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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224484/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-purinergic-receptors
#1
Geoffrey Burnstock
In this Introduction to the series of papers that follow about purinergic receptors, there is a brief history of the discovery of purinergic signalling, the identity of purinoceptors and the current recognition of P1, P2X and P2Y subtypes. An account of key functions mediated by purinoceptors follows, including examples of both short-term and long-term (trophic) signalling and a table showing the selective agonists and antagonists for the purinoceptor subtypes. References to evolution and roles of purinoceptors in pathological conditions are also presented...
February 22, 2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209758/atorvastatin-decreases-hbx-induced-phospho-akt-in-hepatocytes-via-p2x-receptors
#2
Aram Ghalali, Javier Martin-Renedo, Johan Hogberg, Ulla Stenius
: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is rated as the fifth most common malignancy and third in cancer related deaths worldwide. Statins, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, are potent cholesterol lowering drugs and recent epidemiological evidence suggests that statins prevent aggressive HCC development. Previous experiments revealed that statins downregulate phosphorylated Akt (pAkt). Here, it is demonstrated that atorvastatin decreases nuclear pAkt levels in pancreatic and lung cancer cell lines within minutes and this rapid effect is mediated by the purinergic P2X receptors...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179439/tussive-challenge-with-atp-and-amp-does-it-reveal-cough-hypersensitivity
#3
Helen Elizabeth Fowles, Tim Rowland, Caroline Wright, Alyn Morice
Recent studies have demonstrated that blockade of P2X3 ATP receptors can profoundly inhibit chronic cough. We have considered whether inhaled ATP produces a tussive response and whether chronic cough patients are hypersensitive to inhaled ATP compared to healthy volunteers.A standardised inhalational cough challenge was performed with ATP and AMP. We randomised 20 healthy volunteers and 20 chronic cough patients as to the order of challenges. The concentration of challenge solution causing at least five coughs (C5) was compared for ATP and AMP...
February 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174542/p2x-receptors-inhibit-nacl-absorption-in-mtal-independently-of-nitric-oxide
#4
Samuel L Svendsen, Søren Isidor, Helle A Praetorius, Jens Leipziger
Activation of basolateral P2X receptors markedly reduces NaCl absorption in mouse medullary thick ascending limb (mTAL). Here we tested the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the ATP-mediated (P2X) transport inhibition. We used isolated, perfused mTALs from mice to electrically measure NaCl absorption. By microelectrodes we determined the transepithelial voltage (Vte) and transepithelial resistance (Rte). Via these two parameters, we calculated the equivalent short circuit current, I'sc as a measure of the transepithelial Na(+) absorption...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165191/efficient-catalysis-of-hydrogen-evolution-reaction-from-ws2-1-x-p2x-nanoribbons
#5
Tofik Ahmed Shifa, Fengmei Wang, Kaili Liu, Zhongzhou Cheng, Kai Xu, Zhenxing Wang, Xueying Zhan, Chao Jiang, Jun He
The rational design of Earth abundant electrocatalysts for efficiently catalyzing hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is believed to lead to the generation of carbon neutral energy carrier. Owing to their fascinating chemical and physical properties, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) are widely studied for this purpose. Of particular note is that doping by foreign atom can bring the advent of electronic perturbation, which affects the intrinsic catalytic property. Hence, through doping, the catalytic activity of such materials could be boosted...
February 6, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163685/ionotropic-p2x-atp-receptor-channels-mediate-purinergic-signaling-in-mouse-odontoblasts
#6
Yuta Shiozaki, Masaki Sato, Maki Kimura, Toru Sato, Masakazu Tazaki, Yoshiyuki Shibukawa
ATP modulates various functions in the dental pulp cells, such as intercellular communication and neurotransmission between odontoblasts and neurons, proliferation of dental pulp cells, and odontoblast differentiation. However, functional expression patterns and their biophysical properties of ionotropic ATP (P2X) receptors (P2X1-P2X7) in odontoblasts were still unclear. We examined these properties of P2X receptors in mouse odontoblasts by patch-clamp recordings. K(+)-ATP, nonselective P2X receptor agonist, induced inward currents in odontoblasts in a concentration-dependent manner...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093236/extracellular-atp-and-adenosine-the-yin-and-yang-in-immune-responses
#7
REVIEW
M M Faas, T Sáez, P de Vos
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and adenosine molecules are intimately involved in immune responses. ATP is mostly a pro-inflammatory molecule and is released during hypoxic condition and by necrotic cells, as well as by activated immune cells and endothelial cells. However, under certain conditions, for instance at low concentrations or at prolonged exposure, ATP may also have anti-inflammatory properties. Extracellular ATP can activate both P2X and P2Y purinergic receptors. Extracellular ATP can be hydrolyzed into adenosine in a two-step enzymatic process involving the ectonucleotidases CD39 (ecto-apyrase) and CD73...
January 16, 2017: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011630/a-polycystin-type-transient-receptor-potential-trp-channel-that-is-activated-by-atp
#8
David Traynor, Robert R Kay
ATP and ADP are ancient extra-cellular signalling molecules that in Dictyostelium amoebae cause rapid, transient increases in cytosolic calcium due to an influx through the plasma membrane. This response is independent of hetero-trimeric G-proteins, the putative IP3 receptor IplA and all P2X channels. We show, unexpectedly, that it is abolished in mutants of the polycystin-type transient receptor potential channel, TrpP. Responses to the chemoattractants cyclic-AMP and folic acid are unaffected in TrpP mutants...
February 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004778/glycosides-from-edible-sea-cucumbers-stimulate-macrophages-via-purinergic-receptors
#9
Dmitry Aminin, Evgeny Pislyagin, Maxim Astashev, Andrey Es'kov, Valery Kozhemyako, Sergei Avilov, Elena Zelepuga, Ekaterina Yurchenko, Leonid Kaluzhskiy, Emma Kozlovskaya, Alexis Ivanov, Valentin Stonik
Since ancient times, edible sea cucumbers have been considered a jewel of the seabed and used in Asian folk medicine for stimulation of resistance against different diseases. However, the power of this sea food has not been established on a molecular level. A particular group of triterpene glycosides was found to be characteristic metabolites of the animals, responsible for this biological action. Using one of them, cucumarioside A2-2 (CA2-2) from the edible Cucumaria japonica species as an example as well as inhibitory analysis, patch-clamp on single macrophages, small interfering RNA technique, immunoblotting, SPR analysis, computer modeling and other methods, we demonstrate low doses of CA2-2 specifically to interact with P2X receptors (predominantly P2X4) on membranes of mature macrophages, enhancing the reversible ATP-dependent Ca(2+) intake and recovering Ca(2+) transport at inactivation of these receptors...
December 22, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906063/characterization-of-a-multiprotein-complex-involved-in-excitation-transcription-coupling-of-skeletal-muscle
#10
Manuel Arias-Calderón, Gonzalo Almarza, Alexis Díaz-Vegas, Ariel Contreras-Ferrat, Denisse Valladares, Mariana Casas, Héctor Toledo, Enrique Jaimovich, Sonja Buvinic
BACKGROUND: Electrical activity regulates the expression of skeletal muscle genes by a process known as "excitation-transcription" (E-T) coupling. We have demonstrated that release of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) during depolarization activates membrane P2X/P2Y receptors, being the fundamental mediators between electrical stimulation, slow intracellular calcium transients, and gene expression. We propose that this signaling pathway would require the proper coordination between the voltage sensor (dihydropyridine receptor, DHPR), pannexin 1 channels (Panx1, ATP release conduit), nucleotide receptors, and other signaling molecules...
April 11, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905561/anti-hu-antibodies-activate-enteric-and-sensory-neurons
#11
Qin Li, Klaus Michel, Anita Annahazi, Ihsan E Demir, Güralp O Ceyhan, Florian Zeller, Lars Komorowski, Winfried Stöcker, Michael J Beyak, David Grundy, Gianrico Farrugia, Roberto De Giorgio, Michael Schemann
IgG of type 1 anti-neuronal nuclear antibody (ANNA-1, anti-Hu) specificity is a serological marker of paraneoplastic neurological autoimmunity (including enteric/autonomic) usually related to small-cell lung carcinoma. We show here that IgG isolated from such sera and also affinity-purified anti-HuD label enteric neurons and cause an immediate spike discharge in enteric and visceral sensory neurons. Both labelling and activation of enteric neurons was prevented by preincubation with the HuD antigen. Activation of enteric neurons was inhibited by the nicotinic receptor antagonists hexamethonium and dihydro-β-erythroidine and reduced by the P2X antagonist pyridoxal phosphate-6-azo (benzene-2,4-disulfonic acid (PPADS) but not by the 5-HT3 antagonist tropisetron or the N-type Ca-channel blocker ω-Conotoxin GVIA...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877078/activation-of-the-cxcl16-cxcr6-pathway-by-inflammation-contributes-to-atherosclerosis-in-patients-with-end-stage-renal-disease
#12
Ze Bo Hu, Yan Chen, Yu Xiang Gong, Min Gao, Yang Zhang, Gui Hua Wang, Ri Ning Tang, Hong Liu, Bi Cheng Liu, Kun Ling Ma
Background: Chronic inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of atherosclerosis (AS). This study aimed to determine the effects of the CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16)/CXC chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) pathway on cholesterol accumulation in the radial arteries of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with concomitant microinflammation and to further investigate the potential effects of the purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2X7R). Methods: Forty-three ESRD patients were divided into the control group (n=17) and the inflamed group (n=26) based on plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871906/adenosine-but-not-guanosine-protects-vaginal-epithelial-cells-from-trichomonas-vaginalis-cytotoxicity
#13
Camila Braz Menezes, Amanda Piccoli Frasson, Lucia Collares Meirelles, Tiana Tasca
Trichomonas vaginalis causes the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. The cytoadherence and cytotoxicity upon the vaginal epithelial cells are crucial for the infection. Extracellular nucleotides are released during cell damage and, along with their nucleosides, can activate purinoceptors. The opposing effects of nucleotides versus nucleosides are regulated by ectonucleotidases. Herein we evaluated the hemolysis and cytolysis induced by T. vaginalis, as well as the extracellular nucleotide hydrolysis along with the effects mediated by nucleotides and nucleosides on cytotoxicity...
November 18, 2016: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863396/p2rx4-deficiency-in-mice-alleviates-allergen-induced-airway-inflammation
#14
Andreas Zech, Benjamin Wiesler, Cemil Korcan Ayata, Tilmann Schlaich, Thorsten Dürk, Madelon Hoßfeld, Nicolas Ehrat, Sanja Cicko, Marco Idzko
Compelling evidences point out a crucial role for extracellular nucleotides such as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during inflammatory conditions. Once released into the extracellular space, ATP modulates migration, maturation and function of various inflammatory cells via activating of purinergic receptors of the P2Y- and P2X- family. P2RX4 is an ATP-guided ion channel expressed on structural cells such as alveolar epithelial and smooth muscle cells as well as inflammatory cells including macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells...
November 15, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802438/bradykinin-contributes-to-sympathetic-and-pressor-responses-evoked-by-activation-of-skeletal-muscle-afferents-p2x-in-heart-failure
#15
Jihong Xing, Jianhua Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Published data suggest that purinergic P2X receptors of muscle afferent nerves contribute to the enhanced sympathetic nervous activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP) responses during static exercise in heart failure (HF). In this study, we examined engagement of bradykinin (BK) in regulating responses of SNA and BP evoked by P2X stimulation in rats with HF. We further examined cellular mechanisms responsible for BK. We hypothesized that BK potentiates P2X currents of muscle dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, and this effect is greater in HF due to upregulation of BK kinin B2 and P2X3 receptor...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780585/purinergic-signaling-in-kidney-disease
#16
REVIEW
Robert I Menzies, Frederick W Tam, Robert J Unwin, Matthew A Bailey
Nucleotides are key subunits for nucleic acids and provide energy for intracellular metabolism. They can also be released from cells to act physiologically as extracellular messengers or pathologically as danger signals. Extracellular nucleotides stimulate membrane receptors in the P2 and P1 family. P2X are ATP-activated cation channels; P2Y and P1 are G-protein coupled receptors activated by ATP, ADP, UTP, and UDP in the case of P2 or adenosine for P1. Renal P2 receptors influence both vascular contractility and tubular function...
October 22, 2016: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778376/post-injury-bladder-management-strategy-influences-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction-in-the-mouse-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#17
Naoki Wada, Takahiro Shimizu, Shun Takai, Nobutaka Shimizu, Anthony J Kanai, Pradeep Tyagi, Hidehiro Kakizaki, Naoki Yoshimura
AIMS: To examine the effects of a different number of daily bladder squeezes on bladder dysfunction in mice with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: Spinal cord was transected at the Th8/9 in female C57BL/6N mice. Their bladders were manually squeezed to eliminate urine inside every day for 4 weeks. The mice were divided into three groups depending on the number of bladder squeezes; A: once daily, B: twice daily, C: three times daily. Four weeks after transection, single-filling cystometry were performed under an awake condition...
October 24, 2016: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766552/synthesis-characterization-and-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-selective-p2y2-receptor-antagonist-ar-c118925
#18
Muhammad Rafehi, Joachim C Burbiel, Isaac Y Attah, Aliaa Abdelrahman, Christa E Müller
The Gq protein-coupled, ATP- and UTP-activated P2Y2 receptor is a potential drug target for a range of different disorders, including tumor metastasis, inflammation, atherosclerosis, kidney disorders, and osteoporosis, but pharmacological studies are impeded by the limited availability of suitable antagonists. One of the most potent and selective antagonists is the thiouracil derivative AR-C118925. However, this compound was until recently not commercially available and little is known about its properties...
October 20, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757785/2-3-o-substituted-atp-derivatives-as-potent-antagonists-of-purinergic-p2x3-receptors-and-potential-analgesic-agents
#19
Diego Dal Ben, Anna Marchenkova, Ajiroghene Thomas, Catia Lambertucci, Andrea Spinaci, Gabriella Marucci, Andrea Nistri, Rosaria Volpini
Blocking membrane currents evoked by the activation of purinergic P2X3 receptors localized on nociceptive neurons represents a promising strategy for the development of agents useful for the treatment of chronic pain conditions. Among compounds endowed with such antagonistic action, 2',3'-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP) is an ATP analogue, whose inhibitory activity on P2X receptors has been previously reported. Based on the results of molecular modelling studies performed with homology models of the P2X3 receptor, novel adenosine nucleotide analogues bearing cycloalkyl or arylalkyl substituents replacing the trinitrophenyl moiety of TNP-ATP were designed and synthesized...
October 18, 2016: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754822/role-of-purines-in-m%C3%A3-ller-glia
#20
Andreas Reichenbach, Andreas Bringmann
Müller glia, the principal macroglia of the retina, express diverse subtypes of adenosine and metabotropic purinergic (P2Y) receptors. Müller cells of several species, including man, also express ionotropic P2X7 receptors. ATP is liberated from Müller cells after activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors and during osmotic and mechanical induction of membrane stretch; adenosine is released through equilibrative nucleoside transporters. Müller cell-derived purines modulate the neuronal activity and have autocrine effects, for example, induction of glial calcium waves and regulation of the cellular volume...
October 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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