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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345247/functional-morphological-adaptations-of-the-bony-labyrinth-in-marsupials-mammalia-theria
#1
Cathrin Pfaff, Stefan Czerny, Doris Nagel, Jürgen Kriwet
Diprotodontia represents the largest and ecologically most distinct order of marsupials occurring in Australasian being highly divers in size, locomotion, habitat preferences, feeding, and activity pattern. The spatial orientation in the habitat and therefore the three-dimensional space is detected by the vestibular system of the inner ear, more precisely by the three semicircular canals. In this study, we investigated the bony labyrinth of diprotodontian and selected non-diprotodontian marsupial mammals of almost all genera with noninvasive micro-CT scanning and 3D-reconstructions...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337171/the-skull-vibration-induced-nystagmus-test-of-vestibular-function-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Georges Dumas, Ian S Curthoys, Alexis Lion, Philippe Perrin, Sébastien Schmerber
A 100-Hz bone-conducted vibration applied to either mastoid induces instantaneously a predominantly horizontal nystagmus, with quick phases beating away from the affected side in patients with a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). The same stimulus in healthy asymptomatic subjects has little or no effect. This is skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN), and it is a useful, simple, non-invasive, robust indicator of asymmetry of vestibular function and the side of the vestibular loss. The nystagmus is precisely stimulus-locked: it starts with stimulation onset and stops at stimulation offset, with no post-stimulation reversal...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333776/transcanal-endoscopic-ear-surgery-for-middle-ear-cholesteatoma
#3
Eran Glikson, Ruth Yousovich, Jobran Mansour, Michael Wolf, Lela Migirov, Yisgav Shapira
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinical parameters, outcomes, and complications of transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for middle ear cholesteatoma. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary university-affiliated medical center. PATIENTS: Adult patients (age >18) who underwent transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for cholesteatoma, between March 2009 and March 2015. INTERVENTION: Transcanal endoscopic surgery was indicated when the cholesteatoma did not extend posterior to the anterior limb of the lateral semicircular canal...
March 22, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321386/computerized-assessment-of-superior-semicircular-canal-dehiscence-size-using-advanced-morphological-imaging-operators
#4
Joel S Beckett, Carlito Lagman, Lawrance K Chung, Timothy T Bui, Seung J Lee, Brittany L Voth, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Quinton Gopen, Isaac Yang
Superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) describes a pathological aperture at the level of the arcuate eminence. Techniques for quantifying defect size are described with most studies using two-dimensional lengths that underestimate the pathology. The objective of this study is to describe a novel method of measurement that combines manual segmentation of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images of the temporal bone and a morphological skeletonization transform to calculate dehiscence volume. Images were imported into a freely available image segmentation tool: ITK-SNAP (version 3...
April 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301322/semicircular-canal-modeling-in-human-perception
#5
Houshyar Asadi, Shady Mohamed, Chee Peng Lim, Saeid Nahavandi, Eugene Nalivaiko
The human vestibular system is a sensory and equilibrium system that manages and controls the human sense of balance and movement. It is the main sensor humans use to perceive rotational and linear motions. Determining an accurate mathematical model of the human vestibular system is significant for research pertaining to motion perception, as the quality and effectiveness of the motion cueing algorithm (MCA) directly depends on the mathematical model used in its design. This paper describes the history and analyses the development process of mathematical semicircular canal models...
March 16, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297343/evaluation-of-the-stability-of-the-stereotactic-leksell-frame-g-in-gamma-knife-radiosurgery
#6
Alvaro Rojas-Villabona, Katherine Miszkiel, Neil Kitchen, Rolf Jäger, Ian Paddick
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of the Leksell Frame G in Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKR). Forty patients undergoing GKR underwent pretreatment stereotactic MRI for GKR planning and stereotactic CT immediately after GKR. The stereotactic coordinates of four anatomical landmarks (cochlear apertures and the summits of the anterior post of the superior semicircular canals, bilaterally) were measured by two evaluators on two separate occasions in the pretreatment MRI and post-treatment CT scans and the absolute distance between the observations is reported...
May 2016: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292626/intratympanal-gentamicin-in-meniere-s-disease-effects-on-individual-semicircular-canals
#7
Béla Büki, Heinz Jünger
OBJECTIVE: In this retrospective study the aim of the authors was to examine the effect of gentamicin on the individual semicircular canals after low dose, single injection intratympanal gentamicin therapy in Meniere's disease. METHODS: Data of 32 patients treated between 2011 and 2015 were collected. The high frequency, high acceleration vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gain was measured in the individual semicircular canals using video head impulse test immediately before the first intratympanal gentamicin instillation and approximately two months later...
March 11, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291842/preventing-opioid-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-rest-your-head-and-close-your-eyes
#8
Fabian Heuser, Christian Schulz, Murat Sağlam, Cecilia Ramaioli, Maria Heuberger, Klaus J Wagner, Klaus Jahn, Erich Schneider, Thomas Brandt, Stefan Glasauer, Nadine Lehnen
Although opioid-induced nausea and vomiting (OINV) is common and debilitating, its mechanism is still unclear. Recently, we suggested that opioids affect semicircular canal function and that this leads to a mismatch between canal input and other sensory information during head motion, which triggers OINV. Here, we assess if visual input is relevant for this mismatch. In a randomized-controlled crossover study 14 healthy men (26.9±3.4 years, mean±SD) were tested twice, once blindfolded and once with eyes open, with at least one-day washout...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271408/moving-or-being-moved-that-makes-a-difference
#9
Hans Straka, Boris P Chagnaud
During head/body movements, gaze stability is ensured by transformation of motion-related sensory signals into respective motor commands. Passively induced motion in all vertebrates including amphibians evokes a robust vestibulo-ocular reflex, suggesting an equally important role of this motor reaction during actively induced motion. However, during self-induced movements including locomotion, motor efference copies offer a convenient additional substrate for counteracting retinal image displacements. During such locomotor activity in Xenopus laevis tadpoles, spinal central pattern generator-derived efference copies elicit spatio-temporally specific eye movements, which are functionally appropriate to offset swimming-related retinal image displacements...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271407/three-dimensional-eye-movement-recordings-during-magnetic-vestibular-stimulation
#10
Jorge Otero-Millan, David S Zee, Michael C Schubert, Dale C Roberts, Bryan K Ward
Human subjects placed in strong magnetic fields such as in an MRI scanner often feel dizzy or vertiginous. Recent studies in humans and animals have shown that these effects arise from stimulation of the labyrinth and are accompanied by nystagmus. Here, we measured the three-dimensional pattern of nystagmus using video eye tracking in five normal human subjects placed in a 7T MRI to infer which semicircular canals are activated by magnetic vestibular stimulation. We found that the nystagmus usually had a torsional as well as a horizontal component...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265687/activation-of-the-thalamic-parafascicular-nucleus-by-electrical-stimulation-of-the-peripheral-vestibular-nerve-in-rats
#11
Nari Kim, Myoung Ae Choi, Ho Koo, Byung Rim Park, Sang Who Han, Chaejoon Cheong, Min Sun Kim
The parafascicular nucleus (PFN) of the thalamus is a primary structure in the feedback circuit of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical system, as well as in the neural circuit of the vestibulo-thalamo-striatal pathway. We investigated the characteristics of the functional connectivity between the peripheral vestibular system and the PFN in rats. A single electrical stimulation was applied to the horizontal semicircular canal nerve in the peripheral vestibular end-organs. This resulted in polysynaptic local field potentials (LFPs) in the PFN, which were composed of long-lasting multiple waves...
March 6, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254945/late-pleistocene-archaic-human-crania-from-xuchang-china
#12
Zhan-Yang Li, Xiu-Jie Wu, Li-Ping Zhou, Wu Liu, Xing Gao, Xiao-Mei Nian, Erik Trinkaus
Two early Late Pleistocene (~105,000- to 125,000-year-old) crania from Lingjing, Xuchang, China, exhibit a morphological mosaic with differences from and similarities to their western contemporaries. They share pan-Old World trends in encephalization and in supraorbital, neurocranial vault, and nuchal gracilization. They reflect eastern Eurasian ancestry in having low, sagittally flat, and inferiorly broad neurocrania. They share occipital (suprainiac and nuchal torus) and temporal labyrinthine (semicircular canal) morphology with the Neandertals...
March 3, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28254438/gene-therapy-restores-balance-and-auditory-functions-in-a-mouse-model-of-usher-syndrome
#13
Kevin Isgrig, Jack W Shteamer, Inna A Belyantseva, Meghan C Drummond, Tracy S Fitzgerald, Sarath Vijayakumar, Sherri M Jones, Andrew J Griffith, Thomas B Friedman, Lisa L Cunningham, Wade W Chien
Dizziness and hearing loss are among the most common disabilities. Many forms of hereditary balance and hearing disorders are caused by abnormal development of stereocilia, mechanosensory organelles on the apical surface of hair cells in the inner ear. The deaf whirler mouse, a model of human Usher syndrome (manifested by hearing loss, dizziness, and blindness), has a recessive mutation in the whirlin gene, which renders hair cell stereocilia short and dysfunctional. In this study, wild-type whirlin cDNA was delivered to the inner ears of neonatal whirler mice using adeno-associated virus serotype 2/8 (AAV8-whirlin) by injection into the posterior semicircular canal...
March 1, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28248609/clinical-practice-guideline-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-update
#14
Neil Bhattacharyya, Samuel P Gubbels, Seth R Schwartz, Jonathan A Edlow, Hussam El-Kashlan, Terry Fife, Janene M Holmberg, Kathryn Mahoney, Deena B Hollingsworth, Richard Roberts, Michael D Seidman, Robert W Prasaad Steiner, Betty Tsai Do, Courtney C J Voelker, Richard W Waguespack, Maureen D Corrigan
Objective This update of a 2008 guideline from the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Foundation provides evidence-based recommendations to benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), defined as a disorder of the inner ear characterized by repeated episodes of positional vertigo. Changes from the prior guideline include a consumer advocate added to the update group; new evidence from 2 clinical practice guidelines, 20 systematic reviews, and 27 randomized controlled trials; enhanced emphasis on patient education and shared decision making; a new algorithm to clarify action statement relationships; and new and expanded recommendations for the diagnosis and management of BPPV...
March 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242733/ocular-stability-and-set-point-adaptation
#15
REVIEW
D S Zee, P Jareonsettasin, R J Leigh
A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push-pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242131/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-and-video-head-impulse-test-in-patients-with-vertigo-dizziness-and-imbalance
#16
Magdalena Krbot Skorić, Ivan Adamec, Tin Pavičić, Ivan Pavlović, Berislav Ruška, Luka Crnošija, Mario Habek
The aim of this study was to compare vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) and video head impulse test (vHIT) results in patients presenting with vertigo and dizziness. We retrospectively analyzed data of all patients with the chief complaint of vertigo, dizziness, or imbalance that underwent VEMP and vHIT from January 2015 to January 2016. A total of 117 patients (73 females, mean age 53.92±16.76) fulfilled inclusion criteria: group 1 included patients with the final diagnosis of vestibular neuritis (VN) (N=31 (16 right and 15 left VN)), group 2 included patients with the final diagnosis of vertigo of central origin (N=23) and group 3 included patients with the final diagnosis of unspecified dizziness (N=63)...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228581/spaceflight-induced-synaptic-modifications-within-hair-cells-of-the-mammalian-utricle
#17
David R Sultemeier, Kristel R Choy, Felix E Schweizer, Larry F Hoffman
Exposure to the microgravity conditions of spaceflight alleviates the load normally imposed by the Earth's gravitational field upon the inner ear utricular epithelia. Previous ultrastructural investigations showed that spaceflight induced an increase in synapse density within hair cells of the rat utricle. However, the utricle exhibits broad physiologic heterogeneity across different epithelial regions, and it is unknown whether capabilities for synaptic plasticity generalize to hair cells across its topography...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224454/effects-of-sustained-otolith-only-stimulation-on-post-rotational-nystagmus
#18
Aasef G Shaikh, David Solomon
Constant velocity rotations in darkness evoke vestibulo-ocular reflex in form of pre- and post-rotational nystagmus under cerebellar supervision. Reorientation of the head with respect to gravity, stimulating otolith and semicircular canal, during post-rotational phase rapidly suppresses the post-rotational nystagmus. We asked if pure otolith stimulation without semicircular canal signal is sufficient for the suppression of post-rotational nystagmus. The experimental paradigm comprised of on-axis rotations in the horizontal plane when the subject was sitting upright, followed by a novel stimulus that combined off-axis centrifugation in the horizontal plane with amplitude matched, yet out-of-phase, on-axis horizontal rotation-double centrifugation...
February 21, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219173/-violation-with-horizontal-semicircular-canal-of-the-middle-ear-adenoma-a-case-report
#19
M C Zhu, G J Tan, Y N Jiao, F Yu, M M Ai, X R Gong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 7, 2017: Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212886/primary-ameloblastoma-of-the-temporal-bone
#20
Andro Košec, Jakov Ajduk, Mihael Ries, Robert Trotić
Ameloblastoma is a locally aggressive tumor derived from odontogenic epithelium. Although benign, its clinical behavior can often exhibit malignant characteristics. It is marked by slow and persistent growth with infiltration of adjacent tissues. Almost 70% occur in the mandible in patients older than 30 years. Recurrence of ameloblastoma from inadequate treatment is frequent. Because of its slow growth, recurrences can present decades after primary surgery. A primary ameloblastoma in an area outside the mandibular, maxillary, and infratemporal fossa regions has not been described in detail to date, with only 1 possible case mentioned in the literature...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
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