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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107668/neurotrophins-role-in-depressive-symptoms-and-executive-function-performance-association-analysis-of-nrn1-gene-and-its-interaction-with-bdnf-gene-in-a-non-clinical-sample
#1
C Prats, B Arias, G Ortet, M I Ibáñez, J Moya, E Pomarol-Clotet, L Fañanás, M Fatjó-Vilas
BACKGROUND: Neuritin-1 is a neurotrophic factor involved in synaptic plasticity that has been associated with depressive disorders, schizophrenia and cognitive performance. The study of genotype-phenotype relationships in healthy individuals is a useful framework to investigate the etiology of brain dysfunctions. We therefore aimed to investigate in a non-clinical sample whether NRN1 gene contributes to the psychopathological profile, with a particular focus on the clinical dimensions previously related to the NRN1 gene (i...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103593/executive-dysfunction-and-behavioral-symptoms-are-associated-with-deficits-in-instrumental-activities-of-daily-living-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#2
Negar Moheb, Mario F Mendez, Sarah A Kremen, Edmond Teng
BACKGROUND: Deficits in instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs) may be more prominent in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) than in nonfluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) or semantic variant primary progressive aphasia (svPPA). It is uncertain whether frontotemporal dementia (FTD) subgroups exhibit different patterns and/or predictors of functional impairment. METHODS: We examined data from participants diagnosed with bvFTD (n = 607), svPPA (n = 132), and nfvPPA (n = 155) who were included in the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC) Uniform Data Set (UDS) and assessed with the Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ)...
January 20, 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103200/depressive-symptoms-influence-global-cognitive-impairment-indirectly-by-reducing-memory-and-executive-function-in-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#3
Chathuri Yatawara, Levinia Lim, Russell Chander, Juan Zhou, Nagaendran Kandiah
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms negatively influence global cognition in the elderly; however, the mechanism of this effect remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether depressive symptoms influence global cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by impeding specific neuropsychological abilities and under what conditions this effect might occur. METHOD: A sample of 259 participants (104 cognitively normal elderly controls, 66 patients with MCI and 89 patients with mild AD) underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment...
December 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099526/executive-functioning-in-men-with-schizophrenia-and-substance-use-disorders-influence-of-lifetime-suicide-attempts
#4
Ana Adan, Maria Del Mar Capella, Gemma Prat, Diego A Forero, Silvia López-Vera, José Francisco Navarro
BACKGROUND: Lifetime suicide attempts in patients with comorbidity between psychotic disorders and Substance Use Disorder (SUD), known as dual diagnosis, was associated with a worse clinical and cognitive state, poor prognosis and premature death. However, to date no previous study has examined the cognitive performance of these patients considering as independent the presence or absence of lifetime suicide attempts. METHODS: We explore executive functioning differences between suicide attempters and non-attempters in dual schizophrenia (DS) patients and the possible related factors for both executive performance and current suicide risk...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095060/executive-functioning-mediates-the-effect-of-behavioral-problems-on-depression-in-mothers-of-children-with-developmental-disabilities
#5
Wai Chan, Leann E Smith, Jan S Greenberg, Jinkuk Hong, Marsha R Mailick
The present investigation explored long-term relationships of behavioral symptoms of adolescents and adults with developmental disabilities with the mental health of their mothers. Fragile X premutation carrier mothers of an adolescent or adult child with fragile X syndrome (n = 95), and mothers of a grown child with autism (n = 213) were included. Behavioral symptoms at Time 1 were hypothesized to predict maternal depressive symptoms at Time 3 via maternal executive dysfunction at Time 2. Results provided support for the mediating pathway of executive dysfunction...
January 2017: American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090338/executive-functions-predict-weight-loss-in-a-medically-supervised-weight-loss-programme
#6
R Galioto, D Bond, J Gunstad, V Pera, L Rathier, G Tremont
BACKGROUND: Deficits in executive functions are related to poorer weight loss after bariatric surgery; however, less is known about the role that these deficits may play during participation in nonsurgical weight loss programmes. This study examined associations between objectively measured executive functions and weight loss during participation in a medically supervised weight loss programme. METHODS: Twenty-three adult patients (age 50.4 ± 15.1, BMI 44.2 ± 8...
December 2016: Obesity Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088312/dementia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Hasmet A Hanagasi, Zeynep Tufekcioglu, Murat Emre
Dementia can occur in a substantial number of patients with Parkinson's disease with a point prevalence close to 30%. The cognitive profile is characterized by predominant deficits in executive, visuospatial functions, attention and memory. Behavioral symptoms are frequent such as apathy, visual hallucinations and delusions. The most prominent associated pathology is Lewy body-type and biochemical deficit is cholinergic. Placebo-controlled randomized trials with cholinesterase inhibitors demonstrated modest but significant benefits in cognition, behavioral symptoms and global functions...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073327/nonmotor-symptoms-in-parkinson-disease
#8
Rosanna Palmeri, Lo Viviana Buono, Francesco Corallo, Maria Foti, Di Giuseppe Lorenzo, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
Parkinson disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and nonmotor symptoms. Nonmotor symptoms include cognitive deficits and impairment in emotions recognition ability associated with loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and with alteration in frontostriatal circuits. In this review, we analyzed the studies on social cognition ability in patients with PD. We searched on PubMed and Web of Science databases and screening references of included studied and review articles for additional citations...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068954/cognitively-and-physically-demanding-exergaming-to-improve-executive-functions-of-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-randomised-clinical-trial
#9
Valentin Benzing, Mirko Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders observed in childhood and adolescence. Its key symptoms - reduced attention, poor control of impulses as well as increased motor activity - are associated with decreased executive functions performance, finally affecting academic achievement. Although drug treatments usually show some effect, alternative treatments are continually being sought, due to lack of commitment and possible side effects...
January 10, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057432/pattern-of-cognitive-impairment-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-and-psychosis-a-critical-review
#10
REVIEW
Abhishek Lenka, Shantala Hegde, Shyam Sundar Arumugham, Pramod Kumar Pal
Psychosis is one of the debilitating non-motor symptoms (NMS) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Cognitive impairment is considered to be a risk factor for emergence of psychosis in PD. Early detection of relevant cognitive impairment may serve as a predictor for development of psychosis, with implications for prevention and early intervention. However, the exact pattern of cognitive impairment associated with psychosis is not clear. In this article, we aim to critically review the literature on case-control studies in PD patients with and without psychosis in order to understand the pattern of cognitive impairment in those with psychosis...
December 29, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056012/growth-after-late-preterm-birth-and-adult-cognitive-academic-and-mental-health-outcomes
#11
Sara Sammallahti, Kati Heinonen, Sture Andersson, Marius Lahti, Sami Pirkola, Jari Lahti, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Aulikki Lano, Dieter Wolke, Johan G Eriksson, Eero Kajantie, Katri Raikkonen
BACKGROUND: Late-preterm birth (at 34(0/7)-36(6/7) weeks' gestation) increases the risk of early growth faltering, poorer neurocognitive functioning, and lower socio-economic attainment. Among early-preterm individuals, faster early growth benefits neurodevelopment, but it remains unknown whether these benefits extend to late-preterm individuals. METHODS: In 108 late-preterm individuals, we examined if weight, head, or length growth between birth, 5 and 20 months' corrected age, and 56 months, predicted grade point average and special education in comprehensive school, or neurocognitive abilities and psychiatric diagnoses/symptoms at 24-26 years of age...
January 5, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050707/effect-of-parental-obesity-and-gestational-diabetes-on-child-neuropsychological-and-behavioral-development-at-4%C3%A2-years-of-age-the-rhea-mother-child-cohort-crete-greece
#12
Vasiliki Daraki, Theano Roumeliotaki, Katerina Koutra, Vaggelis Georgiou, Mariza Kampouri, Andriani Kyriklaki, Marina Vafeiadi, Stathis Papavasiliou, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
Studies have suggested an association between maternal obesity pre-pregnancy and gestational diabetes (GDM) with impaired offspring neurodevelopment, but it is not clear if these associations are explained by shared familiar characteristics. We aimed to assess the associations of maternal and paternal obesity, maternal glucose intolerance in early pregnancy and GDM, with offspring neurodevelopment at 4 years of age. We included 772 mother-child pairs from the "Rhea" Mother-Child cohort in Crete, Greece. Data on maternal/paternal body mass index (BMI) and maternal fasting serum samples for glucose and insulin measurements were collected at 12 weeks of gestation...
January 3, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050344/structural-networks-involved-in-attention-and-executive-functions-in-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Sara Llufriu, Eloy Martinez-Heras, Elisabeth Solana, Nuria Sola-Valls, Maria Sepulveda, Yolanda Blanco, Elena H Martinez-Lapiscina, Magi Andorra, Pablo Villoslada, Alberto Prats-Galino, Albert Saiz
Attention and executive deficits are disabling symptoms in multiple sclerosis (MS) that have been related to disconnection mechanisms. We aimed to investigate changes in structural connectivity in MS and their association with attention and executive performance applying an improved framework that combines high order probabilistic tractography and anatomical exclusion criteria postprocessing. We compared graph theory metrics of structural networks and fractional anisotropy (FA) of white matter (WM) connections or edges between 72 MS subjects and 38 healthy volunteers (HV) and assessed their correlation with cognition...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045282/executive-functions-and-substance-use-relations-in-late-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#14
Daniel E Gustavson, Michael C Stallings, Robin P Corley, Akira Miyake, John K Hewitt, Naomi P Friedman
Poor executive functions (EFs) have been linked to substance use and abuse across multiple substances. However, it is unclear whether these associations are stronger for some EFs over others and/or some stages of substance use over others (e.g., ever using substances vs. dependence). It is also unknown whether such patterns change from adolescence to early adulthood, a transition that is characterized by changes to both EFs and substance use behaviors. In this longitudinal study of approximately 850 twins, we examined the relations between multiple EF abilities (including a common EF factor predicting 9 EF tasks) and measures of general substance use and dependence/abuse in late adolescence (mean age 17 years) and early adulthood (mean age 23 years)...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043199/association-between-cognitive-impairments-and-obsessive-compulsive-spectrum-presentations-following-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Michelle Rydon-Grange, Rudi Coetzer
This study examined the association between self-reported obsessive-compulsive spectrum symptomatology and cognitive performance in a sample of patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty-four adults with a moderate-severe TBI accessing a community brain injury rehabilitation service were recruited. Age ranged between 19 and 69 years. Participants completed a battery of neuropsychological tasks assessing memory, executive functioning, and speed of information processing. Self-report questionnaires assessing obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) traits were also completed...
January 2, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031039/attention-training-for-infants-at-familial-risk-of-adhd-interstaars-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Amy Goodwin, Simona Salomone, Patrick Bolton, Tony Charman, Emily J H Jones, Andrew Pickles, Emily Robinson, Tim Smith, Edmund J S Sonuga-Barke, Sam Wass, Mark H Johnson
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder that can negatively impact on an individual's quality of life. It is pathophysiologically complex and heterogeneous with different neuropsychological processes being impaired in different individuals. Executive function deficits, including those affecting attention, working memory and inhibitory control, are common. Cognitive training has been promoted as a treatment option, based on the notion that by strengthening the neurocognitive networks underlying these executive processes, ADHD symptoms will also be reduced...
December 28, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017917/intrinsic-inter-network-brain-dysfunction-correlates-with-symptom-dimensions-in-late-life-depression
#17
Wenjun Li, Yang Wang, B Douglas Ward, Piero G Antuono, Shi-Jiang Li, Joseph S Goveas
Prior studies have demonstrated dysfunctions within the core neurocognitive networks (the executive control [ECN], default mode [DMN] and salience [SN] networks) in late-life depression (LLD). Whether inter-network dysfunctional connectivity is present in LLD, and if such disruptions are associated with core symptom dimensions is unknown. A cross-sectional resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging investigation was conducted of LLD (n = 39) and age- and gender-equated healthy comparison (HC) (n = 29) participants...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007003/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-internalizing-symptoms-and-executive-function-in-adults-with-adhd
#18
John E Leikauf, Mary V Solanto
OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize relationships between sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) and both internalizing symptoms and executive functioning in adults with ADHD. METHOD: A total of 102 adults with ADHD completed clinical interviews and clinical rating scales. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the independent predictive power of SCT symptoms for deficits in executive function (EF) after considering severity of ADHD inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and internalizing symptoms...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005457/modelling-difficulties-in-abstract-thinking-in-psychosis-the-importance-of-socio-developmental-background
#19
A O Berg, I Melle, V Zuber, C Simonsen, M Nerhus, T Ueland, O A Andreassen, K Sundet, A Vaskinn
INTRODUCTION: Abstract thinking is important in modern understanding of neurocognitive abilities, and a symptom of thought disorder in psychosis. In patients with psychosis, we assessed if socio-developmental background influences abstract thinking, and the association with executive functioning and clinical psychosis symptoms. METHODS: Participants (n = 174) had a diagnosis of psychotic or bipolar disorder, were 17-65 years, intelligence quotient (IQ) > 70, fluent in a Scandinavian language, and their full primary education in Norway...
December 22, 2016: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998904/word-memory-test-performance-across-cognitive-domains-psychiatric-presentations-and-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Jared A Rowland, Holly M Miskey, Timothy W Brearly, Sarah L Martindale, Robert D Shura
OBJECTIVE: The current study addressed two aims: (i) determine how Word Memory Test (WMT) performance relates to test performance across numerous cognitive domains and (ii) evaluate how current psychiatric disorders or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history affects performance on the WMT after excluding participants with poor symptom validity. METHOD: Participants were 235 Iraq and Afghanistan-era veterans (Mage = 35.5) who completed a comprehensive neuropsychological battery...
December 19, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
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