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Exotic mammals

Carolyn L Hodo, Chloe C Goodwin, Bonny C Mayes, Jacqueline A Mariscal, Kenneth A Waldrup, Sarah A Hamer
In contrast to other mammalian reservoirs, many bat species migrate long-distances and have the potential to introduce exotic pathogens to new areas. Bats have long been associated with blood-borne protozoal trypanosomes of the Schizotrypanum subgenus, which includes the zoonotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, agent of Chagas disease. Another member of the subgenus, Trypanosoma dionisii, infects bats of Europe and South America, and genetic similarities between strains from the two continents suggest transcontinental movement of this parasite via bats...
September 16, 2016: Acta Tropica
Aksorn Saengtienchai, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Nesta Bortey-Sam, Usuma Jermnark, Hazuki Mizukawa, Yusuke K Kawai, Shouta M M Nakayama, Mayumi Ishizuka
The African hedgehog, Atelerix albiventris, is a spiny mammal that has become popular as an exotic pet in many countries. To elucidate the ability of hedgehogs to metabolize xenobiotics, the animals were exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrene. The in vivo exposure study indicated that pyrene was biotransformed to glucuronide and sulfate conjugates, such as pyrene-1-glucuronide, pyrene-1-sulfate, and pyrenediol-sulfate, and excreted in the urine. Pyrene-1-glucuronide was the main metabolite, and limited sulfate conjugate excretion was observed...
August 17, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Angela M Lennox, Yasutsugu Miwa
Unusual mammalian species such as the hedgehog, sugar glider, and miniature pig are encountered with increasing frequency in exotic companion medicine. Disease of the oral cavity can occur in any species; although occasionally encountered in exotic mammalian species, it is rarely described in the literature. Anatomy and dentition vary significantly; diagnosis and treatment are often extrapolated from that known in other species. The best-documented disease of the oral cavity in this group of species is oral neoplasia in the hedgehog...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Vittorio Capello
Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications...
September 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Donna-Mareè Cawthorn, Louwrens C Hoffman
In most societies, meat is more highly prized, yet more frequently tabooed, than any other food. The reasons for these taboos are complex and their origins have been the focus of considerable research. In this paper, we illustrate this complexity by deliberating on several "unconventional" or "exotic" animals that are eaten around the world, but whose consumption evokes strong emotions, controversy and even national discourse: dogs, equids, kangaroos, marine mammals, primates, rodents and reptiles. We take a systematic approach, reflecting on the historical and current demand for the meat, the manner in which this demand is met, and how individual and societal attitudes towards these species shape their approval as food...
October 2016: Meat Science
Alicia McLaughlin, Anneliese Strunk
Small exotic mammal pets such as rats, mice, hamsters, gerbils, degus, hedgehogs, and sugar gliders are becoming more popular. Because these animals are prone to a variety of health problems, and require specialized husbandry care to remain healthy, they may present to emergency hospitals in critical condition. This article provides a basic overview of common emergency presentations of these species.
May 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Elisabetta Mancinelli
Elisabetta Mancinelli is the first vet in Europe to embark on, and pass by examination, the European Diploma in Zoological Medicine with a specialty in small mammals. Having qualified in Italy, she came to the UK nine years ago to pursue further studies in exotic animal medicine.
April 9, 2016: Veterinary Record
Marion B Brown, Thomas A Schlacher, David S Schoeman, Michael A Weston, Chantal M Huijbers, Andrew D Olds, Rod M Connolly
Species composition is expected to alter ecological function in assemblages if species traits differ strongly. Such effects are often large and persistent for nonnative carnivores invading islands. Alternatively, high similarity in traits within assemblages creates a degree of functional redundancy in ecosystems. Here we tested whether species turnover results in functional ecological equivalence or complementarity, and whether invasive carnivores on islands significantly alter such ecological function. The model system consisted of vertebrate scavengers (dominated by raptors) foraging on animal carcasses on ocean beaches on two Australian islands, one with and one without invasive red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)...
October 2015: Ecology
Izidora Sladakovic, Stephen J Divers
Laparoscopy is an evolving field in veterinary medicine, and there is an increased interest in using laparoscopic techniques in nondomestic mammals, including zoo animals, wildlife, and exotic pets. The aim of this article is to summarize the approach to laparoscopic procedures, including instrumentation, patient selection and preparation, and surgical approaches, and to review the current literature on laparoscopy in exotic mammals.
January 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Kathryn A Diehl, Jo-Ann McKinnon
This article covers considerations and techniques of eye removal surgeries in exotic pets. After issues including surgical indications, anesthesia, patient preparation, and instrumentation are explored, surgical techniques are described. Enucleation/exenteration and modified evisceration are discussed, with species-specific nuances of small mammals, birds, reptiles, snakes, amphibians, and fish highlighted.
January 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Mansoureh Malekian, Steven J B Cooper, Kathleen M Saint, Melanie L Lancaster, Andrea C Taylor, Susan M Carthew
Ongoing habitat loss and fragmentation is considered a threat to biodiversity as it can create small, isolated populations that are at increased risk of extinction. Tree-dependent species are predicted to be highly sensitive to forest and woodland loss and fragmentation, but few studies have tested the influence of different types of landscape matrix on gene flow and population structure of arboreal species. Here, we examine the effects of landscape matrix on population structure of the sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps) in a fragmented landscape in southeastern South Australia...
September 2015: Ecology and Evolution
Emily J Bethell
Robust methods to assess nonhuman animal emotion are essential for ensuring good welfare in captivity. Cognitive bias measures such as the judgment bias task have recently emerged as promising tools to assess animal emotion. The simple design and objective response measures make judgment bias tasks suitable for use across species and contexts. In reviewing 64 studies published to date, it emerged that (a) judgment biases have been measured in a number of mammals and birds and an invertebrate; (b) no study has tested judgment bias in any species of fish, amphibian, or reptile; and (c) no study has yet investigated judgment bias in a zoo or aquarium...
2015: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Lulu Hu, Chen-Hui Gao, Chao Hong, Qiao Zhong, Hong-Liang Dong, Xiao-Ming Gao
Lactoferrin (LTF), a multifunctional glycoprotein of the transferrin family mainly found in exotic secretions in mammals, is an important defense molecule against not only microbial invasion but also tumors. It folds into two globular domains (N- and C-lobes) each containing an iron-binding site. The cationic antimicrobial peptide in N-lobe is known to exert anti-tumor effect via a non-receptor-mediated pathway. However, whether LTF C-lobe also contributes to its anti-tumor activity remains to be investigated...
2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Zach J Farris, Christopher D Golden, Sarah Karpanty, Asia Murphy, Dean Stauffer, Felix Ratelolahy, Vonjy Andrianjakarivelo, Christopher M Holmes, Marcella J Kelly
The wide-ranging, cumulative, negative effects of anthropogenic disturbance, including habitat degradation, exotic species, and hunting, on native wildlife has been well documented across a range of habitats worldwide with carnivores potentially being the most vulnerable due to their more extinction prone characteristics. Investigating the effects of anthropogenic pressures on sympatric carnivores is needed to improve our ability to develop targeted, effective management plans for carnivore conservation worldwide...
2015: PloS One
Stephen J Divers
Laparoscopic ovariectomy has been advocated as the preferred sterilization method for dogs for some time. The same arguments and benefits can be extended for many zoologic mammals, including carnivores, suids, primates, lagomorphs, and large rodents. This article summarizes the benefits, equipment options, surgical technique, recovery, and complications associated with this sterilization procedure.
September 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Jacob E Lucero, Phil S Allen, Brock R McMillan
Invasive plants have tremendous potential to enrich native food webs by subsidizing net primary productivity. Here, we explored how a potential food subsidy, seeds produced by the aggressive invader cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), is utilized by an important guild of native consumers--granivorous small mammals--in the Great Basin Desert, USA. In a series of field experiments we examined 1) how cheatgrass invasion affects the density and biomass of seed rain at the ecosystem-level; 2) how seed resources from cheatgrass numerically affect granivorous small mammals; and 3) how the food preferences of native granivores might mediate the trophic integration of cheatgrass seeds...
2015: PloS One
John L Orrock, Humberto P Dutra, Robert J Marquis, Nicholas Barber
Direct and indirect effects can play a key role in invasions, but experiments evaluating both are rare. We examined the roles of direct competition and apparent competition by exotic Amur honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) by manipulating (1) L. maackii vegetation, (2) presence of L. maackii fruits, and (3) access to plants by small mammals and deer. Direct competition with L. maackii reduced the abundance and richness of native and exotic species, and native consumers significantly reduced the abundance and richness of native species...
April 2015: Ecology
Masako Andoh, Akiko Sakata, Ai Takano, Hiroki Kawabata, Hiromi Fujita, Yumi Une, Koichi Goka, Toshio Kishimoto, Shuji Ando
One of the major routes of transmission of rickettsial and ehrlichial diseases is via ticks that infest numerous host species, including humans. Besides mammals, reptiles and amphibians also carry ticks that may harbor Rickettsia and Ehrlichia strains that are pathogenic to humans. Furthermore, reptiles and amphibians are exempt from quarantine in Japan, thus facilitating the entry of parasites and pathogens to the country through import. Accordingly, in the current study, we examined the presence of Rickettsia and Ehrlichia spp...
2015: PloS One
Vladimir Jekl, Karel Hauptman, Zdenek Knotek
Ear disease is a common disorder seen in exotic companion mammals, especially in ferrets, rabbits, and rats. This article describes patient preparation, equipment, and video otoscopy technique in exotic companion mammals. This noninvasive technique facilitates accurate diagnosis of diseases affecting the external ear canal or middle ear. Moreover, therapeutic otoscopic evaluation of the external ear facilitates foreign body removal, external ear canal flushing, intralesional drug administration, myringotomy, and middle ear cavity flushing...
September 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
Laila M Proença
Laparoscopic sterilization techniques are becoming accepted in veterinary medicine, and there has been interest in reducing the number and size of portals. Computer-controlled bipolar electrocoagulation devices facilitate sealing and dividing ovarian pedicles, reducing operative time. The 2-portal laparoscopic ovariectomy has been proved to be safe, feasible, and effective in dogs and cats, but has not yet been described in exotic companion mammals. Based on the author's experience, the 2-portal laparoscopic ovariectomy seems to be safe and feasible in rabbits, but complications such as emergency conversion to laparotomy and severe postoperative ileus have occurred in pigs...
September 2015: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
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