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semicircular canal

Ricardo Araújo, Vincent Fernandez, Richard D Rabbitt, Eric G Ekdale, Miguel T Antunes, Rui Castanhinha, Jörg Fröbisch, Rui M S Martins
The semicircular canal (SC) system of the inner ear detects head angular accelerations and is essential for navigation and spatial awareness in vertebrates. Because the bony labyrinth encloses the membranous labyrinth SCs, it can be used as a proxy for animal behavior. The bony labyrinth of dicynodonts, a clade of herbivorous non-mammalian synapsids, has only been described in a handful of individuals and remains particularly obscure. Here we describe the bony labyrinth anatomy of three Endothiodon cf. bathystoma specimens from Mozambique based on digital reconstructions from propagation phase-contrast synchrotron micro-computed tomography...
2018: PloS One
Henri Traboulsi, Michael Teixido
Introduction/Objective: Multiple canal BPPV can be a diagnostic challenge to the clinician. This is due in part to the complex anatomy of the labyrinth but also to complex and often simultaneous ocular responses that result from stimulation of multiple canals during traditional diagnostic testing. Our objective was to analyze the Dix-Hallpike maneuver used in the diagnosis of BPPV to look for patterns of simultaneous canal response and to develop a diagnostic maneuver that will allow separation of canal responses in multiple canal BPPV...
September 2017: World Journal of Otorhinolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Sébastien Caudron, Hadrien Ceyte, Pierre-Alain Barraud, Corinne Cian, Michel Guerraz
Muscle-tendon vibration has often been used to study the contribution of proprioception to kinesthesia and postural control. This technique is known to simulate the lengthening of the vibrated muscle and, in the presence of balance constraints, evoke compensatory postural responses. The objective of the present study was to clarify the consequences of this stimulation on the dynamic features of whole-body movement perception in upright stance and in the absence of balance constraints. Eleven participants were restrained in a dark room on a motorized backboard that was able to tilt the upright body around the ankle joints...
2018: PloS One
Vivekanand Pandey Vimal, James R Lackner, Paul DiZio
To investigate the role of gravitational cues in the learning of a dynamic balancing task, we placed blindfolded subjects in a device programmed with inverted pendulum dynamics about the yaw axis. Subjects used a joystick to try and maintain a stable orientation at the direction of balance during 20 100 s-long trials. They pressed a trigger button on the joystick to indicate whenever they felt at the direction of balance. Three groups of ten subjects each participated. One group balanced with their body and the yaw axis vertical, and thus did not have gravitational cues to help them to determine their angular position...
March 6, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ö I Ulusoy, I G Savur, T Alaçam, B Çelik
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of NaOCl, NaOCl-EDTA, and NaOCl+HEBP activated by ultrasonics and XP-endo Finisher on organic tissue removal from simulated internal root resorption cavities. METHODOLOGY: The root canals of 144 single-rooted teeth were instrumented. The teeth were split longitudinally and semicircular cavities were prepared in the canals on each half of the roots. Samples obtained from ground bovine muscle tissue were weighed and adapted into the semicircular cavities...
March 5, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Ashish Vashishth, Andrea Fulcheri, Maurizio Guida, Antonio Caruso, Mario Sanna
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate incidence, demographics, surgical, and radiological correlates of incomplete and false tract electrode array insertions during cochlear implantation (CI). To evaluate outcomes in patients with incomplete electrode insertion (IEI). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Otology and skull base center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Charts of 18 patients (19 ears) with incomplete or false tract insertions of the electrode array were evaluated who underwent CI, with at least 1 year follow-up (from 470 cases)...
March 5, 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
A P Casani, N Cerchiai, E Navari
Lindsay and Hemenway syndrome is characterised by a posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following a partial unilateral vestibular loss affecting the same side. The syndrome is caused by damage of structures innervated by the superior division of the vestibular nerve and perfused by the anterior vestibular artery; the detached otoconia can cause vertigo in the still intact posterior semicircular canal. The most recent vestibular instrumental techniques allow reaching an accurate topodiagnosis in case of peripheral vestibular failure...
February 28, 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Jin Su Park, Chang-Hee Kim, Min-Beom Kim
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the results of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) and video head impulse test (p-vHIT) of posterior semicircular canal considered tools of inferior vestibular nerve function in vestibular neuritis. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary otology clinic. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Seventy-nine patients with vestibular neuritis participated in this study...
February 28, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Ali Kouhi, Varasteh Vakili Zarch, Ali Pouyan
The rate of hearing preservation after vestibular schwannoma surgery is variable and is not as high as expected, possibly due to injuries to the posterior semicircular canal while exposing the tumor. The aim of this study was to estimate the risk of posterior semicircular canal injuries using temporal bone computed tomography (CT) scan findings. Temporal bone CT scans of 30 patients selected between 2013 and 2015 were studied. The median age of the patients was 40 years. Two planes were studied: (1) the axial plane that shows the common crus of the posterior semicircular canal and (2) the coronal plane that shows the two crura of the posterior semicircular canal...
January 2018: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal
Jingbo Wang, Lanlan Jin, Jun Chen, Xiaobi Fang, Zhisu Liao
Objective: To explore the clinical relationship between auditory neuropathy (AN) and nervous system diseases. Methods: A total of 134 AN patients who were treated in our hospital from December 2011 to April 2016 were selected. Then 120 cases (240 ears) with complete data of pure tone audiometry and acoustic immittance test were selected as an AN1 group, which was compared with 30 patients (49 ears) with general sensorineural hearing loss (SHL) in regard to the results of pure tone audiometry and acoustic immittance test...
November 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
David Carpenter, David Kaylie, Erin Piker, Dennis Frank-Ito
Purpose: This study assesses interaural differences in temporal bone anatomy in subjects with normal caloric findings. Method: Eligible patients included those referred to the Duke University Medical Center otology clinic complaining of dizziness, with a head computed tomography scan and caloric stimulation results within normal ranges (inter-ear difference ≤ 10% or < 25% unilateral weakness). Three-dimensional reconstructions of computed tomography scans in 11 patients were used to calculate the surface area and volume of lateral semicircular canals (LSCCs), mastoid airspaces, mastoid bones, and internal auditory canal diameter and circumference...
February 28, 2018: American Journal of Audiology
V T Pal'chun, O A Mel'nikov, Yu V Levina, A L Guseva
AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of occurrence and clinical features of vertigo spells in the patients presenting with Ménière's disease (MD) associated with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). METHODS: A total of 104 patients with MD were available for the observation. All of them underwent the comprehensive examination that included the audiological study and vestibular tests, such as the Dix-Hallpike test and the roll-test for BPPV diagnostics...
2018: Vestnik Otorinolaringologii
Seongjun Choi, Hye Rang Choi, Hyunjoo Nahm, Kyujin Han, Jung Eun Shin, Chang-Hee Kim
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To investigate the role of the bow and lean test (BLT) in the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study. METHODS: Between March 2015 and June 2017, we enrolled 113 patients with posterior semicircular canal (PSCC) BPPV, 74 patients with lateral semicircular canal (LSCC) canalolithiasis, 53 patients with LSCC cupulolithiasis, and 32 patients with light cupula...
February 26, 2018: Laryngoscope
H Jia, R Torres, Y Nguyen, D De Seta, E Ferrary, H Wu, O Sterkers, D Bernardeschi, I Mosnier
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intraoperative conebeam CT has been introduced into the operating room and provides quick radiologic feedback. This study aimed to investigate its utility in the assessment of the positioning of the electrode array after cochlear implantation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 51 patients (65 ears) with intraoperative imaging by conebeam CT (O-arm) after cochlear implantation between 2013 and 2017. Correct placement into the cochlea was immediately identified...
February 22, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Fred H Previc
INTRODUCTION: A theory is presented to explain the major findings regarding motion sickness and to synthetize current theories concerning its etiology. The theory proposes that an imbalance in the output of the two major organs of the labyrinth-favoring the semicircular canals over the otolith organs-is responsible for most instances of motion sickness as experienced in terrestrial and microgravity environments. METHODS: Strengths and limitations of current theories are first outlined before the different roles of the canals and otoliths in the genesis of motion sickness symptoms are described...
February 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Engin Kara, Kübra Öztürk, Ezgi Oktay, Vural Hamzaoğlu, Deniz Uzmansel, Yusuf Vayisoğlu, Hakan Özalp, Mehmet Farsak, Zeynep Cansu Aladağ, Tuğçe Pütürgeli, Can Mehmet Eti, Ahmet Dağtekin, Merve Türkegün, Derya Ümit Talas
OBJECTIVE: There is still ongoing research on the relationship of arcuate eminence (AE) and superior semicircular canal (SSC). We aimed to evaluate the precision of predictability of SSC through the morphology of AE via radiological means. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This investigation is performed on 12 dry skulls belonging to Mersin University Medical Faculty department of anatomy. Computed tomography (CT) assessment is performed with 0.5-mm-thin sections temporal bone algorithm on dry skulls which were marked with fixated copper wire by scotch tapes on the most prominent part of the middle fossa floor assuming the location of AE...
February 20, 2018: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Huiqian Yu, Huawei Li
Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) not only involves cochlear function but might also be accompanied by vestibular disturbances. The assessment of vestibular function could be of great relevance in SSHL. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of vestibulocochlear lesions in SSHL and the correlation of specific vestibular organs with hearing prognosis. Data sources: A complete literature search of eligible studies in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Meeta Bathla, Hiren Doshi, Atul Kansara
Role of high resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) of temporal bone is established in cases of atticoantral chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with intracranial complications. Routine use of HRCT in management of patients of atticoantral CSOM without intracranial complications has been an issue of debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the routine use of HRCT of temporal bone in such cases. This study was a prospective study done at LG hospital, AMC MET Medical College, Ahmedabad to evaluate and compare the temporal bone findings in HRCT and intraoperative findings in 100 patients with atticoantral CSOM...
March 2018: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
Thien Nguyen, Carlito Lagman, John P Sheppard, Courtney Duong, Vera Ong, Jessica Poon, Yasmine Alkhalid, Daniel Azzam, Prasanth Romiyo, Giyarpuram N Prashant, Quinton Gopen, Isaac Yang
BACKGROUND: Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) is a bony defect in the osseous shell of the petrous temporal bone. The pathophysiological association between osteoporosis and SSCD remains poorly understood. We aim to investigate the relationships between serum calcium, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and thyroid stimulating hormone levels, and symptoms in adult patients with SSCD treated through a middle fossa craniotomy. METHODS: Patient demographics and clinical parameters were collected...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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