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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676601/poor-cognitive-inhibition-predicts-rumination-about-insomnia-in-a-clinical-sample
#1
Andrea Ballesio, Cristina Ottaviani, Caterina Lombardo
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: According to the Cognitive Model of Insomnia disorder, rumination about lack of sleep and its diurnal consequences plays a crucial role in maintaining insomnia. Consolidated evidence shows that rumination is related to poor executive functions, which are cognitive control processes impacted by insomnia. Despite this evidence, no studies so far investigated the relationship between executive functions and rumination in individuals with insomnia. The aim of this pilot study was to cover this gap by investigating whether poor executive functions are associated with rumination in a sample of individuals with a diagnosis of insomnia disorder...
April 20, 2018: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674987/the-complex-interplay-between-depression-anxiety-and-executive-functioning-insights-from-the-ecas-in-a-large-als-population
#2
Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Alberto Doretti, Andrea Ciammola, Nicola Ticozzi, Vincenzo Silani, Barbara Poletti
Introduction: The observed association between depressive symptoms and cognitive performances has not been previously clarified in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (pALS). In fact, the use of cognitive measures often not accommodating for motor disability has led to heterogeneous and not conclusive findings about this issue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship between cognitive and depressive/anxiety symptoms by means of the recently developed Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS), a brief assessment specifically designed for pALS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671248/executive-function-and-quality-of-life-in-individuals-with-marfan-syndrome
#3
Ileana Ratiu, Thomas B Virden, Hope Baylow, Melissa Flint, Mitra Esfandiarei
PURPOSE: Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a connective tissue disorder that affects skeletal, ocular, pulmonary, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems. Psychological and physiologic symptoms may lead to diminished quality of life (QoL) in individuals with MFS compared with healthy individuals. Currently, there is little evidence regarding the impact of MFS on executive function and QoL. This study examined perceptions of executive function and QoL among persons with MFS. METHOD: A total of 318 participants with MFS completed surveys assessing perceptions of executive function abilities and QoL...
April 18, 2018: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665519/associations-between-cognitive-functioning-mood-symptoms-and-coping-styles-in-older-age-bipolar-disorder
#4
Nadine P G Paans, Annemiek Dols, Hannie C Comijs, Max L Stek, Sigfried N T M Schouws
BACKGROUND: Older age patients with bipolar disorder (OABD) have often passive coping styles, generally considered as detrimental for functioning. The aim of the current study is to identify the contribution of cognitive functioning, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms to passive and active coping styles in older age BD. METHODS: In 90 euthymic patients (age > 60) with BD I or II, we examined coping, neuropsychological profile including memory, attention, executive function and fluency, subjective cognitive complaints and mood symptoms...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661516/lisdexamfetamine-targets-amygdala-mechanisms-that-bias-cognitive-control-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Kurt P Schulz, Beth Krone, Lenard A Adler, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Stephanie Duhoux, Juan Pedraza, Sanweda Mahagabin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal-limbic circuits that form the neural architecture for emotion to influence behavior have been implicated in the pathophysiology of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and represent a potentially important target of medication treatment that has not been substantively evaluated. This study tested the effect of the psychostimulant prodrug lisdexamfetamine dimesylate on amygdala activation and connectivity during the emotional bias of response execution and inhibition...
March 19, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659005/state-of-the-science-of-neural-systems-in-late-life-depression-impact-on-clinical-presentation-and-treatment-outcome
#6
Kevin J Manning, David C Steffens
Major depression in older adults, or late-life depression (LLD), is a common and debilitating psychiatric disorder that increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. Although the effects of LLD make it important to achieve a diagnosis and start treatment quickly, individuals with LLD are often inadequately or unsuccessfully treated. The latest treatment developments suggest that interventions targeting executive dysfunction and neuroticism, constructs associated with poor response to antidepressants in older adults, are successful in treating LLD...
April 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655375/association-between-traumatic-stress-load-psychopathology-and-cognition-in-the-philadelphia-neurodevelopmental-cohort
#7
Ran Barzilay, Monica E Calkins, Tyler M Moore, Daniel H Wolf, Theodore D Satterthwaite, J Cobb Scott, Jason D Jones, Tami D Benton, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur
BACKGROUND: Traumatic stressors during childhood and adolescence are associated with psychopathology, mostly studied in the context of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. We investigated broader associations of traumatic stress exposure with psychopathology and cognition in a youth community sample. METHODS: The Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (N = 9498) is an investigation of clinical and neurobehavioral phenotypes in a diverse (56% Caucasian, 33% African American, 11% other) US youth community population (aged 8-21)...
April 15, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653157/do-depressive-symptoms-affect-balance-in-older-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-results-from-the-gait-and-brain-study
#8
Frederico Pieruccini-Faria, Susan W Muir-Hunter, Manuel Montero-Odasso
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and depression independently affect balance control in older adults. However, it is uncertain whether depressive symptoms would amplify balance problems in older adults with MCI. AIM: To evaluate if the presence of significant depressive symptoms affects postural sway under somatosensory challenges in a MCI population. METHODS: Eighty two participants (mean of 75.3 ± 6.4 years of age; 46% women) with MCI completed cognitive and balance assessments...
April 10, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623484/symptoms-of-internet-gaming-disorder-in-youth-predictors-and-comorbidity
#9
Lars Wichstrøm, Frode Stenseng, Jay Belsky, Tilmann von Soest, Beate Wold Hygen
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) was included in the Addendum to DSM-5 as a condition for further study. Studies of community samples using a diagnostic interview are lacking, and evaluations of the proposed symptoms, comorbidities, and predictors of IGD are scarce. To provide such information participants in a Norwegian prospective community study were assessed with a clinical interview at age 10 years. Symptoms of other psychiatric disorders were measured with the Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment at ages 8 and 10 (n = 740)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620405/neurocognitive-and-behavioral-predictors-of-social-problems-in-adhd-a-bayesian-framework
#10
Michael J Kofler, Sherelle L Harmon, Paula A Aduen, Taylor N Day, Kristin E Austin, Jamie A Spiegel, Lauren Irwin, Dustin E Sarver
OBJECTIVE: Social problems are a key area of functional impairment for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and converging evidence points to executive dysfunction as a potential mechanism underlying ADHD-related social dysfunction. The evidence is mixed, however, with regard to which neurocognitive abilities account for these relations. METHOD: A well-characterized group of 117 children ages 8-13 (M = 10.45, SD = 1.53; 43 girls; 69.5% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) with ADHD (n = 77) and without ADHD (n = 40) were administered multiple, counterbalanced tests of neurocognitive functioning and assessed for social skills via multi-informant reports...
March 2018: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618408/is-major-depression-a-cognitive-disorder
#11
REVIEW
P Fossati
This is a review of cognitive abilities in major depression, which is associated with attention problems, memory deficit and wide impairment in executive functions. Depressed patients show two major cognitive biases: excessive processing of negatively valenced emotional stimuli; and increased self-focus. Both of these biases help to facilitate the integration of negative self-related information in depressed patients and to maintain their negative mood. Brain imaging studies suggest that this cognitive impairment is characterized by abnormal cooperation between the cognitive and limbic networks involved in cognitive control and self-referential processing...
April 1, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604987/neuroaids-in-children
#12
Jo M Wilmshurst, Charles K Hammond, Kirsty Donald, Jacqueline Hoare, Karen Cohen, Brian Eley
The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters the central nervous system compartment within the first few weeks of systemic HIV infection and may cause a spectrum of neurologic complications. Without combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), 50-90% of all HIV-infected infants and children develop some form of neuroAIDS. Of the estimated 2.3 million children less than 15 years of age who were living in sub-Saharan Africa at the end of 2014, only 30% were receiving cART, suggesting that there is a large burden of neuroAIDS among HIV-infected children in sub-Saharan Africa...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593413/serum-levels-of-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyrate-and-pyruvate-metabolic-changes-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-during-antipsychotic-treatment-a-preliminary-study
#13
Yu-Chi Huang, Pao-Yen Lin, Yu Lee, Chi-Fa Hung, Su-Ting Hsu, Chih-Ching Wu, Liang-Jen Wang
Background: β-hydroxybutyrate (β-HB) and pyruvate have been associated with the brain energy utilization, which may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. In this prospective study, we aim to investigate the trends of β-HB and pyruvate levels, metabolic changes, and cognitive function in schizophrenia patients receiving antipsychotic treatment. Objective: We recruited 38 schizophrenia patients who had been treated with antipsychotics for 12 weeks, as well as 38 healthy age- and gender-matched subjects...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592886/the-most-affected-health-domains-after-ischemic-stroke
#14
Irene L Katzan, Nicolas R Thompson, Ken Uchino, Brittany Lapin
OBJECTIVES: (1) Examine 8 patient-reported domains of health across levels of disability compared to the US general population; and (2) identify factors associated with domain scores in patients with ischemic stroke. METHODS: Observational cohort study of 1,195 patients in a cerebrovascular clinic from February 17, 2015, to January 27, 2017, who completed Neuro-QoL (Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders) executive function or the following PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) scales as part of routine care: physical function, satisfaction with social roles, fatigue, anxiety, depression, pain interference, and sleep disturbance...
March 28, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588051/data-driven-subtyping-of-executive-function-related-behavioral-problems-in-children
#15
Joe Bathelt, Joni Holmes, Duncan E Astle
OBJECTIVE: Executive functions (EF) are cognitive skills that are important for regulating behavior and for achieving goals. Executive function deficits are common in children who struggle in school and are associated with multiple neurodevelopmental disorders. However, there is also considerable heterogeneity across children, even within diagnostic categories. This study took a data-driven approach to identify distinct clusters of children with common profiles of EF-related difficulties, and then identified patterns of brain organization that distinguish these data-driven groups...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575401/previously-undiagnosed-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-associated-with-poor-metabolic-control-in-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
C Nylander, K Lindström, N Khalifa, E Fernell
BACKGROUND: Managing modern diabetes treatment requires efficient executive functions. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and type 1 diabetes have poor metabolic control and present with ketoacidosis more often than patients without ADHD. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients with type 1 diabetes and with indications of executive problems met criteria for ADHD, and to investigate whether these patients had difficulties achieving metabolic control...
March 24, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571090/impaired-set-shifting-is-associated-with-previous-falls-in-individuals-with-and-without-parkinson-s-disease
#17
J Lucas McKay, Kimberly C Lang, Lena H Ting, Madeleine E Hackney
BACKGROUND: Individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) are at increased risk for falls, which lead to substantial morbidity and mortality. Understanding the motor and non-motor impairments associated with falls in PD is critical to informing prevention strategies. In addition to motor symptoms, individuals with PD exhibit non-motor deficits, including impaired set shifting, an aspect of executive function related to cognitive flexibility that can be measured quickly with the Trailmaking Test...
March 6, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565472/a-novel-universal-device-lingual-ring-ri-p-a-ra-for-tmds-and-cranio-cervico-mandibular-pains-preliminary-results-of-a-randomized-control-clinical-trial
#18
A Rampello, P Papi, G Pompa, A Rampello, A Polimeni, C Di Paolo
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate functionality and clinical application of a novel immediate device in the treatment of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). To address the research purpose, authors developed and implemented a randomized control clinical trial. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty patients were enrolled in this study and were randomly divided into two subgroups based on the treatment applied: patient group (PG) and control group (CG). The CG was not subjected to any kind of treatment, even placebo, in order to be able to assess the spontaneous development of the pathology over time...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564640/self-and-social-regulation-in-type-1-diabetes-management-during-late-adolescence-and-emerging-adulthood
#19
REVIEW
Deborah J Wiebe, Cynthia A Berg, Daniel Mello, Caitlin S Kelly
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper aims to examine how self-regulation (i.e., cognition, emotion) and social-regulation (i.e., parents, friends, romantic partners) are interrelated risk and protective factors for type 1 diabetes management during late adolescence and emerging adulthood. RECENT FINDINGS: Problems in cognitive (e.g., executive function) and emotional (e.g., depressive symptoms) self-regulation are associated with poorer management, both at the between- and within-person levels...
March 21, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548847/simultaneous-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping-and-flutemetamol-pet-suggests-local-correlation-of-iron-and-%C3%AE-amyloid-as-an-indicator-of-cognitive-performance-at-high-age
#20
J M G van Bergen, X Li, F C Quevenco, A F Gietl, V Treyer, R Meyer, A Buck, P A Kaufmann, R M Nitsch, P C M van Zijl, C Hock, P G Unschuld
The accumulation of β-amyloid plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and recently published data suggest that increased brain iron burden may reflect pathologies that synergistically contribute to the development of cognitive dysfunction. While preclinical disease stages are considered most promising for therapeutic intervention, the link between emerging AD-pathology and earliest clinical symptoms remains largely unclear. In the current study we therefore investigated local correlations between iron and β-amyloid plaques, and their possible association with cognitive performance in healthy older adults...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
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