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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936193/video-head-impulse-tests-with-a-remote-camera-system-normative-values-of-semicircular-canal-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-gain-in-infants-and-children
#1
Sylvette R Wiener-Vacher, Sidney I Wiener
The video head impulse test (VHIT) is widely used to identify semicircular canal function impairments in adults. But classical VHIT testing systems attach goggles tightly to the head, which is not tolerated by infants. Remote video detection of head and eye movements resolves this issue and, here, we report VHIT protocols and normative values for children. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain was measured for all canals of 303 healthy subjects, including 274 children (aged 2.6 months-15 years) and 26 adults (aged 16-67)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931463/severe-streptomycin-ototoxicity-in-the-mouse-utricle-leads-to-a-flat-epithelium-but-the-peripheral-neural-degeneration-is-delayed
#2
Guo-Peng Wang, Ishani Basu, Lisa A Beyer, Hiu Tung Wong, Donald L Swiderski, Shu-Sheng Gong, Yehoash Raphael
The damaged vestibular sensory epithelium of mammals has a limited capacity for spontaneous hair cell regeneration, which largely depends on the transdifferentiation of surviving supporting cells. Little is known about the response of vestibular supporting cells to a severe insult. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of a severe ototoxic insult on the histology of utricular supporting cells and the changes in innervation that ensued. We infused a high dose of streptomycin into the mouse posterior semicircular canal to induce a severe lesion in the utricle...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922894/minimally-invasive-middle-fossa-keyhole-craniectomy-for-repair-of-superior-semicircular-canal-dehiscence
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921909/first-natural-endocranial-cast-of-a-fossil-snake-cretaceous-of-patagonia-argentina
#4
Laura N Triviño, Adriana M Albino, María T Dozo, Jorge D Williams
In this study, we describe a natural endocranial cast included in a partially preserved medium-sized skull of the Upper Cretaceous South American snake Dinilysia patagonica. The endocast is composed of sedimentary filling of the cranial cavity in which the posterior brain, the vessels, the cranial nerves, and the inner ear surrounded by delicate semicircular canals, are represented. It is simple in form, with little differentiation between the three main areas (Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain), and without flexures...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919878/postural-control-in-bilateral-vestibular-failure-its-relation-to-visual-proprioceptive-vestibular-and-cognitive-input
#5
Andreas Sprenger, Jann F Wojak, Nico M Jandl, Christoph Helmchen
Patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) suffer from postural and gait unsteadiness with an increased risk of falls. The aim of this study was to elucidate the differential role of otolith, semicircular canal (SSC), visual, proprioceptive, and cognitive influences on the postural stability of BVF patients. Center-of-pressure displacements were recorded by posturography under six conditions: target visibility; tonic head positions in the pitch plane; horizontal head shaking; sensory deprivation; dual task; and tandem stance...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910891/-clinical-study-of-aged-patients-with-secondary-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#6
Z J Zhu, L P Wei, Z X Xu, H J Xu, Q Liu, N Luo
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and evaluate the efficacy of manual reduction in treatment of age patients with secondary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (s-BPPV). Methods: Thirty-two cases of aged patients ( the s-BPPV group: including 19 cases of female and 13 males, age from 60 to 86 years old)with secondary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo from Jul. 2013 to Sep. 2015 in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The results were compared with 121 patients( the primary group: including 82 cases of female and 39males, aged from 60 to 86 years old)with aged primary benign paroxysmal positional vertigo(p -BPPV)...
September 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895171/effect-of-aging-and-direction-of-impulse-in-video-head-impulse-test
#7
Tae Hwan Kim, Min-Beom Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the difference of gain value in the video head impulse test (vHIT) according to the age of the patient and the direction of the impulse. METHOD: All participants were subjected to vHIT with horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC). vHIT with vertical canal (posterior and anterior semicircular canal [PSCC and ASCC]) additionally was performed in 434 participants. RESULTS: The mean vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gain was maintained in patients in the HSCC at below 70 years (1...
September 12, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894812/caloric-testing-in-patients-with-heavy-or-light-cupula-of-the-lateral-semicircular-canal
#8
Hiroaki Ichijo
OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether the dysfunction of the lateral semicircular canal remain or not in patients with heavy or light cupula. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: The subjects were 19 patients with heavy cupula (3 males, 16 females; mean age, 62.8 years) and 14 patients with light cupula (5 males, 9 females; mean age, 63 years). Caloric testing (iced water) was carried out after complete disappearance of positional nystagmus...
December 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879396/vestibulo-ocular-reflex-deficits-with-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-lesions
#9
Swee T Aw, Luke Chen, Michael J Todd, Michael H Barnett, G Michael Halmagyi
The medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) is the final common pathway for all conjugate adducting horizontal eye movements, as well as for the vertical-torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). MLF lesion causes adduction paresis of ipsilesional (adducting) eye with dissociated nystagmus of contralesional (abducting) eye-the well-known clinical syndrome of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). We measured the VOR stimulation and also any catch-up saccades, from individual semicircular canal (SCC) evoked by the head impulse test (HIT), using head and binocular 3-dimensional scleral search coils in 27 multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, 8 with unilateral, 19 with bilateral INO...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877495/wave-mechanics-of-the-vestibular-semicircular-canals
#10
Marta M Iversen, Richard D Rabbitt
The semicircular canals are biomechanical sensors responsible for detecting and encoding angular motion of the head in 3D space. Canal afferent neurons provide essential inputs to neural circuits responsible for representation of self-position/orientation in space, and to compensatory circuits including the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-collic reflex arcs. In this work we derive, to our knowledge, a new 1D mathematical model quantifying canal biomechanics based on the morphology, dynamics of the inner ear fluids, and membranous labyrinth deformability...
September 5, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862328/an-allosteric-gating-model-recapitulates-the-biophysical-properties-of-ik-l-expressed-in-mouse-vestibular-type-i-hair-cells
#11
Paolo Spaiardi, Elisa Tavazzani, Marco Manca, Veronica Milesi, Giancarlo Russo, Ivo Prigioni, Walter Marcotti, Jacopo Magistretti, Sergio Masetto
Type I and Type II hair cells are the sensory receptors of the mammalian vestibular epithelia. Type I hair cells are characterized by their basolateral membrane being enveloped in a single large afferent nerve terminal, named calyx, and by the expression of a low-voltage-activated outward rectifying K(+) current, IK,L . The biophysical properties and molecular profile of IK,L are still largely unknown. By using the patch-clamp whole-cell technique, we examined the voltage- and time-dependent properties of IK,L in Type I hair cells of the mouse semicircular canal...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#12
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855028/fgf-signaling-diverse-roles-during-cochlear-development
#13
Michael Ebeid, Sung-Ho Huh
Mammalian inner ear comprises of six sensory organs; cochlea, utricle, saccule, and three semicircular canals. The cochlea contains sensory epithelium known as the organ of Corti which senses sound through mechanosensory hair cells. Mammalian inner ear undergoes series of morphogenesis during development by beginning thickening of ectoderm nearby hindbrain. These events require tight regulation of multiple signaling cascades including FGF, Wnt, Notch and Bmp signaling. In this review, we will discuss the role of newly emerging signaling, FGF signaling, for its roles required for cochlear development...
August 31, 2017: BMB Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852952/atlas-based-segmentation-of-temporal-bone-anatomy
#14
Kimerly A Powell, Tong Liang, Brad Hittle, Don Stredney, Thomas Kerwin, Gregory J Wiet
PURPOSE: To develop a time-efficient automated segmentation approach that could identify critical structures in the temporal bone for visual enhancement and use in surgical simulation software. METHODS: An atlas-based segmentation approach was developed to segment the cochlea, ossicles, semicircular canals (SCCs), and facial nerve in normal temporal bone CT images. This approach was tested in images of 26 cadaver bones (13 left, 13 right). The results of the automated segmentation were compared to manual segmentation visually and using DICE metric, average Hausdorff distance, and volume similarity...
August 29, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851705/distinct-functions-for-netrin-1-in-chicken-and-murine-semicircular-canal-morphogenesis
#15
Allison M Nishitani, Sho Ohta, Andrea R Yung, Tony Del Rio, Michael I Gordon, Victoria E Abraira, Evelyn C Avilés, Gary C Schoenwolf, Donna M Fekete, Lisa V Goodrich
The vestibular system of the inner ear detects head position using three orthogonally oriented semicircular canals; even slight changes in their shape and orientation can cause debilitating behavioral defects. During development, the canals are sculpted from pouches that protrude from the otic vesicle, the embryonic anlage of the inner ear. In the center of each pouch, a fusion plate forms where cells lose their epithelial morphology and the basement membrane breaks down. Cells in the fusing epithelia intercalate and are removed, creating a canal...
August 29, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838968/tbx1-and-jag1-act-in-concert-to-modulate-the-fate-of-neurosensory-cells-of-the-mouse-otic-vesicle
#16
Stephania Macchiarulo, Bernice E Morrow
The domain within the otic vesicle (OV) known as the neurosensory domain (NSD), contains cells that will give rise to the hair and support cells of the otic sensory organs, as well as the neurons that form the cochleovestibular ganglion (CVG). The molecular dynamics that occur at the NSD boundary relative to adjacent OV cells is not well defined. The Tbx1 transcription factor gene expression pattern is complementary to the NSD, and inactivation results in an expansion of the NSD and expression of the Notch ligand, Jag1 mapping, in part to the NSD...
August 24, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834895/pseudo-spontaneous-nystagmus-in-horizontal-semicircular-canal-canalolithiasis
#17
Dong Hyuk Im, Young Soo Yang, Hyerang Choi, Seongjun Choi, Jung Eun Shin, Chang-Hee Kim
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) involving horizontal semicircular canal (HSCC) is characterized by direction-changing positional nystagmus (DCPN) in a supine roll test, and the occurrence of spontaneous nystagmus in HSCC BPPV has been reported recently. The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of pseudo-spontaneous nystagmus (PSN) in patients with HSCC canalolithiasis, and evaluate the effect of the presence of PSN on treatment outcome.Between April 2014 and January 2016, 75 and 59 patients with HSCC canalolithiasis and cupulolithiasis, respectively, were enrolled...
August 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834538/claudin7b-is-required-for-the-formation-and-function-of-inner-ear-in-zebrafish
#18
Xiaohui Li, Guili Song, Yasong Zhao, Feng Zhao, Chunyan Liu, Dong Liu, Qing Li, Zongbin Cui
Zebrafish has become an excellent model for studying the development and function of inner ear. We report here a zebrafish line in which claudin 7b (cldn7b) locus is interrupted by a Tol2 transposon at its first intron. The homozygous mutants have enlarged otocysts, smaller or no otoliths, slowly formed semicircular canals, and insensitiveness to sound stimulation. These abnormal phenotypes and hearing loss of inner ear could be mostly rescued by injection of cldn7b-mRNA into one-cell stage homozygous mutant embryos...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833207/semicircular-canal-dehiscence-among-idiopathic-intracranial-hypertension-patients
#19
Phoebe Kuo, Kenneth A Bagwell, Gino Mongelluzzo, Christopher A Schutt, Ajay Malhotra, Babar Khokhar, John F Kveton
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The cause of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) is unknown. Because of a demonstrated association with tegmental defects and obesity, some have suggested idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) could contribute by eroding the bone over the canal and resulting in SSCD. However, an association between IIH and SSCD has not previously been evaluated. Our objective was to evaluate an association between IIH and SSCD. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort...
August 22, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830539/endoscopically-assisted-transmastoid-approach-to-the-geniculate-ganglion-and-labyrinthine-facial-nerve
#20
Nicholas Jufas, Manohar Bance
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic transcanal approaches to the facial nerve allow excellent exposure of the tympanic facial nerve. This approach becomes limited when access is required to the more proximal geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine portion of the facial nerve. The aim of this report was to determine the feasibility of a transmastoid endoscopically assisted approach to the geniculate ganglion and labyrinthine facial nerve. This is an endoscopic cadaveric dissection and video review at a university anatomical laboratory...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
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