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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933019/reduced-working-memory-mediates-the-link-between-early-institutional-rearing-and-symptoms-of-adhd-at-12-years
#1
Florin Tibu, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin, Charles A Nelson, Nathan A Fox, Charles H Zeanah
Children who are raised in institutions show severe delays across multiple domains of development and high levels of psychopathology, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low performance in executive functions (EFs) are also common in institutionally reared children and often do not remediate following improvements in the caregiving environment. ADHD symptomatology also remains elevated even after children are removed from institutional care and placed in families. We investigate whether poor EF is a mechanism explaining elevated rates of ADHD in children reared in institutional settings in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917569/distinct-intrinsic-functional-brain-network-abnormalities-in-methamphetamine-dependent-patients-with-and-without-a-history-of-psychosis
#2
Jonathan C Ipser, Anne Uhlmann, Paul Taylor, Brian H Harvey, Don Wilson, Dan J Stein
Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with executive functioning deficits that suggest dysfunctional cognitive control networks (CCNs) in the brain. Likewise, abnormal connectivity between intrinsic CCNs and default mode networks (DMNs) has also been associated with poor cognitive function in clinical populations. Accordingly, we tested the extent to which methamphetamine use predicts abnormal connectivity between these networks, and whether, as predicted, these abnormalities are compounded in patients with a history of methamphetamine-associated psychosis (MAP)...
December 5, 2016: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875926/a-meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-symptom-severity-of-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-executive-function
#3
Fu L Woon, Thomas J Farrer, Colin R Braman, Jennifer K Mabey, Dawson W Hedges
INTRODUCTION: Some studies of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) find executive dysfunction, whereas others do not. We meta-analytically examined the association between executive function and PTSD and used meta-regression to examine the potential moderating effect of PTSD severity on executive function. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We identified published peer-reviewed articles containing measures of executive function and PTSD symptom severity in subjects with PTSD compared to trauma-unexposed controls or trauma-exposed controls without PTSD, or both...
November 22, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856124/enhanced-molecular-aging-in-late-life-depression-the-senescent-associated-secretory-phenotype
#4
Breno Satler Diniz, Charles F Reynolds, Etienne Sibille, Chien-Wei Lin, George Tseng, Francis Lotrich, Howard J Aizenstein, Meryl A Butters
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether a systemic molecular pattern associated with aging (senescent-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]) is elevated in adults with late-life depression (LLD), compared with never-depressed elderly comparison participants. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: We included 111 older adults (80 with LLD and 31 comparison participants) in this study. MEASUREMENT: A panel of 22 SASP-related proteins was extracted from a previous multiplex protein panel performed in these participants...
August 31, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843436/lifetime-multiple-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-associated-with-cognitive-and-mood-symptoms-in-young-healthy-college-students
#5
Kyle C Vynorius, Alyssa M Paquin, Daniel R Seichepine
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI, also known as concussion) has been associated with a range of long-term mood and cognitive deficits, including executive dysfunction. Previous research in athletes suggests that cognitive and mood problems are associated with a history of repetitive mTBI. However, to date, no studies have examined the impact of a lifetime accumulation of repetitive mTBIs on cognition, particularly executive functioning, and mood in a sample of young adults who were not athletes...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842735/-neurocognitive-performance-in-euthymic-bipolar-i-patients-with-and-without-history-of-psychosis-from-a-multimodal-intervention-program-prisma
#6
Marcela Molina, Juan David Palacio, Cristian Vargas, Ana María Díaz-Zuluaga, Yuli Agudelo Berruecos, Sigifredo Ospina, Carlos López-Jaramillo
BACKGROUND: Patients with bipolar disorder type I (BDI) have an increased prevalence of psychotic symptoms, and these have been associated with higher cognitive impairment; however the issue has not been settled with the available evidence. OBJECTIVE: To determine if the history of psychotic symptoms in a Colombian sample with BDI is associated with greater cognitive impairment. METHODS: A case-control study was performed that included patients with BDI from the l PRISMA study...
October 2016: Revista Colombiana de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835662/marijuana-use-is-associated-with-behavioral-approach-and-depressive-symptoms-in-adolescents-and-emerging-adults
#7
Natasha E Wright, Danny Scerpella, Krista M Lisdahl
BACKGROUND: Repeated CB1 binding due to THC results in downregulation of the endocannabinoid system in cortex and limbic regions, perhaps disrupting frontolimbic functioning. This is particularly a concern in young adults who are still undergoing neurodevelopment in frontal and limbic regions. Such disruptions may be linked to increased depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive dysfunction, and decreased behavioral approach. OBJECTIVES: Here we examine the influence of young adult marijuana use on anxiety, depressive symptoms, behavioral approach, and executive dysfunction...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833538/impaired-decision-making-and-loss-of-inhibitory-control-in-a-rat-model-of-huntington-disease
#8
Nicole El Massioui, Charlotte Lamirault, Sara Yagüe, Najia Adjeroud, Daniel Garces, Alexis Maillard, Lucille Tallot, Libo Yu-Taeger, Olaf Riess, Philippe Allain, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Stephan von Hörsten, Valérie Doyère
Cognitive deficits associated with Huntington disease (HD) are generally dominated by executive function disorders often associated with disinhibition and impulsivity/compulsivity. Few studies have directly examined symptoms and consequences of behavioral disinhibition in HD and its relation with decision-making. To assess the different forms of impulsivity in a transgenic model of HD (tgHD rats), two tasks assessing cognitive/choice impulsivity were used: risky decision-making with a rat gambling task (RGT) and intertemporal choices with a delay discounting task (DD)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825782/failure-to-maintain-set-as-a-predictor-of-childhood-depression-within-a-children-s-psychiatric-inpatient-sample
#9
Brian C Kavanaugh, Charles E Gaudet, Jennifer A Dupont-Frechette, Perrin P Tellock, Isolde D Maher, Lauren D Haisley, Karen A Holler
Despite a wealth of studies in adults and adolescents, only a handful of studies have examined executive function in childhood depression. This study utilized retrospective chart review of a children's psychiatric inpatient program to evaluate executive function via Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) in 33 children (6-12 years old) with a depressive disorder and 61 age/sex-matched children without a depressive disorder referred for neuropsychological evaluation. WCST categories, perseverative errors, and failure to maintain set errors were examined as potential predictors of depressive disorder diagnosis and self-reported depressive symptoms...
November 1, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812503/location-of-lesion-determines-motor-vs-cognitive-consequences-in-patients-with-cerebellar-stroke
#10
Catherine J Stoodley, Jason P MacMore, Nikos Makris, Janet C Sherman, Jeremy D Schmahmann
Cerebellar lesions can cause motor deficits and/or the cerebellar cognitive affective syndrome (CCAS; Schmahmann's syndrome). We used voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping to test the hypothesis that the cerebellar motor syndrome results from anterior lobe damage whereas lesions in the posterolateral cerebellum produce the CCAS. Eighteen patients with isolated cerebellar stroke (13 males, 5 females; 20-66 years old) were evaluated using measures of ataxia and neurocognitive ability. Patients showed a wide range of motor and cognitive performance, from normal to severely impaired; individual deficits varied according to lesion location within the cerebellum...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811583/cognitive-function-predicts-risk-for-clinically-significant-weight-gain-in-adults-with-heart-failure
#11
Mary A Dolansky, Misty A W Hawkins, Julie T Schaefer, John Gunstad, Abdus Sattar, Joseph D Redle, Anton Vehovec, Richard Josephson, Shirley M Moore, Joel W Hughes
BACKGROUND: Few investigators have examined whether cognitive deficits predict poorer self-care of weight management recommendations and weight gain in adults with heart failure. OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this study were (1) to examine whether cognition is associated with adherence to daily weighing and weight gain incidence and (2) to explore self-reported symptom perception and management when a weight increase occurs. METHODS: In this observational study, participants completed neuropsychological testing, were given an electronic scale, and were instructed to record their weight for 21 days...
November 2, 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806078/decreased-left-caudate-volume-is-associated-with-increased-severity-of-autistic-like-symptoms-in-a-cohort-of-adhd-patients-and-their-unaffected-siblings
#12
Laurence O'Dwyer, Colby Tanner, Eelco V van Dongen, Corina U Greven, Janita Bralten, Marcel P Zwiers, Barbara Franke, Dirk Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan, Pieter J Hoekstra, Catharina A Hartman, Wouter Groen, Nanda Rommelse, Jan K Buitelaar
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms frequently occur in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). While there is evidence that both ADHD and ASD have differential structural brain correlates, knowledge of the structural brain profile of individuals with ADHD with raised ASD symptoms is limited. The presence of ASD-like symptoms was measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) in a sample of typically developing controls (n = 154), participants with ADHD (n = 239), and their unaffected siblings (n = 144) between the ages of 8 and 29...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805419/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-and-executive-functioning-in-adults-with-phenylketonuria
#13
Deborah A Bilder, J Kay Noel, Erin R Baker, William Irish, Yinpu Chen, Markus J Merilainen, Suyash Prasad, Barbara J Winslow
This systematic review and meta-analysis (MA) investigates the impact of elevated blood phenylalanine (Phe) on neuropsychiatric symptoms in adults with phenylketonuria (PKU). The meta-analysis of PKU is challenging because high-quality evidence is lacking due to the limited number of affected individuals and few placebo-controlled, double-blind studies of adults with high and low blood Phe. Neuropsychiatric symptoms associated with PKU exceed general population estimates for inattention, hyperactivity, depression, and anxiety...
May 2016: Developmental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798222/predicting-cognition-and-psychosis-in-young-adults-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#14
Kevin M Antshel, Wanda Fremont, Seetha Ramanathan, Wendy R Kates
OBJECTIVE: To assess the extent to which the trajectories of intellectual, academic achievement, executive functioning, attention, working memory, and emotion recognition tests will be predictive of psychosis in young adults with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS). METHODS: Eighty-two participants with 22q11DS were assessed for psychiatric disorders and neuropsychological functioning with validated instruments. Siblings and community controls were employed as comparison groups...
October 25, 2016: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794276/increased-plasma-asymmetric-dimethylarginine-is-associated-with-cognitive-deficits-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#15
Yuan-Jian Yang, Jian-Wen Xiong, Ying Zhao, Jin-Qiong Zhan, Hai-Bo Chen, Kun Yan, Mao-Rong Hu, Bin Yu, Bo Wei
Cognitive deficits are a core feature of schizophrenia. Previous studies have shown that plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), an endogenous inhibitor of the nitric oxide synthase, was increased in patients with schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADMA with cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. Forty-seven patients with schizophrenia and 45 healthy control subjects were recruited in present study. Cognitive function was assessed with a neuropsychological battery including 7 neurocognitive tests...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793474/clinical-imaging-pathological-and-biochemical-characterization-of-a-novel-presenilin-1-mutation-n135y-causing-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Marissa Natelson Love, David G Clark, J Nicholas Cochran, Kyle A Den Beste, David S Geldmacher, Tammie L Benzinger, Brian A Gordon, John C Morris, Randall J Bateman, Erik D Roberson
We present 2 cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease due to a novel N135Y mutation in PSEN1. The proband presented with memory and other cognitive symptoms at age 32. Detailed clinical characterization revealed initial deficits in memory with associated dysarthria, progressing to involve executive dysfunction, spastic gait, and episodic confusion with polyspike discharges on long-term electroencephalography. Amyloid- and FDG-PET scans showed typical results of Alzheimer's disease. By history, the proband's father had developed cognitive symptoms at age 42 and died at age 48...
October 3, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790138/splendor-in-the-grass-a-pilot-study-assessing-the-impact-of-medical-marijuana-on-executive-function
#17
Staci A Gruber, Kelly A Sagar, Mary K Dahlgren, Megan T Racine, Rosemary T Smith, Scott E Lukas
Currently, 25 states and Washington DC have enacted full medical marijuana (MMJ) programs while 18 states allow limited access to MMJ products. Limited access states permit low (or zero) tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and high cannabidiol (CBD) products to treat specified conditions such as uncontrolled epilepsy. Although MMJ products are derived from the same plant species as recreational MJ, they are often selected for their unique cannabinoid constituents and ratios, not typically sought by recreational users, which may impact neurocognitive outcomes...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788460/the-role-of-unhelpful-metacognitive-beliefs-in-psychosis-relationships-with-positive-symptoms-and-negative-affect
#18
Rachel Sellers, Łukasz Gawęda, Adrian Wells, Anthony P Morrison
The Self-Regulatory Executive Function (s-REF) model assumes that a common set of unhelpful metacognitive beliefs have a central role in predisposition to psychological disorder and the maintenance of symptoms and distress. This research aims to test whether the five unhelpful metacognitive beliefs implicated in the model are associated with positive symptoms of psychosis and whether they are a better predictor of negative affect than topological characteristics of positive symptoms. A sample of people with psychosis completed a semi-structured interview about psychotic symptoms and self-report measures of metacognitive beliefs (MCQ-30), anxiety and depression...
October 17, 2016: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787891/a-brief-dietary-assessment-predicts-executive-dysfunction-in-an-elderly-cohort-results-from-the-einstein-aging-study
#19
Erin E Sundermann, Mindy J Katz, Richard B Lipton, Alice H Lichtenstein, Carol A Derby
OBJECTIVES: To examine the association between diet and executive function, episodic memory and global verbal cognition in the Einstein Aging Study (EAS) cohort and determine whether race modifies this relationship. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Community. PARTICIPANTS: EAS participants without dementia who completed the Rapid Eating and Activity Assessment for Patients (REAP) (N = 492). MEASUREMENTS: The previously validated REAP is based on the 2000 U...
November 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783210/attention-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-fatigue-evidence-from-the-attention-network-test
#20
Caterina Pauletti, Daniela Mannarelli, Nicoletta Locuratolo, Luca Pollini, Antonio Currà, Lucio Marinelli, Steno Rinalduzzi, Francesco Fattapposta
Fatigue is a non-specific symptom that is common in chronic diseases and represents one of the most disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease. PD patients often experience cognitive deficits related above all to executive functions. The relationship between cognitive changes and fatigue in PD patients has not been explored in depth. The Attention Network Test (ANT) is a rapid, widely used test to measure the efficiency of three attentional networks, i.e., alerting, orienting, and executive, by evaluating reaction times (RTs) in response to visual stimuli...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
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