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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643101/cognitive-performance-correlates-with-the-degree-of-dopaminergic-degeneration-in-the-associative-part-of-the-striatum-in-non-demented-parkinson-s-patients
#1
Dorothee Kübler, Henning Schroll, Ralph Buchert, Andrea A Kühn
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients show cognitive deficits that are relevant in terms of prognosis and quality of life. Degeneration of striatal dopaminergic afferents proceeds from dorsal/caudal to anterior/ventral and is discussed to account for some of these symptoms. Treatment with dopamine (DA) has differential effects on cognitive dysfunctions, improving some and worsening others. We hypothesized that cognitive performance during the dopaminergic OFF state correlates with DAT availability in the associative striatum...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642688/lower-functional-connectivity-of-the-periaqueductal-gray-is-related-to-negative-affect-and-clinical-manifestations-of-fibromyalgia
#2
Marie-Andrée Coulombe, Keith St Lawrence, Dwight E Moulin, Patricia Morley-Forster, Mahsa Shokouhi, Warren R Nielson, Karen D Davis
Fibromyalgia (FM) syndrome is characterized by chronic widespread pain, muscle tenderness and emotional distress. Previous studies found reduced endogenous pain modulation in FM. This deficiency of pain modulation may be related to the attributes of chronic pain and other clinical symptoms experienced in patients with FM. Thus, we tested whether there is a link between the clinical symptoms of FM and functional connectivity (FC) of the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a key node of pain modulation. We acquired resting state 3T functional MRI (rsfMRI) data from 23 female patients with FM and 16 age- and sex- matched healthy controls (HC) and assessed FM symptoms with the Brief Pain Inventory (BPI), Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642080/impact-of-juvenile-chronic-stress-on-adult-cortico-accumbal-function-implications-for-cognition-and-addiction
#3
REVIEW
Michael J Watt, Matthew A Weber, Shaydel R Davies, Gina L Forster
Repeated exposure to stress during childhood is associated with increased risk for neuropsychiatric illness, substance use disorders and other behavioral problems in adulthood. However, it is not clear how chronic childhood stress can lead to emergence of such a wide range of symptoms and disorders in later life. One possible explanation lies in stress-induced disruption to the development of specific brain regions associated with executive function and reward processing, deficits in which are common to the disorders promoted by childhood stress...
June 19, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639878/exploring-the-phenotype-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-aid-the-prediction-of-those-at-risk-of-transitioning-to-parkinson-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
Jennifer Y Y Szeto, Glenda M Halliday, Sharon L Naismith, Simon J G Lewis
To date, only limited research has concurrently investigated the presence of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and other features associated with Parkinson disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in people presenting with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). As a first step towards a longitudinal research project, the present study explored the relationships between MCI, RBD, and depression in 108 older adults who presented with subjective memory complaints but were not known to have a neurodegenerative condition...
July 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635542/gene-expression-study-of-mitochondrial-complex-i-in-schizophrenia-and-paranoid-personality-disorder
#5
Arvin Haghighatfard, Sarah Andalib, Mozhdeh Amini Faskhodi, Soha Sadeghi, Amir Hossein Ghaderi, Shadi Moradkhani, Jalal Rostampour, Zeinab Tabrizi, Ali Mahmoodi, Talie Karimi, Zakieh Ghadimi
OBJECTIVES: The aetiology and molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia (SCZ) and paranoid personality disorder (PPD) are not yet clarified. The present study aimed to assess the role of mitochondrial complex I and cell bioenergetic pathways in the aetiology and characteristics of SCZ and PPD. METHODS: mRNA levels of all genomic and mitochondrial genes which encode mitochondrial complex I subunits (44 genes) were assessed in blood in 634 SCZ, 340 PPD patients and 528 non-psychiatric subjects using quantitative real-time PCR, and associated comprehensive psychiatric, neurological and biochemical assessments...
February 20, 2017: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633629/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-severe-cognitive-and-sleep-symptoms-in-me-cfs-and-ms
#6
Vageesh Jain, Amit Arunkumar, Caroline Kingdon, Eliana Lacerda, Luis Nacul
BACKGROUND: There are considerable phenotypic and neuroimmune overlaps between myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and multiple sclerosis (MS). While the precise aetiologies of both MS and ME/CFS are unclear, evidence suggests that deterioration in cognitive function is widely prevalent in patients with either condition. Little is known about differing risk factors or exposures, which may lead to severe cognitive or sleep symptoms. This study aims to gauge the extent of cognitive and sleep symptoms in ME/CFS and MS patients participating in the UK ME/CFS Biobank and identify the characteristics of those experiencing severe symptoms...
June 20, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624964/relations-between-executive-functions-social-impairment-and-friendship-quality-on-adjustment-among-high-functioning-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#7
Rebecca W Lieb, Amy M Bohnert
High functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often have adjustment difficulties, specifically loneliness and depression. To better understand contributing factors, the current study evaluated associations between several Executive Function (EF) domains, social impairment, and friendship quality on depressive symptoms and loneliness in this population. Participants included 127 high functioning ASD adolescents and a parent/caregiver. Results indicated significant levels of parent-reported EF impairment which were positively correlated with increased levels of loneliness and depressive symptoms...
June 17, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623813/association-between-altered-physical-activity-and-neurocognitive-function-among-people-with-schizophrenia-a-minimum-6-months-follow-up-study
#8
Yusuke Kurebayashi, Junichi Otaki
BACKGROUND: The long-term benefits of physical activity on neurocognitive function among patients with schizophrenia, specifically among inpatients, remain unclear. This preliminary study, with a minimum of 6-months' follow-up, examined alterations in physical activity and neurocognitive function in both inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia. METHODS: Symptoms and neurocognitive function were assessed at 2 intervals using the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale and Cognitrax, respectively...
June 7, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609401/randomized-controlled-trial-of-caregiver-training-for-hiv-infected-child-neurodevelopment-and-caregiver-well-being
#9
Judith K Bass, Robert Opoka, Itziar Familiar, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Jorem Awadu, Deborah Givon, Cilly Shohet, Sarah M Murray, Jura Augustinavicius, Tamar Mendelson, Michael Boivin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection places children at neurodevelopmental risk; for young children in poverty, risk is compounded by compromised caregiving quality. The Mediational Intervention for Sensitizing Caregivers (MISC) program trained caregivers on fostering daily interactions with young children. We hypothesized that MISC could (1) enhance neurodevelopment of rural Ugandan HIV-infected children and (2) improve mental health outcomes of their caregivers, which might mediate improved caregiving quality...
June 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599348/a-pilot-open-label-8-week-study-evaluating-the-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-minocycline-for-the-treatment-of-bipolar-i-ii-depression
#10
Joanna K Soczynska, Sidney H Kennedy, Mohammad Alsuwaidan, Rodrigo B Mansur, Madeline Li, Mary Pat McAndrews, Elisa Brietzke, Hanna O Woldeyohannes, Valerie H Taylor, Roger S McIntyre
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the study were to determine if adjunctive minocycline mitigates depressive symptom severity and improves cognitive function in individuals with bipolar I/II disorder (BD). The study also aimed to determine if changes in depressive and/or cognitive symptoms over the course of treatment were associated with changes in circulating inflammatory cytokine levels. METHODS: A total of 29 (intention-to-treat: n=27) adults meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode as part of bipolar I or II disorder (i...
May 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596187/functional-connectivity-in-virally-suppressed-patients-with-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorder-a-resting-state-analysis
#11
J R Chaganti, A Heinecke, T M Gates, K J Moffat, B J Brew
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder still occurs despite virally suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. In the pre-combination antiretroviral era and in patients without HIV suppression, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder was caused by synaptodendritic injury resulting in impairment of neural networks, characterized by decreased attention, psychomotor slowing, and working memory deficits. Whether similar pathogenesis is true for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder in the context of viral suppression is not clear...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595362/executive-function-and-dysregulated-eating-behaviors-in-pediatric-obesity
#12
Marissa A Gowey, Crystal S Lim, Gareth R Dutton, Janet H Silverstein, Marilyn C Dumont-Driscoll, David M Janicke
To examine the association between caregiver proxy report of executive function (EF) and dysregulated eating behavior in children with obesity.  Participants were 195 youth with obesity aged 8-17 years, and their legal guardians. Youth height, weight, demographics, depressive symptoms, eating behaviors, and EF were assessed cross-sectionally during a medical visit. Analyses of covariance, adjusted for child age, gender, race/ethnicity, standardized BMI, depressive symptoms, and family income were used to examine differences in youth EF across caregiver and youth self-report of eating behaviors...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587688/hot-and-cold-executive-functions-in-youth-with-psychotic-symptoms
#13
L E MacKenzie, V C Patterson, A Zwicker, V Drobinin, H L Fisher, S Abidi, A N Greve, A Bagnell, L Propper, M Alda, B Pavlova, R Uher
BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms are common in children and adolescents and may be early manifestations of liability to severe mental illness (SMI), including schizophrenia. SMI and psychotic symptoms are associated with impairment in executive functions. However, previous studies have not differentiated between 'cold' and 'hot' executive functions. We hypothesized that the propensity for psychotic symptoms is specifically associated with impairment in 'hot' executive functions, such as decision-making in the context of uncertain rewards and losses...
June 7, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585482/clinical-assessment-of-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-head-and-neck-cancer-prevalence-and-correlates
#14
Amy M Williams, Jamie Lindholm, Farzan Siddiqui, Tamer A Ghanem, Steven S Chang
Objective Identify the prevalence and clinical correlates of cognitive impairment in patients presenting for treatment of head and neck cancer (HNC) using brief screening within a multidisciplinary care team. Study Design A case series with planned data collection of cognitive function, quality of life (QoL), and psychosocial variables. Setting Urban Midwest academic medical center. Subjects and Methods In total, 209 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of HNC between August 2015 and September 2016 who had a pretreatment assessment with a clinical health psychologist...
May 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584926/theory-of-mind-performance-in-parkinson-s-disease-is-associated-with-motor-and-cognitive-functions-but-not-with-symptom-lateralization
#15
Lisa Nobis, Katharina Schindlbeck, Felicitas Ehlen, Hannes Tiedt, Charlotte Rewitzer, Annelien A Duits, Fabian Klostermann
Next to the typical motor signs, Parkinson's disease (PD) goes along with neuropsychiatric symptoms, amongst others affecting social cognition. Particularly, Theory of Mind (ToM) impairments have mostly been associated with right hemispherical brain dysfunction, so that it might prevail in patients with left dominant PD. Fourty-four PD patients, twenty-four with left and twenty with right dominant motor symptoms, engaged in the Reading the Mind in the Eyes (RME) and the Faux Pas Detection Test (FPD) to assess affective and cognitive ToM...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582857/identification-of-successful-cognitive-aging-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-study
#16
Feng V Lin, Xixi Wang, Rachel Wu, George W Rebok, Benjamin P Chapman
The present prospective observational study aimed to identify the existence of successful cognitive agers among a group of well-defined cognitively healthy older adults (n = 354, mean age = 75 years), and to examine baseline individual-level predictors and associated health outcomes over time. Episodic memory (EM) and executive function (EF) composite scores and multiple health outcomes were obtained annually over 5 years. Potential individual-level predictors that were related to Alzheimer's disease pathology or genetic risk, neurodegeneration, and vascular risks were collected at baseline...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545793/associations-between-systemic-pro-inflammatory-markers-cognitive-function-and-cognitive-complaints-in-a-population-based-sample-of-working-adults
#17
C U D Stenfors, I H Jonsdottir, L L Magnusson Hanson, T Theorell
BACKGROUND: The knowledge is limited regarding the relation between systemic inflammatory biomarkers and subjective and objective cognitive functioning in population-based samples of healthy adults across the adult age-span. Thus, the aim of this study was to study a selection of four pro-inflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, MCP-1, TNF-α, CRP) in relation to executive cognitive functioning, episodic memory and subjective cognitive complaints (SCC) in a population-based sample of 215 working adults (age 25-67)...
May 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545597/prefrontal-cortical-thinning-links-to-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-via-the-enigma-consortium
#18
E Walton, D P Hibar, T G M van Erp, S G Potkin, R Roiz-Santiañez, B Crespo-Facorro, P Suarez-Pinilla, N E M van Haren, S M C de Zwarte, R S Kahn, W Cahn, N T Doan, K N Jørgensen, T P Gurholt, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Melle, A O Berg, L Morch-Johnsen, A Færden, L Flyckt, H Fatouros-Bergman, E G Jönsson, R Hashimoto, H Yamamori, M Fukunaga, N Jahanshad, P De Rossi, F Piras, N Banaj, G Spalletta, R E Gur, R C Gur, D H Wolf, T D Satterthwaite, L M Beard, I E Sommer, S Koops, O Gruber, A Richter, B Krämer, S Kelly, G Donohoe, C McDonald, D M Cannon, A Corvin, M Gill, A Di Giorgio, A Bertolino, S Lawrie, T Nickson, H C Whalley, E Neilson, V D Calhoun, P M Thompson, J A Turner, S Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity...
May 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544009/a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effects-of-delaying-onset-of-adolescent-substance-abuse-on-cognitive-development-and-addiction-following-a-selective-personality-targeted-intervention-program-the-co-venture-trial
#19
Maeve O'Leary-Barrett, Benoit Mâsse, Robert Pihl, Sherry Stewart, Jean R Séguin, Patricia Conrod
AIMS: Substance use and binge drinking during early adolescence are associated with neurocognitive abnormalities, mental health problems and an increased risk for future addiction. The trial aims to evaluate the protective effects of an evidence-based substance use prevention program on the onset of alcohol and drug use in adolescence, as well as on cognitive, mental health and addiction outcomes over 5 years. DESIGN: Thirty-eight high schools will be recruited, with a final sample of 31 schools assigned to intervention or control conditions (approximately 3800 youth)...
May 21, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542068/reduced-cortical-excitatory-synapse-number-in-apoe4-mice-is-associated-with-increased-calcineurin-activity
#20
Aidan L Neustadtl, Charisse N Winston, Maia Parsadanian, Bevan S Main, Sonia Villapol, Mark P Burns
Synaptic loss is a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that is associated with the onset of cognitive decline and the loss of executive function. The strongest genetic risk factor for AD is the APOE4 allele, which results in both a greater risk of developing AD as well as an earlier age of onset of AD. Dendritic spines, the anatomical substrate of the excitatory synapse, are reduced in the cortex of humanized APOE4 mice but the reason for this synaptic decline is unknown. Calcineurin, a calcium/calmodulin dependent phosphatase, is a mediator of dendritic spine retraction...
July 5, 2017: Neuroreport
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