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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545793/associations-between-systemic-pro-inflammatory-markers-cognitive-function-and-cognitive-complaints-in-a-population-based-sample-of-working-adults
#1
C U D Stenfors, I H Jonsdottir, L L Magnusson Hanson, T Theorell
BACKGROUND: The knowledge is limited regarding the relation between systemic inflammatory biomarkers and subjective and objective cognitive functioning in population-based samples of healthy adults across the adult age-span. Thus, the aim of this study was to study a selection of four pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, CRP) in relation to executive cognitive functioning, episodic memory and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) in a population-based sample of 215 working adults (age 25-67)...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545597/prefrontal-cortical-thinning-links-to-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-via-the-enigma-consortium
#2
E Walton, D P Hibar, T G M van Erp, S G Potkin, R Roiz-Santiañez, B Crespo-Facorro, P Suarez-Pinilla, N E M van Haren, S M C de Zwarte, R S Kahn, W Cahn, N T Doan, K N Jørgensen, T P Gurholt, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Melle, A O Berg, L Morch-Johnsen, A Færden, L Flyckt, H Fatouros-Bergman, E G Jönsson, R Hashimoto, H Yamamori, M Fukunaga, N Jahanshad, P De Rossi, F Piras, N Banaj, G Spalletta, R E Gur, R C Gur, D H Wolf, T D Satterthwaite, L M Beard, I E Sommer, S Koops, O Gruber, A Richter, B Krämer, S Kelly, G Donohoe, C McDonald, D M Cannon, A Corvin, M Gill, A Di Giorgio, A Bertolino, S Lawrie, T Nickson, H C Whalley, E Neilson, V D Calhoun, P M Thompson, J A Turner, S Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity...
May 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#3
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542068/reduced-cortical-excitatory-synapse-number-in-apoe4-mice-is-associated-with-increased-calcineurin-activity
#4
Aidan L Neustadtl, Charisse N Winston, Maia Parsadanian, Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Mark P Burns
Synaptic loss is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is associated with the onset of cognitive decline and the loss of executive function. The strongest genetic risk factor for AD is the APOE4 allele, which results in both a greater risk of developing AD as well as an earlier age of onset of AD. Dendritic spines, the anatomical substrate of the excitatory synapse, are reduced in the cortex of humanized APOE4 mice but the reason for this synaptic decline is unknown. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphatase, is a mediator of dendritic spine retraction...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528231/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-problem-gamblers-with-co-occurring-antisocial-personality-disorder
#5
Austin W Blum, Eric W Leppink, Jon E Grant
OBJECTIVES: Problem gamblers with symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) may represent a distinct problem gambling subtype, but the neurocognitive profile of individuals affected by both disorders is poorly characterized. METHOD: Non-treatment-seeking young adults (18-29years) who gambled ≥5 times in the preceding year were recruited from the general community. Problem gamblers (defined as those meeting ≥1 DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder) with a lifetime history of ASPD (N=26) were identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and compared with controls (N=266) using questionnaire-based impulsivity scales and objective computerized neuropsychological tasks...
May 12, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528203/changes-in-resting-state-functional-brain-connectivity-and-withdrawal-symptoms-are-associated-with-acute-electronic-cigarette-use
#6
Andréa L Hobkirk, Travis T Nichols, Jonathan Foulds, Jessica M Yingst, Susan Veldheer, Shari Hrabovsky, John Richie, Thomas Eissenberg, Stephen J Wilson
Resting state functional brain connectivity (rsFC) may be an important neuromarker of smoking behavior. Prior research has shown, among cigarette smokers, that nicotine administration alters rsFC within frontal and parietal cortices involved in executive control, as well as striatal regions that drive reward processing. These changes in rsFC have been associated with reductions in withdrawal symptom severity. We currently have a limited understanding of how rsFC is affected by the use of electronic cigarettes (ecigs), an increasingly popular class of products, the members of which deliver nicotine with varying effectiveness...
May 17, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526255/associations-of-objective-and-subjective-sleep-disturbance-with-cognitive-function-in-older-men-with-comorbid-depression-and-insomnia
#7
Daniel J Biddle, Sharon L Naismith, Kathleen M Griffiths, Helen Christensen, Ian B Hickie, Nicholas S Glozier
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether poor objective and subjective sleep quality are differentially associated with cognitive function. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Participants were recruited from primary and secondary care, and directly from the community, in Sydney, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: The sample consisted of 74 men 50years and older (mean [SD], 58.4 [6.2] years), with comorbid depression and above-threshold insomnia symptoms, participating in a trial of online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523385/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-symptoms-in-children-adopted-from-poland-and-their-atypical-association-patterns-a-bayesian-approach
#8
Donna A de Maat, Sandra Knuiman, Catharina H A M Rijk, René A C Hoksbergen, Anneloes L van Baar
Although high rates of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms have been observed among internationally adopted children, research on these symptoms in Polish adoptees is lacking. Therefore, we examined ADHD symptoms in Polish adoptees and their relationship to pre-adoptive risk factors, that is, time in institutional care, early deprivation, and prenatal alcohol exposure. We further compared the association patterns and gender distribution of ADHD symptoms in children adopted from Poland to those reported in the literature for ADHD symptoms in non-adopted children...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523217/relation-between-patterns-of-intrinsic-network-connectivity-cognitive-functioning-and-symptom-presentation-in-trauma-exposed-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#9
Melissa Parlar, Maria Densmore, Geoffrey B Hall, Paul A Frewen, Ruth A Lanius, Margaret C McKinnon
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated resting fMRI connectivity within the default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and central executive (CEN) networks in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity in trauma-exposed patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). METHOD: Group independent component analysis was conducted among patients with MDD (n = 21), examining DMN, SN, and CEN connectivity in relation to neurocognitive performance and symptom severity...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521281/functional-connectivity-in-incarcerated-male-adolescents-with-psychopathic-traits
#10
Sandra Thijssen, Kent A Kiehl
The present study examined the association between psychopathic traits and functional connectivity in 177 incarcerated male adolescents. We hypothesized that psychopathic symptoms would be associated with functional connectivity within networks encompassing limbic and paralimbic regions, such as the default mode (DMN), salience networks (SN), and executive control network (ECN). The present sample was drawn from the Southwest Advanced Neuroimaging Cohort, Youth sample, and from research at a youth detention facility in Wisconsin...
May 11, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520755/neuropsychological-characteristics-of-gulf-war-illness-a-meta-analysis
#11
Patricia A Janulewicz, Maxine H Krengel, Alexis Maule, Roberta F White, Joanna Cirillo, Emily Sisson, Timothy Heeren, Kimberly Sullivan
OBJECTIVE: Gulf War illness (GWI) is a disorder related to military service in the 1991 GW. Prominent symptoms include fatigue, pain and cognitive problems. These symptoms were reported by GW Veterans (GWV) immediately after the war and were eventually incorporated into case definitions of GWI. Neuropsychological function in GW veterans has been studied both among deployed GWV and in GWV diagnosed with GWI. Results have been inconsistent between and across GW populations. The purpose of the present investigation was to better characterize neuropsychological function in this veteran population...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520663/contributions-to-executive-dysfunction-in-operation-enduring-freedom-operation-iraqi-freedom-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-history-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Sarah M Jurick, Laura D Crocker, Mark Sanderson-Cimino, Amber V Keller, Liljana S Trenova, Briana L Boyd, Elizabeth W Twamley, Carie S Rodgers, Dawn M Schiehser, Robin L Aupperle, Amy J Jak
OBJECTIVE: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), and executive function (EF) difficulties are prevalent in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans. We evaluated the contributions of injury variables, lower-order cognitive component processes (processing speed/attention), and psychological symptoms to EF. PARTICIPANTS: OEF/OIF Veterans (N = 65) with PTSD and history of mTBI were administered neuropsychological tests of EF and self-report assessments of PTSD and depression...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493652/vitamin-d-deficiency-associated-with-cognitive-functioning-in-psychotic-disorders
#13
Mari Nerhus, Akiah O Berg, Carmen Simonsen, Marit Haram, Beathe Haatveit, Sandra R Dahl, Tiril P Gurholt, Thomas D Bjella, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunctions are core features of psychotic disorders with substantial impact on daily functioning. Vitamin D deficiency has been found to be related to cognitive dysfunctions, but the associations between vitamin D deficiency and cognition in persons with a psychotic disorder are largely unknown. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 225 patients with a DSM-IV psychotic disorder consecutively recruited from 2003 to 2014 and 159 randomly selected healthy controls, assessed by a cognitive test battery, a clinical protocol (including Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), and a physical examination including vitamin D measurements...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483638/linking-adhd-to-the-neural-circuitry-of-attention
#14
REVIEW
Adrienne Mueller, David S Hong, Steven Shepard, Tirin Moore
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex condition with a heterogeneous presentation. Current diagnosis is primarily based on subjective experience and observer reports of behavioral symptoms - an approach that has significant limitations. Many studies show that individuals with ADHD exhibit poorer performance on cognitive tasks than neurotypical controls, and at least seven main functional domains appear to be implicated in ADHD. We discuss the underlying neural mechanisms of cognitive functions associated with ADHD, with emphasis on the neural basis of selective attention, demonstrating the feasibility of basic research approaches for further understanding cognitive behavioral processes as they relate to human psychopathology...
June 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481449/spontaneously-reported-symptoms-by-informants-are-associated-with-clinical-severity-in-dementia-help-seekers
#15
Jia-Qi Xu, Jacky C P Choy, Jennifer Y M Tang, Tian-Yin Liu, Hao Luo, Vivian W Q Lou, Terry Y S Lum, Gloria H Y Wong
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the predictive value of symptoms of dementia that the person or an informant noticed spontaneously in determining the clinical severity of dementia. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community-based open-referral dementia assessment service in Hong Kong between 2005 and 2013. PARTICIPANTS: Help-seekers for dementia assessment service and their informants (N = 965 dyads). MEASUREMENTS: Participants underwent a clinical dementia interview based on the Clinical Dementia Rating...
May 8, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481122/self-reported-executive-functioning-competencies-and-lifetime-aggression
#16
Alan R King, Cody M Breen, Tiffany D Russell, Brady P Nerpel, Colton R Pogalz
Neuropsychological research can be advanced through a better understanding of relationships between executive functioning (EF) behavioral competencies and the expression of aggressive behavior. While performance-based EF measures have been widely examined, links between self-report indices and practical real-life outcomes have not yet been established. Executive Functioning Index subscale scores in this sample (N = 579) were linked to trait hostility (Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire), aggression in the natural environment (Lifetime Acts of Violence Assessment), and conduct disorder symptoms prior to age 15...
May 8, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480824/-for-some-reason-i-find-it-hard-to-work-quickly-introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-sluggish-cognitive-tempo
#17
Stephen P Becker
The body of research investigating the sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) construct continues to accumulate at a rapid pace. This article provides an introduction to the Special Issue on SCT, which includes 10 empirical studies that collectively make a major contribution to the SCT knowledge base. Notably, the studies in this Special Issue include participants spanning in age from 4 to 64 years and from four continents, helping to move the field toward a life span, transcultural understanding of SCT. Together, these studies demonstrate that SCT symptoms can be distinguished from ADHD symptoms as early as preschool and that SCT does not fall under the overarching umbrella of ADHD...
June 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478998/characteristics-and-service-use-of-older-adults-with-schizoaffective-disorder-versus-older-adults-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#18
Stephanie A Rolin, Kelly A Aschbrenner, Karen L Whiteman, Emily Scherer, Stephen J Bartels
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine if schizoaffective disorder in older adults is differentiated from schizophrenia and bipolar disorder with respect to community functioning, cognitive functioning, psychiatric symptoms, and service use. DESIGN: Secondary analysis of baseline data collected from the Helping Older People Experience Success psychosocial skills training and health management study. SETTING: Three community mental health centers in New Hampshire and Massachusetts...
April 3, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474775/subcortical-hyperintensities-in-the-cholinergic-system-are-associated-with-improvements-in-executive-function-in-older-adults-with-coronary-artery-disease-undergoing-cardiac-rehabilitation
#19
Calvin Santiago, Nathan Herrmann, Walter Swardfager, Mahwesh Saleem, Paul I Oh, Sandra E Black, Janelle Bradley, Krista L Lanctôt
OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is frequently accompanied by white matter hyperintensities and executive dysfunction. Because acetylcholine is important in executive function, these symptoms may be exacerbated by subcortical hyperintensities (SH) located in cholinergic (CH) tracts. This study investigated the effects of SH on cognitive changes in CAD patients undergoing a 48-week cardiac rehabilitation program. METHODS: Fifty patients (age 66.5 ± 7.1 years, 84% male) underwent the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke - Canadian Stroke Network neurocognitive battery at baseline and 48 weeks...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471243/utility-of-providing-a-concussion-definition-in-the-assessment-of-concussion-history-in-former-nfl-players
#20
Michael L Alosco, Johnny Jarnagin, Yorghos Tripodis, Brett Martin, Christine Chaisson, Christine M Baugh, Alcy Torres, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert C Cantu, Robert A Stern
OBJECTIVE: Former National Football League (NFL) players' working knowledge of concussion has not yet been evaluated, despite this population being a major clinical research target due to the association between repetitive head impacts (RHI) and long-term clinical impairments. This study examined former NFL players' understanding of the current concussion definition, and the association between number of concussions with clinical function. METHODS: 95 former NFL players (mean age = 55...
May 4, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
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