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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447133/computerised-training-improves-cognitive-performance-in-chronic-pain-a-participant-blinded-randomised-active-controlled-trial-with-remote-supervision
#1
Katharine S Baker, Nellie Georgiou-Karistianis, Amit Lampit, Michael Valenzuela, Stephen J Gibson, Melita J Giummarra
Chronic pain is associated with reduced efficiency of cognitive performance, and few studies have investigated methods of remediation. We trialled a computerised cognitive training protocol to determine whether it could attenuate cognitive difficulties in a chronic pain sample. Thirty-nine adults with chronic pain (mean age = 43.3, 61.5% females) were randomised to an 8-week online course (3 sessions/week from home) of game-like cognitive training exercises, or an active control involving watching documentary videos...
January 11, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444296/a-longitudinal-study-of-depressive-symptoms-neuropsychological-functioning-and-medical-responsibility-in-youth-with-spina-bifida-examining-direct-and-mediating-pathways
#2
Alexa Stern, Colleen F Bechtel Driscoll, Diana Ohanian, Grayson N Holmbeck
Objective: Given the increased risk for cognitive deficits and development of depressive symptoms in youth with spina bifida (SB), this study aimed to examine two pathways through which depressive symptoms and neuropsychological dysfunction may be associated with medical autonomy in this population: (1) depressive symptoms as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by attention/executive functioning (the cognitive scarring model), and (2) attention/executive functioning as predictors of medical autonomy as mediated by depressive symptoms (the cognitive vulnerability model)...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439160/co-occurrence-of-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-dysfunction-after-stroke-associations-with-brain-pathology-and-prognosis
#3
Elles Douven, Pauline Aalten, Julie Staals, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Frans R J Verhey, Sebastian Köhler
OBJECTIVE: To examine, first, whether the co-occurrence of executive dysfunction (ED) and poststroke depression (PSD) shows different associations with neuroimaging markers and the course of depression and executive function, and second, whether it is associated with a different course on other cognitive domains and quality of life. METHODS: The present study included 245 stroke patients (35.9% female, mean age 67.5 years (SD=11.9). All patients completed neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months poststroke, which were repeated at 6-month and 12-month follow-up...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437810/down-syndrome-with-posterior-cortical-atrophy
#4
Claire Boutoleau-Bretonnière, Amandine Pallardy
Down syndrome (DS) is caused by trisomy of chromosome 21. The average age of onset of Alzheimer's disease (AD) ranged from 50 to 55 years in DS, with early symptoms usually characterised by changes in behaviour and executive dysfunction. On the other hand, posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterised by progressive impairment of visual functions in the absence of visual deficits and a pattern of atrophy involving posterior cortex. This syndrome is mostly caused by AD pathology...
February 8, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432527/advanced-lesion-symptom-mapping-analyses-and-implementation-as-bcbtoolkit
#5
C Foulon, L Cerliani, S Kinkingnéhun, R Levy, C Rosso, M Urbanski, E Volle, M Thiebaut de Schotten
Background: Patients with brain lesions provide a unique opportunity to understand the functioning of the human mind. However, even when focal, brain lesions have local and remote effects that impact functionally and structurally connected circuits. Similarly, function emerges from the interaction between brain areas rather than their sole activity. For instance, category fluency requires the association between executive, semantic and language production functions. Findings: Here we provide, for the first time, a set of complementary solutions to measure the impact of a given lesion upon the neuronal circuits...
February 8, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431172/progression-and-effect-of-cognitive-behavioral-changes-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Meredith Bock, Y-Nhy Duong, Anthony Kim, Isabel Allen, Jennifer Murphy, Catherine Lomen-Hoerth
Background: To prospectively evaluate the progression of cognitive-behavioral function in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and examine the association of cognitive-behavioral deficits with disease progression, patient quality of life (QOL), and caregiver burden. Methods: We evaluated cognitive-behavioral function using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Cognitive Behavioral Screen at enrollment and after 7 months in a cohort of patients with ALS. Paired t tests were used to evaluate the change in the 2 assessments...
December 2017: Neurology. Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428714/%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-is-associated-with-gait-variability-in-usual-aging
#7
Qu Tian, Woei-Nan Bair, Susan M Resnick, Murat Bilgel, Dean F Wong, Stephanie A Studenski
BACKGROUND: Higher amyloid burden predicts gait slowing in aging. Whether and which gait characteristics are associated with amyloid burden is less clear. Gait variability may be more sensitive to amyloid burden than mean gait characteristics. METHODS: In the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging, 99 older participants without neurological disease had concurrent amyloid imaging and assessment of gait characteristics. β-amyloid burden was measured using 11C-Pittsburgh compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography...
February 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427262/factor-structure-and-clinical-correlates-of-the-61-item-wender-utah-rating-scale-wurs
#8
Matthew Calamia, Benjamin D Hill, Mandi W Musso, Russell D Pella, Wm Drew Gouvier
The objective of this study was to assess the factor structure and clinical correlates of a 61-item version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), a self-report retrospective measure of childhood problems, experiences, and behavior used in ADHD assessment. Given the currently mostly widely used form of the WURS was derived via a criterion-keyed approach, the study aimed to use latent variable modeling of the 61-item WURS to potentially identify more and more homogeneous set of items reflecting current conceptualizations of ADHD symptoms...
February 9, 2018: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411941/preserved-re-experience-of-discrete-emotions-amnesia-and-executive-function
#9
Marian Andrei Stanciu, Robert D Rafal, Oliver H Turnbull
Amnesic patients can re-experience emotions elicited by forgotten events, suggesting that brain systems for episodic and emotional memory are independent. However, the range of such emotional memories remains under-investigated (most studies employing just positive-negative emotion dyads), and executive function may also play a role in the re-experience of emotions. This is the first investigation of the intensity of the emotional re-experience of a range of discrete emotions (anger, fear, sadness, and happiness) for a group of amnesic patients...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411333/a-review-of-childhood-behavioral-problems-and-disorders-in-the-development-of-obesity-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Brittany E Matheson, Dawn M Eichen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Given the high rates of pediatric and adult obesity, it is imperative to identify early risk factors that might contribute to excess weight gain. This review aims to investigate the relationship between childhood behavioral problems with the development and persistence of obesity. Specifically, this review highlights the association of obesity with (1) neurocognitive constructs, such as executive functioning and inhibition/impulsivity, and (2) disorders commonly diagnosed in childhood, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD)...
February 6, 2018: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408968/microrna132-associated-multimodal-neuroimaging-patterns-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#11
Shile Qi, Xiao Yang, Liansheng Zhao, Vince D Calhoun, Nora Perrone-Bizzozero, Shengfeng Liu, Rongtao Jiang, Tianzi Jiang, Jing Sui, Xiaohong Ma
There is compelling evidence that epigenetic factors contribute to the manifestation of depression, in which microRNA132 (miR-132) is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and neuronal mechanisms underlying the symptoms of depression. Additionally, several depression-associated genes [MECP2, ARHGAP32 (p250GAP), CREB, and period genes] were experimentally validated as miR-132 targets. However, most studies regarding miR-132 in major depressive disorder are based on post-mortem, animal models or genetic comparisons...
February 2, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407942/neuropsychological-correlates-of-cognitive-emotional-affective-and-auto-activation-apathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Perri Roberta, Turchetta Chiara Stella, Caruso Giulia, Fadda Lucia, Caltagiorne Carlo, Carlesimo Giovanni Augusto
Apathy symptoms include different dimensions: cognitive (C), emotional-affective (E-Aff) and auto-activation; they have been related to dysfunctions of the dorsolateral, orbito-basal prefrontal cortex and the subcortical frontal connections to the basal ganglia, respectively. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), an association has been found between apathy severity and both executive deficits and atrophy of the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex; however, it is not clear whether these associations concern only the cognitive aspects of apathy...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407283/intrinsic-task-evoked-and-absolute-gamma-synchrony-during-cognitive-processing-in-first-onset-schizophrenia
#13
Annie M Brennan, Leanne M Williams, Anthony W F Harris
Cognitive deficits present from the first onset of schizophrenia are thought to arise from a core problem in neural synchrony. This is the first study to characterize the profile of gamma (30-100 Hz) synchrony (rather than power) and behavioral performance during higher-order cognitive processing in schizophrenia. Gamma synchrony was acquired from the EEG, and elicited by a Continuous Performance Test (CPT). We quantitated synchrony for regions associated with the fronto-parietal attention and visual networks for 59 young people with First Onset Schizophrenia (FOS) and 59 matched controls, facilitated by the BRAINnet...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406885/preliminary-evidence-of-the-cerebellar-role-on-cognitive-performances-in-clinically-isolated-syndrome
#14
Amandine Moroso, Aurélie Ruet, Delphine Lamargue-Hamel, Fanny Munsch, Mathilde Deloire, Jean-Christophe Ouallet, Stéphanie Cubizolle, Julie Charré-Morin, Aurore Saubusse, Thomas Tourdias, Vincent Dousset, Bruno Brochet
BACKGROUND: Cerebellar and cognitive dysfunction can occur early in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS). Eye tracking is a reliable tool for the evaluation of both subtle cerebellar symptoms and cognitive impairment. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the early cognitive profile using neuropsychological and ocular motor (OM) testing in CIS with and without cerebellar dysfunction with OM testing compared to healthy subjects (HS). METHODS: Twenty-eight patients and 12 HC underwent OM and neuropsychological testing...
February 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394100/sleep-health-and-psychopathology-mediate-executive-deficits-in-pediatric-obesity
#15
Alaina L Pearce, Eleanor Mackey, Evan P Nadler, Chandan J Vaidya
OBJECTIVE: Executive and motivational dysfunction have been associated with pediatric obesity. Poor sleep quality and psychopathology, often comorbid with obesity, are also associated with executive and motivational dysfunction. We examined the contribution of these comorbid factors to the association between obesity and executive function and reward-related decision-making. METHODS: Seven- to 18-year-old children with and without obesity performed a working memory task with low and high loads, a response inhibition task, and a probabilistic reward-related decision-making task...
February 2, 2018: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389022/age-and-cgg-repeat-related-slowing-of-manual-movement-in-fragile-x-carriers-a-prodrome-of-fragile-x-associated-tremor-ataxia-syndrome
#16
Ryan Shickman, Jessica Famula, Flora Tassone, Maureen Leehey, Emilio Ferrer, Susan M Rivera, David Hessl
BACKGROUND: Fragile X premutation carriers are at increased risk for fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), but to date we know little about prediction of onset and rate of progression and even less about treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. Thus, the longitudinal study of carriers, and the identification of potential biomarkers and prodromal states, is essential. Here we present results of baseline assessments from an ongoing longitudinal project. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 73 men, 48 with the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (55-200 cytosine-cytosine-guanine or CGG repeats) and 25 well-matched controls (< 40 repeats) aged between 40 and 75 years...
February 1, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29388512/meta-analysis-of-cognitive-performance-in-fibromyalgia
#17
Tyler Bell, Zina Trost, Melissa T Buelow, Olivio Clay, Jarred Younger, David Moore, Michael Crowe
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a condition with symptoms of pain, physical function difficulties, and emotional problems, but is also characterized by complaints of poor cognition (often called "FibroFog"). Over the last two decades, a number of studies have examined cognitive differences between individuals with and without fibromyalgia. The purpose of the current study was to conduct a quantitative synthesis of these differences across multiple cognitive domains. METHOD: Following Cochrane guidelines, we identified 37 eligible studies for analysis where persons with fibromyalgia (total n = 964) were compared to participants from age-matched control groups without fibromyalgia (total n = 1025) on a range of neuropsychological measures...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381739/impaired-memory-is-more-closely-associated-with-brain-beta-amyloid-than-leukoaraiosis-in-hypertensive-patients-with-cognitive-symptoms
#18
Eric E Smith, Alona Muzikansky, Cheryl R McCreary, Saima Batool, Anand Viswanathan, Bradford C Dickerson, Keith Johnson, Steven M Greenberg, Deborah Blacker
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the strongest modifiable risk factor for subcortical ischemic changes and is also a risk factor for Alzheimer's dementia. We used neuroimaging to investigate the pathological basis of early cognitive symptoms in patients with hypertension. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study 67 patients age >60 years with hypertension and Clinical Dementia Rating scale score of 0.5 without dementia, and without history of symptomatic stroke, underwent MRI for measurement of subcortical vascular changes and positron emission tomography (PET) scan with Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB-PET) to detect beta-amyloid deposition...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378061/young-adult-outcomes-for-children-with-22q11-deletion-syndrome-and-comorbid-adhd
#19
Lea E Taylor, Wendy R Kates, Wanda Fremont, Kevin M Antshel
Background: 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a common microdeletion syndrome associated with a variety of negative health, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral outcomes. 22q11DS is comorbid with many psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The current study aimed to investigate the cognitive, behavioral, and functional outcomes that a childhood ADHD diagnosis predicts to in adulthood. Methods: This longitudinal study followed 52 individuals with 22q11DS over 9 years...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29372111/positively-worded-subscale-score-of-the-perceived-stress-scale-is-associated-with-cognitive-domain-function
#20
Julie M Jiang, Elizabeth K Seng, Molly E Zimmerman, Mimi Kim, Richard B Lipton
Objectives: To examine the cross-sectional associations of the separate subscales of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and tests measuring cognitive domains in older adults. Methods: 897 adults over the age of 70 free of amnestic mild cognitive impairment and dementia and enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study made up the study sample. The PSS-14 was used to measure stress. Three cognitive domains (language, episodic memory, and frontal-executive) had previously been found using principle component analysis...
July 2017: Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science
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