721 cells. Annexin V/PI double staining was performed to investigate the effects of apatinib on the apoptosis of SMMC-7721 cells. Expression of the apoptosis-related genes Bcl-2, Bax and caspase-9 after apatinib treatment was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Lijuan Wang, Yanchun Quan, Yongfang Yue, Xueyuan Heng, Fengyuan Che
Interleukin (IL)-37, a new IL-1 family member, has received increasing attention in recent years. In the past decade, it has been determined that IL-37 is expressed in various normal cells and tissues and is regulated by inflammatory stimuli and pro-cytokines via different signal transduction pathways. Recently, it has been found that IL-37 is expressed in a variety of cancers, chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and exerts anti-inflammatory effects. Moreover, a growing body of literature demonstrates that IL-37 plays a vital role in inhibiting both innate and adaptive immune responses as well as inflammatory reactions...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Geoffrey L Smith, Callum Talbot-Cooper, Yongxu Lu
Interferons (IFNs) are secreted glycoproteins that are produced by cells in response to virus infection and other stimuli and induce an antiviral state in cells bearing IFN receptors. In this way, IFNs restrict virus replication and spread before an adaptive immune response is developed. Viruses are very sensitive to the effects of IFNs and consequently have evolved many strategies to interfere with interferon. This is particularly well illustrated by poxviruses, which have large dsDNA genomes and encode hundreds of proteins...
2018: Advances in Virus Research
Atefeh Rabiee, Marcus Krüger, Jacob Ardenkjær-Larsen, C Ronald Kahn, Brice Emanuelli
Insulin/IGF-1 action is driven by a complex and highly integrated signalling network. Loss-of-function studies indicate that the major insulin/IGF-1 receptor substrate (IRS) proteins, IRS-1 and IRS-2, mediate different biological functions in vitro and in vivo, suggesting specific signalling properties despite their high degree of homology. To identify mechanisms contributing to the differential signalling properties of IRS-1 and IRS-2 in the mediation of insulin/IGF-1 action, we performed comprehensive mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomic profiling of brown preadipocytes from wild type, IRS-1-/- and IRS-2-/- mice in the basal and IGF-1-stimulated states...
March 14, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Kelsey H Elliott, Samantha A Brugmann
Molecular signals are the guiding force of development, imparting direction upon cells to divide, migrate, differentiate, etc. The mechanisms by which a cell can receive and transduce these signals into measurable actions remains a 'black box' in developmental biology. Primary cilia are ubiquitous, microtubule-based organelles that dynamically extend from a cell to receive and process molecular and mechanical signaling cues. In the last decade, this organelle has become increasingly intriguing to the research community due to its ability to act as a cellular antenna, receive and transduce molecular stimuli, and initiate a cellular response...
March 13, 2018: Developmental Biology
Fengmei Shi, Yunhua Zhang, Keqin Wang, Qinglin Meng, Xinglong Liu, Ligong Ma, Yichu Li, Jia Liu, Ling Ma
Northern corn leaf blight (NCLB), caused by the hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen Setosphaeria turcica, is one of the major foliar diseases of maize. The use of resistant cultivars is the most effective, economical, and environmentally friendly means to control NCLB. At present, the molecular mechanisms of maize resistance to S. turcica is not clear. Elucidating the molecular resistance mechanisms of maize response to S. turcica would aid breeding for a maize variety with fungal tolerance. In this study, maize leaves before and after infection with S...
March 13, 2018: Gene
Ammar Tareen, Ned S Wingreen, Ranjan Mukhopadhyay
Signal transduction networks can form highly interconnected systems within cells due to crosstalk between constituent pathways. To better understand the evolutionary design principles underlying such networks, we study the evolution of crosstalk for two parallel signaling pathways that arise via gene duplication. We use a sequence-based evolutionary algorithm and evolve the network based on two physically motivated fitness functions related to information transmission. We find that one fitness function leads to a high degree of crosstalk while the other leads to pathway specificity...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Ruiyan Tao, Songling Bai, Junbei Ni, Qinsong Yang, Yuan Zhao, Yuanwen Teng
A conserved blue light sensing and transduction pathway contributes to blue light-induced anthocyanin accumulation in the peel of red pear. Peel color is an economically important characteristic that influences the appearance quality of red pear, whose red color is due to anthocyanin accumulation. The process of coloration in the fruit peel is strongly influenced by light. However, how light quality influences color development remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the effects of different light qualities on color development in the red pear 'Red Zaosu', a mutant of the hybrid cultivar 'Zaosu' of Pyrus pyrifolia and P...
March 15, 2018: Planta
Carolina Ribeiro, Rosa Quinta, Ana Raposo, Ana Valentim, José Albuquerque, Manuela Grazina
Objective: Prospective observational study to analyze CYP2D6 pharmacogenetics in 55 Portuguese adult parturients undergoing elective cesarean section and to investigate the association between CYP2D6 alleles and pain score. Methods: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood by standard methods. Genetic analysis included allelic discrimination (CYP2D6*1, *2, *3, *4, *5, *6, *10, *17, and *41) and copy number determination with TaqMan probes by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
March 12, 2018: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
Chengyuan Lin, Jin Bai, Mulan He, Anderson O L Wong
In this study, structural analysis of grass carp prolactin (PRL) gene was performed and the signaling mechanisms for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) regulation of PRL promoter activity were investigated. In αT3-1 cells, PRL promoter activity could be induced by oPACAP38 which was blocked by PACAP antagonist but not the VIP antagonist. The stimulatory effect of oPACAP38 was mimicked by activation of AC/cAMP and voltage-sensitive Ca2+ channel (VSCC) signaling, or induction of Ca2+ entry...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
William R Critchley, Caroline Pellet-Many, Benjamin Ringham-Terry, Michael A Harrison, Ian C Zachary, Sreenivasan Ponnambalam
Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are membrane-based sensors that enable rapid communication between cells and their environment. Evidence is now emerging that interdependent regulatory mechanisms, such as membrane trafficking, ubiquitination, proteolysis and gene expression, have substantial effects on RTK signal transduction and cellular responses. Different RTKs exhibit both basal and ligand-stimulated ubiquitination, linked to trafficking through different intracellular compartments including the secretory pathway, plasma membrane, endosomes and lysosomes...
March 15, 2018: Cells
Zhaoyun Liu, Hui Liu, Xin Yuan, Yihao Wang, Lijuan Li, Guojin Wang, Jia Song, Zonghong Shao, Rong Fu
Pim-2 is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is highly expressed in various types of cancer, with essential roles in the regulation of signal transduction cascades, which promote cell survival and proliferation. The present study demonstrated that Pim-2 was expressed in cells lines derived from hematopoietic tumors and lung cancer. In vitro , downregulation of Pim-2 by short interfering RNA inhibited proliferation and delayed G0 /G1 cell cycle progression in K562 leukemia, RPMI-8226 multiple myeloma, and H1299 and A549 non-small cell lung carcinoma cell lines...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Cuimei Zhang, Shangli Shi
Drought severely limits global plant distribution and agricultural production. Elucidating the physiological and molecular mechanisms governing alfalfa stress responses will contribute to the improvement of drought tolerance in leguminous crops. In this study, the physiological and proteomic responses of two alfalfa ( Medicago sativa L.) varieties contrasting in drought tolerance, Longzhong (drought-tolerant) and Gannong No. 3 (drought-sensitive), were comparatively assayed when seedlings were exposed to -1...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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