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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127599/cb1-receptors-mediated-inhibition-of-atp-induced-ca-2-i-increase-in-cultured-rat-spinal-dorsal-horn-neurons
#1
Jingdong Long, Xiaolu Lei, Meiyun Chen, Shulei Yang, Tao Sun, Junwei Zeng, Deqian Yu, Hong Tian, Xiaohong Liu
Spinal cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) and purinergic P2X receptors (P2XR) play a critical role in the process of pathological pain. Both CB1R and P2XR are expressed in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons. It is not clear whether CB1 receptor activation modulates the function of P2X receptor channels within dorsal horn. For this reason, we observed the effect of CP55940 (cannabinoid receptor agonist) on ATP-induced Ca(2+) mobilization in cultured rat DH neurons. The changes of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) were detected with confocal laser scanning microscopy using fluo-4/AM as a calcium fluorescent indicator...
November 10, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120881/atp-and-t-cell-mediated-rejection
#2
Eduardo Castillo-Leon, Sergio Dellepiane, Paolo Fiorina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Purine nucleosides and nucleotides are released in the extracellular space following cell injury and act as paracrine mediators through a number of dedicated membrane receptors. In particular, extracellular ATP (eATP) significantly influences T-lymphocyte activation and phenotype. The purpose of this review is to discuss the role of ATP signaling in the T-cell-mediated alloimmune response. RECENT FINDINGS: In various animal models of solid transplantation, the purinergic axis has been targeted to prevent acute rejection and to promote long-term graft tolerance...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111328/3-naphthalen-2-yl-propoxy-methyl-azetidine-hydrochloride-attenuates-nlrp3-inflammasome-mediated-signaling-pathway-in-lipopolysaccharide-stimulated-bv2-microglial-cells
#3
Ji Woong Yang, Seung-Ju Yang, Jung-Min Na, Hoh-Gyu Hahn, Sung-Woo Cho
The nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain-like receptor containing a pyrin domain 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is a multiprotein complex with a role in innate immune responses. NLRP3 inflammasome dysfunction is a common feature of chronic inflammatory diseases. Microglia activation is also associated with neuroinflammatory pathologies. We previously reported that 3-(naphthalen-2-yl(propoxy)methyl)azetidine hydrochloride (KHG26792) reduced hypoxia-induced toxicity by modulating inflammation. However, no studies have elucidated the precise mechanisms for the anti-inflammatory action of KHG26792, in particular via inflammasome mediation...
October 27, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079292/p2x-receptor-overexpression-induced-by-soluble-oligomers-of-amyloid-beta-peptide-potentiates-synaptic-failure-and-neuronal-dyshomeostasis-in-cellular-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Francisco Sáez-Orellana, María C Fuentes-Fuentes, Pamela A Godoy, Tiare Silva-Grecchi, Jessica D Panes, Leonardo Guzmán, Gonzalo E Yévenes, Javiera Gavilán, Terrance M Egan, Luis G Aguayo, Jorge Fuentealba
The most common cause of dementia is Alzheimer's disease. The etiology of the disease is unknown, although considerable evidence suggests a critical role for the soluble oligomers of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ). Because Aβ increases the expression of purinergic receptors (P2XRs) in vitro and in vivo, we studied the functional correlation between long-term exposure to Aβ and the ability of P2XRs to modulate network synaptic tone. We used electrophysiological recordings and Ca(2+) microfluorimetry to assess the effects of chronic exposure (24 h) to Aβ oligomers (0...
October 25, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077063/p2x4-receptor-dependent-ca-2-influx-in-model-human-monocytes-and-macrophages
#5
Janice A Layhadi, Samuel J Fountain
Monocytes and macrophages express a repertoire of cell surface P2 receptors for adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), which are capable of raising cytoplasmic calcium when activated. This is achieved either through direct permeation (ionotropic P2X receptors) or by mobilizing intracellular calcium stores (metabotropic P2Y receptors). Here, a side-by-side comparison to investigate the contribution of P2X4 receptor activation in ATP-evoked calcium responses in model human monocytes and macrophages was performed...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048353/p2x-receptor-antagonists-inhibit-the-interaction-of-s-aureus-hemolysin-a-with-membranes
#6
Markus Schwiering, Matthias Husmann, Nadja Hellmann
The pore forming hemolysin A, Hla, is a major virulence factor of Staphylococcus aureus. Apparently, 1-2 pore(s) per cell suffice(s) to cause cell death. Accumulated experimental evidence points towards a major role of ATP-gated purinergic receptors (P2XR) for hemolysis caused by Hla, complement and other pore forming proteins, presumably by increasing membrane permeability. Indeed, in experiments employing rabbit erythrocytes, inhibitory concentrations of frequently employed P2XR-antagonists were in a similar range as previously reported for erythrocytes of other species and other toxins...
October 19, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036803/extracellular-atp-activates-enos-and-increases-intracellular-no-generation-in-red-blood-cells
#7
Pinar Ulker, Nur Özen, Günel Abdullayeva, Sadi Köksoy, Nazmi Yaraş, Filiz Basrali
BACKGROUND: It has been well documented that ATP activates NOS enzymes and causes increased NO production in several cell types. Although RBC known to possesses eNOS enzyme activity, it has not been investigated whether RBC eNOS could be induced by extracellular ATP. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to evaluate extracellular ATP mediated eNOS activation and NO production in RBC. METHODS: RBC packed were isolated from healthy volunteers and re-suspended in Hepes solution at a hematocrit of 0...
October 7, 2017: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030596/mesenchymal-stem-cells-from-tumor-microenvironment-favour-breast-cancer-stem-cell-proliferation-cancerogenic-and-metastatic-potential-via-ionotropic-purinergic-signalling
#8
A Maffey, C Storini, C Diceglie, C Martelli, L Sironi, C Calzarossa, N Tonna, R Lovchik, E Delamarche, L Ottobrini, F Bianco
Interaction between tumor cells and the microenvironment is key in initiation, progression, and invasiveness of cancer. In particular, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are recruited to the sites of developing tumors, thus promoting metastasis formation. Although it is well known that MSCs migrate and integrate in the tumor microenvironment (TME), their fate and function inside the tumor is still not clear. In this study, we analyzed the role played by MSCs in breast cancer oncogenesis. Data indicate that interaction of breast cancer cells with MSCs results in an increased proliferation and metabolic activity of breast cancer cells, partially due to MSC-derived microvesicles that are shed in the TME...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026074/structural-insights-into-the-competitive-inhibition-of-the-atp-gated-p2x-receptor-channel
#9
Go Kasuya, Toshiaki Yamaura, Xiao-Bo Ma, Ryoki Nakamura, Mizuki Takemoto, Hiromitsu Nagumo, Eiichi Tanaka, Naoshi Dohmae, Takanori Nakane, Ye Yu, Ryuichiro Ishitani, Osamu Matsuzaki, Motoyuki Hattori, Osamu Nureki
P2X receptors are non-selective cation channels gated by extracellular ATP, and the P2X7 receptor subtype plays a crucial role in the immune and nervous systems. Altered expression and dysfunctions of P2X7 receptors caused by genetic deletions, mutations, and polymorphic variations have been linked to various diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis and hypertension. Despite the availability of crystal structures of P2X receptors, the mechanism of competitive antagonist action for P2X receptors remains controversial...
October 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993756/trench-foot-or-non-freezing-cold-injury-as-a-painful-vaso-neuropathy-clinical-and-skin-biopsy-assessments
#10
Praveen Anand, Rosario Privitera, Yiangos Yiangou, Philippe Donatien, Rolfe Birch, Peter Misra
BACKGROUND: Trench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI), results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993732/purinergic-signalling-therapeutic-developments
#11
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock
Purinergic signalling, i.e., the role of nucleotides as extracellular signalling molecules, was proposed in 1972. However, this concept was not well accepted until the early 1990's when receptor subtypes for purines and pyrimidines were cloned and characterised, which includes four subtypes of the P1 (adenosine) receptor, seven subtypes of P2X ion channel receptors and 8 subtypes of the P2Y G protein-coupled receptor. Early studies were largely concerned with the physiology, pharmacology and biochemistry of purinergic signalling...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993263/angiotensin-1-7-in-the-rostro-ventrolateral-medulla-increases-blood-pressure-and-splanchnic-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-anesthetized-rats
#12
Mark S Bilodeau, J C Leiter
Angiotensin 1-7 (ANG-(1-7)), a derivative of angiotensin I or II, is involved in the propagation of sympathetic output to the heart and vasculature, and the receptor for ANG-(1-7), the Mas receptor, is expressed on astrocytes in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We recorded blood pressure (BP) and splanchnic sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) before and after focal injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM of rats. Unilateral injection of ANG-(1-7) into the RVLM, acting through the Mas receptor, increased SSNA and BP, and glutamate receptor antagonists, CNQX and D-AP5, partially reduced the ANG-(1-7) effect...
October 6, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966946/expression-and-purification-of-a-mammalian-p2x7-receptor-from-sf9-insect-cells
#13
Akira Karasawa, Toshimitsu Kawate
The P2X7 receptor is an extracellular ATP-gated ion channel found only in eukaryotes (Bartlett et al., 2014). Due to its unique properties among P2X receptors, such as formation of a large conductance pore, the P2X7 receptor has been implicated in devastating diseases like chronic pain (North and Jarvis, 2013). However, mechanisms underlying the P2X7 specific properties remain poorly understood, partly because purification of this eukaryotic membrane protein has been challenging. Here we describe a detailed protocol for expressing and purifying a mammalian P2X7 receptor using an insect cell-baculovirus system...
September 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943285/ethanol-differentially-modulates-p2x4-and-p2x7-receptor-activity-and-function-in-bv2-microglial-cells
#14
Liana Asatryan, Olga Ostrovskaya, Dustin Lieu, Daryl L Davies
Neuroinflammation is one of the mechanisms leading to neurodegenerative brain damage induced by chronic alcohol (ethanol) exposure. Microglia play a major role in the development of innate immune responses to environmental injuries including ethanol. Adenosine 5″-triphosphate (ATP)-activated purinergic P2X receptor (P2XR) subtypes, P2X4Rs and P2X7Rs, are endogenously expressed in microglia and can modulate their activity. These 2 P2XR subtypes differ pharmacologically and functionally: 1) P2X4Rs are activated at lower (≤0...
September 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898282/p2x3-receptor-involvement-in-endometriosis-pain-via-erk-signaling-pathway
#15
Shaojie Ding, Libo Zhu, Yonghong Tian, Tianhong Zhu, Xiufeng Huang, Xinmei Zhang
The purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 3 (P2X3) is crucially involved in peripheral nociceptive processes of somatic and visceral pain. Endometriosis pain is considered as a kind of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. However, whether P2X3 is involved in endometriosis pain has not been reported up to date. Here, we aimed to determine whether P2X3 expression in endometriotic lesions is involved in endometriosis pain, which is regulated by inflammatory mediators through extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signalling pathway...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863817/regulation-of-p2x-purinergic-receptor-signaling-by-cholesterol
#16
Ruth D Murrell-Lagnado
P2X receptors are cation-selective channels that are activated by the binding of extracellular ATP. They have a high permeability to Ca(2+), Na(+), and K(+) and are expressed widely throughout the nervous, immune, cardiovascular, skeletal, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and endocrine systems. Seven mammalian subtypes of P2X receptor subunits have been identified, P2X1-7, and those that function as homotrimeric receptors (P2X1, 2, 3, 4, and 7) are targeted to lipid rafts, although they show limited resistance to solubilization by Triton X-100...
2017: Current Topics in Membranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28845311/modulation-of-central-synapses-by-astrocyte-released-atp-and-postsynaptic-p2x-receptors
#17
REVIEW
Eric Boué-Grabot, Yuriy Pankratov
Communication between neuronal and glial cells is important for neural plasticity. P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels widely expressed in the brain where they mediate action of extracellular ATP released by neurons and/or glia. Recent data show that postsynaptic P2X receptors underlie slow neuromodulatory actions rather than fast synaptic transmission at brain synapses. Here, we review these findings with a particular focus on the release of ATP by astrocytes and the diversity of postsynaptic P2X-mediated modulation of synaptic strength and plasticity in the CNS...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836401/purinergic-receptor-expression-and-potential-association-with-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cell-development
#18
Shirin Kashfi, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Hossein Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Javan
OBJECTIVES: Due to recent progress in production of human embryonic stem cell-derived oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (hESC-OPCs) for ameliorating myelin disease such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and the role of purinergic signaling in OPCs development, we avaluated the profile of purinergic receptors expression during development of OPCs from hESC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, we used reverse transcription and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) to obtain more information about potential roles of purinergic receptors during in vitro production of hESC-OPCs...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836128/purinergic-antagonism-prevents-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-behavioral-deficits-associated-with-dopaminergic-toxicity-induced-by-6-ohda-in-rats
#19
Saket Kumar, Akanksha Mishra, Sairam Krishnamurthy
Purinoceptors are present in neurons, microglia and oligodendrocytes and regulate dopamine (DA) release, striatal-related function and striatal neuronal and DA cells damage. Therefore, purinoceptors may be involved in the pathology of Parkinson's disease (PD) and purinergic antagonism may show neuroprotective effect. The study investigated the role of the non-selective purinergic receptor antagonist pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2('), 4(')-disulfonic acid (PPADS) and a selective purinergic receptor P2X7 receptor antagonist Brilliant Blue G (BBG) against 6-OHDA induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity in rats; while adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was used as a P2X receptor agonist...
August 24, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822016/in-situ-imaging-reveals-properties-of-purinergic-signalling-in-trigeminal-sensory-ganglia-in-vitro
#20
Arletta Nowodworska, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Andrea Nistri, Elsa Fabbretti
Chronic pain is supported by sterile inflammation that induces sensitisation of sensory neurons to ambient stimuli including extracellular ATP acting on purinergic P2X receptors. The development of in vitro methods for drug screening would be useful to investigate cell crosstalk and plasticity mechanisms occurring during neuronal sensitisation and sterile neuroinflammation. Thus, we studied, at single-cell level, membrane pore dilation based on the uptake of a fluorescent probe following sustained ATP-gated P2X receptor function in neurons and non-neuronal cells of trigeminal ganglion cultures from wild-type (WT) and R192Q CaV2...
August 18, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
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