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Anwar S Shatil, Kant M Matsuda, Chase R Figley
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-destructive technique that is capable of localizing pathologies and assessing other anatomical features (e.g., tissue volume, microstructure, and white matter connectivity) in postmortem, ex vivo human brains. However, when brains are removed from the skull and cerebrospinal fluid (i.e., their normal in vivo magnetic environment), air bubbles and air-tissue interfaces typically cause magnetic susceptibility artifacts that severely degrade the quality of ex vivo MRI data...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Tidhar Turgeman, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Menachem Moshelion, Paula Teper-Bamnolker, Christopher D Skory, Amnon Lichter, Dani Eshel
Rhizopus delemar and associated species attack a wide range of fruit and vegetables after harvest. Host nutrients and acidic pH are required for optimal germination of R. delemar, and we studied how this process is triggered. Glucose induced spore swelling in an acidic environment, expressed by an up to 3-fold increase in spore diameter, whereas spore diameter was smaller in a neutral environment. When suspended in an acidic environment, the spores started to float, indicating a change in their density. Treatment of the spores with HgCl2, an aquaporin blocker, prevented floating and inhibited spore swelling and germ-tube emergence, indicating the importance of water uptake at the early stages of germination...
2016: PloS One
Nir Sade, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Menachem Moshelion
The role of molecular mechanisms in the regulation of leaf hydraulics (K(leaf)) is still not well understood. We hypothesized that aquaporins (AQPs) in the bundle sheath may regulate K(leaf). To examine this hypothesis, AQP genes were constitutively silenced using artificial microRNAs and recovery was achieved by targeting the expression of the tobacco AQP (NtAQP1) to bundle-sheath cells in the silenced plants. Constitutively silenced PIP1 plants exhibited decreased PIP1 transcript levels and decreased K(leaf)...
2015: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xiaohong Ma, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Shifra Ben-Dor, Noa Wigoda, Imara Y Perera, Yang Ju Im, Sofia Diminshtein, Ling Yu, Wendy F Boss, Menachem Moshelion, Nava Moran
Enhancing the membrane content of PtdInsP 2 , the already-recognized protein-regulating lipid, increased the osmotic water permeability of tobacco protoplasts, apparently by increasing the abundance of active aquaporins in their membranes. While phosphoinositides are implicated in cell volume changes and are known to regulate some ion channels, their modulation of aquaporins activity has not yet been reported for any organism. To examine this, we compared the osmotic water permeability (P f) of protoplasts isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cultured cells (NT1) with different (genetically lowered or elevated relative to controls) levels of inositol trisphosphate (InsP3) and phosphatidyl inositol [4,5] bisphosphate (PtdInsP2)...
March 2015: Planta
Arava Shatil-Cohen, Hadas Sibony, Xavier Draye, François Chaumont, Nava Moran, Menachem Moshelion
Studying AQP regulation mechanisms is crucial for the understanding of water relations at both the cellular and the whole plant levels. Presented here is a simple and very efficient method for the determination of the osmotic water permeability coefficient (P(f)) in plant protoplasts, applicable in principle also to other spherical cells such as frog oocytes. The first step of the assay is the isolation of protoplasts from the plant tissue of interest by enzymatic digestion into a chamber with an appropriate isotonic solution...
2014: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Nir Sade, Arava Shatil-Cohen, Ziv Attia, Christophe Maurel, Yann Boursiac, Gilor Kelly, David Granot, Adi Yaaran, Stephen Lerner, Menachem Moshelion
Our understanding of the cellular role of aquaporins (AQPs) in the regulation of whole-plant hydraulics, in general, and extravascular, radial hydraulic conductance in leaves (K(leaf)), in particular, is still fairly limited. We hypothesized that the AQPs of the vascular bundle sheath (BS) cells regulate K(leaf). To examine this hypothesis, AQP genes were silenced using artificial microRNAs that were expressed constitutively or specifically targeted to the BS. MicroRNA sequences were designed to target all five AQP genes from the PLASMA MEMBRANE-INTRINSIC PROTEIN1 (PIP1) subfamily...
November 2014: Plant Physiology
Evelyn Shatil, Jaroslava Mikulecká, Francesco Bellotti, Vladimír Bureš
The main study objective was to investigate the effect of interactive television-based cognitive training on cognitive performance of 119 healthy older adults, aged 60-87 years. Participants were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group or to an active control group in a single-blind controlled two-group design. Before and after training interactive television cognitive performance was assessed on well validated tests of fluid, higher-order ability, and system usability was evaluated. The participants in the cognitive training group completed a television-based cognitive training programme, while the participants in the active control group completed a TV-based programme of personally benefiting activities...
2014: PloS One
James Siberski, Evelyn Shatil, Carol Siberski, Margie Eckroth-Bucher, Aubrey French, Sara Horton, Rachel F Loefflad, Phillip Rouse
BACKGROUND: There is a growing focus in the United States on preserving cognitive functioning. However, individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) are not provided with opportunities to prevent cognitive decline. To investigate whether participants with ID/DD would improve in cognitive function after cognitive training, a cognitive training group (N = 11) was compared to 2 control groups, a computer games group (N = 11) and a waitlist group (N = 10) on performance on 15 cognitive functions...
February 2015: American Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Other Dementias
Gunilla Carlsson Thorn, Shatil Amin, Jonathan Cotliar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2013: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Marek Preiss, Evelyn Shatil, Radka Cermáková, Dominika Cimermanová, Ilana Ram
Patients with unipolar depressive disorder and in the depressive phase of bipolar disorder often manifest psychological distress and cognitive deficits, notably in executive control. We used computerized cognitive training in an attempt to reduce psychological affliction, improve everyday coping, and cognitive function. We asked one group of patients (intervention group) to engage in cognitive training three times a week, for 20 min each time, for eight consecutive weeks. A second group of patients (control group) received standard care only...
2013: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Iris Haimov, Evelyn Shatil
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program on sleep quality and cognitive performance among older adults with insomnia. DESIGN: Participants (n = 51) were randomly allocated to a cognitive training group (n = 34) or to an active control group (n = 17). The participants in the cognitive training group completed an eight-week, home-based, personalized, computerized cognitive training program, while the participants in the active control group completed an eight-week, home-based program involving computerized tasks that do not engage high-level cognitive functioning...
2013: PloS One
Evelyn Shatil
Cognitive training and aerobic training are known to improve cognitive functions. To examine the separate and combined effects of such training on cognitive performance, four groups of healthy older adults embarked on a 4 months cognitive and/or mild aerobic training. A first group [n = 33, mean age = 80 (66-90)] engaged in cognitive training, a second [n = 29, mean age = 81 (65-89)] in mild aerobic training, a third [n = 29, mean age = 79 (70-93)] in the combination of both, and a fourth [n = 31, mean age = 79 (71-92)] control group engaged in book-reading activity...
2013: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Arava Shatil-Cohen, Menachem Moshelion
Signs of abiotic toxicity often appear first at the margins of leaves and gradually spread toward the midrib. It has been suggested that the bundle sheath tissue surrounding the shoot vascular system acts as a solute transport-regulating barrier that prevents excessive quantities of toxic ions from entering the leaf and pushes them toward the hydathodes. We examined this hypothesis by examining the distribution of toxic boron (B) in mutant Arabidopsis leaves with flooded mesophyll and comparing it with that observed in control leaves that exuded guttation drops...
September 1, 2012: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hilaire J Thompson, George Demiris, Tessa Rue, Evelyn Shatil, Katarzyna Wilamowska, Oleg Zaslavsky, Blaine Reeder
OBJECTIVES: To date, methodologies are lacking that address a holistic assessment of wellness in older adults. Technology applications may provide a platform for such an assessment, but have not been validated. We set out to demonstrate whether e-health applications could support the assessment of older adults' wellness in community-dwelling older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven residents of independent retirement community were followed over 8 weeks...
December 2011: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
Arava Shatil-Cohen, Ziv Attia, Menachem Moshelion
The hydraulic conductivity of the leaf vascular system (K(leaf) ) is dynamic and decreases rapidly under drought stress, possibly in response to the stress phytohormone ABA, which increases sharply in the xylem sap (ABA(xyl) ) during periods of drought. Vascular bundle-sheath cells (BSCs; a layer of parenchymatous cells tightly enwrapping the entire leaf vasculature) have been hypothesized to control K(leaf) via the specific activity of BSC aquaporins (AQPs). We examined this hypothesis and provide evidence for drought-induced ABA(xyl) diminishing BSC osmotic water permeability (P(f) ) via downregulated activity of their AQPs...
July 2011: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Chava Peretz, Amos D Korczyn, Evelyn Shatil, Vered Aharonson, Smadar Birnboim, Nir Giladi
BACKGROUND: Many studies have suggested that cognitive training can result in cognitive gains in healthy older adults. We investigated whether personalized computerized cognitive training provides greater benefits than those obtained by playing conventional computer games. METHODS: This was a randomized double-blind interventional study. Self-referred healthy older adults (n = 155, 68 ± 7 years old) were assigned to either a personalized, computerized cognitive training or to a computer games group...
2011: Neuroepidemiology
Evelyn Shatil, Avishag Metzer, Omer Horvitz, Ariel Miller
OBJECTIVES: To explore unprompted adherence to a personalized, home-based, computerized cognitive training program in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), and to examine the impact of training on cognitive performance. METHODS: Participants were assigned to a training (n=59) or a control group (n=48). Those in the training group were instructed to train three times a week for 12 weeks. The control group received no training. All participants were evaluated with a Neuropsychological Examination (N-CPC) at baseline and at the end of the study...
2010: NeuroRehabilitation
Nir Sade, Basia J Vinocur, Alex Diber, Arava Shatil, Gil Ronen, Hagit Nissan, Rony Wallach, Hagai Karchi, Menachem Moshelion
Anisohydric plants are thought to be more drought tolerant than isohydric plants. However, the molecular mechanism determining whether the plant water potential during the day remains constant or not regardless of the evaporative demand (isohydric vs anisohydric plant) is not known. Here, it was hypothesized that aquaporins take part in this molecular mechanism determining the plant isohydric threshold. Using computational mining a key tonoplast aquaporin, tonoplast intrinsic protein 2;2 (SlTIP2;2), was selected within the large multifunctional gene family of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) aquaporins based on its induction in response to abiotic stresses...
2009: New Phytologist
Iris Levin, Sivan Shatil-Carmon, Ornit Asif-Rave
This study investigated knowledge of letter names and letter sounds, their learning, and their contributions to word recognition. Of 123 preschoolers examined on letter knowledge, 65 underwent training on both letter names and letter sounds in a counterbalanced order. Prior to training, children were more advanced in associating letters with their names than with their sounds and could provide the sound of a letter only if they could name it. However, children learned more easily to associate letters with sounds than with names...
February 2006: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Evelyn Shatil, David L Share
This study tested the hypothesis that the cognitive antecedents of word recognition are uniquely domain-specific and unrelated to higher-order domain-general cognitive abilities. This hypothesis was evaluated in a longitudinal study of 349 Hebrew-speaking children (mean age: 6.0 years) who were tested on a battery of domain-specific (phonological awareness, phonological memory, visual-orthographic processing, and early literacy) and domain-general tasks (general intelligence, higher-order reasoning, and language) at the end of kindergarten...
September 2003: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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