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latent class

Arthur H Owora
Contradictory evidence exists on the role of Major depression disorder (MDD) as a predictor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease progression, particularly regarding the effect of MDD presence versus pattern of illness. The objective of this study was to examine whether MDD status and pattern of illness differentially predict HIV disease progression. Retrospective cohort data from a six-year follow-up of HIV patients at an outpatient clinic were analyzed. MDD trajectories were identified by latent class growth analysis and generalized linear mixed models were used to examine their relation to low CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts (<200 cells/μL) during follow-up...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hajri Al-Shehri, Artemis Koukounari, Michelle C Stanton, Moses Adriko, Moses Arinaitwe, Aaron Atuhaire, Narcis B Kabatereine, J Russell Stothard
Programmatic surveillance of intestinal schistosomiasis during control can typically use four diagnostic tests, either singularly or in combination, but these have yet to be cross-compared directly. Our study assembled a complete diagnostic dataset, inclusive of infection intensities, from 258 children from five Ugandan primary schools. The schools were purposely selected as typical of the endemic landscape near Lake Albert and reflective of high- and low-transmission settings. Overall prevalence was: 44.1% (95% CI 38...
March 21, 2018: Parasitology
Rui Zhen, Lijuan Quan, Xiao Zhou
This study examined the co-occurring patterns of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. A sample of 187 victims completed self-report questionnaires after a major flood disaster. Results indicated four classes: low symptoms group (49.7%), mild comorbid symptoms group (24.1%), serious comorbid symptoms group (3.2%), and medium comorbid symptoms group (23.0%). Male victims were less likely and older victims were more likely to belong to the medium comorbid symptoms group; victims with more serious trauma exposure and those using more maladaptive cognition emotional regulation strategies were more likely to belong to both the mild and medium comorbid symptoms groups...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Lorra Garey, Lorraine R Reitzel, Julie Neisler, Darla E Kendzor, Michael J Zvolensky, Clayton Neighbors, Daphne C Hernandez, Michael S Businelle
PURPOSE: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is a multidimensional assessment of well-being and health status. Most previous work in this area assumes that HRQoL is a homogenous construct; however, it is possible HRQoL subgroups may exist. The purpose of the study was to characterize common classes of HRQoL among adult, homeless smokers, a particularly vulnerable group of the larger population, and to evaluate risk and protective factors of HRQoL class membership. METHODS: Homeless smokers (N = 456; 65...
March 20, 2018: Behavioral Medicine
Anna E Kågesten, Caroline W Kabiru, Beatrice Maina, Danielle German, Robert Wm Blum
The need for early prevention approaches to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health is gaining attention, yet little is known about the sexual experiences of early adolescents aged 10-14 years. Drawing on cross-sectional survey data collected from 365 early adolescents in a Nairobi slum, we used latent class analysis to identify subgroups based on self-reported awareness about sex and involvement in romantic and sexual activities. Multivariate regression models were fitted to examine the characteristics of each subgroup...
March 20, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Paras D Mehta
A general latent variable modeling framework called n-Level Structural Equations Modeling (NL-SEM) for dependent data-structures is introduced. NL-SEM is applicable to a wide range of complex multilevel data-structures (e.g., cross-classified, switching membership, etc.). Reciprocal dyadic ratings obtained in round-robin design involve complex set of dependencies that cannot be modeled within Multilevel Modeling (MLM) or Structural Equations Modeling (SEM) frameworks. The Social Relations Model (SRM) for round robin data is used as an example to illustrate key aspects of the NL-SEM framework...
March 20, 2018: Multivariate Behavioral Research
J M Carrascosa, E Del-Alcazar
Biologic drugs have revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis in recent years because of their high efficacy and low risk of toxicity. However, even within the group of biologic therapies, there are differences related to the different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: We review the main adverse events associated with the biologic agents currently available for the treatment of psoriasis and the new inhibitors targeting the p19 subunit of interleukin (IL) 23 and the IL-17A receptor. This review covers injection site reactions, infections, cardiovascular events, demyelinating disorders, tumours, class effects secondary adverse events, immunogenicity, safety in pregnancy and vaccines efficacy...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Sarah Blunden, Chris Magee, Kelly Attard, Larissa Clarkson, Peter Caputi, Timothy Skinner
BACKGROUND: Sleep duration and sleep schedule variability have been related to negative health and well-being outcomes in children, but little is known about Australian Indigenous children. METHODS: Data for children aged 7-9 years came from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Indigenous Children and the National Assessment Program-Literacy and Numeracy (NAPLAN). Latent class analysis determined sleep classes taking into account sleep duration, bedtimes, waketimes, and variability in bedtimes from weekdays to weekends...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Connor Sheehan, Daniel Powers, Claire Margerison-Zilko, Teresa McDevitt, Catherine Cubbin
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether historical neighborhood poverty measures are associated with mothers' reports of their children's sleep duration and to compare results from historical neighborhood poverty measures to contemporaneous measures of neighborhood poverty. DESIGN: The Geographic Research on Wellbeing (GROW) study is a follow-up survey of mothers who gave birth between 2003 and 2007. GROW mothers assessed their own and their children's health and health behaviors 5-10 years later (2012-2013)...
April 2018: Sleep Health
Katie Witkiewitz, Corey R Roos, Davood Tofighi, M Lee Van Horn
OBJECTIVE: Few studies have found support for coping as a mechanism of behavior change (MOBC) following coping skills training interventions for alcohol use disorder (AUD). One potential reason for null findings is heterogeneity in the patterns of coping skills acquired during treatment. This study sought to identify latent classes of coping and to test the latent class variable as a mediator of the effect of a combined behavioral intervention for AUD. METHOD: Secondary analyses of data from the Combined Pharmacotherapies and Behavioral Interventions for Alcohol Dependence (COMBINE) Study (N = 1,124; mean age = 44...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Annah K Bender, Nishesh Chalise
Perception of domestic violence is a frequently used indicator of women's empowerment. It is, however, thought to be a binary variable, where women either justify wife beating or they do not. In the Nepal Demographic Health Survey, empowerment is 'high' if the woman answers no to one of five circumstances of wife beating. This study develops a Latent Class Analysis model to determine whether there are categories of women who endorsed some type of violence but not others. A more nuanced measure of perception of domestic violence would improve our understanding on women's empowerment...
2018: International Social Work
Oliviero Bruni, Stefania Sette, Marco Angriman, Emma Baumgartner, Lara Selvaggini, Cristina Belli, Raffaele Ferri
OBJECTIVES: To identify different profiles of pediatric insomnia, based on the most frequent clinical presentations (nocturnal awakenings, difficulty in falling asleep, nocturnal restlessness, early morning awakenings). STUDY DESIGN: A structured parent interview was conducted in 338 children (mean age 21.29 months, SD 10.56) referred by pediatricians because of insomnia resistant to behavioral approaches and common drug treatments. The aim was to assess the characteristics of insomnia in children, together with family sleep-related history...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Wen Jin, Yinglu Deng, Hai Jiang, Qianyan Xie, Wei Shen, Weijian Han
Car insurance is quickly becoming a big data industry, with usage-based insurance (UBI) poised to potentially change the business of insurance. Telematics data, which are transmitted from wireless devices in car, are widely used in UBI to obtain individual-level travel and driving characteristics. While most existing studies have introduced telematics data into car insurance pricing, the telematics-related characteristics are directly obtained from the raw data. In this study, we propose to quantify drivers' familiarity with their driving routes and develop models to quantify drivers' accident risks using the telematics data...
March 14, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Frida C A van der Veeken, Jacques Lucieer, Stefan Bogaerts
The likelihood of recidivism is considered to be the most important outcome measure in forensic psychiatry. Therefore, forensic psychiatric treatment focuses on the reduction of the risk of recidivism by treating dynamic risk and protective factors, aiming to reduce risk factors while enhancing protective factors during treatment. The goal of this study is to assess treatment progress with the Instrument for Forensic Treatment Evaluation (IFTE) in a Dutch forensic psychiatric centre (n=240). Latent Class Analysis was conducted to reconfirm previously found patient profiles...
March 2018: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
Rachel A Hoopsick, D Lynn Homish, Paul T Bartone, Gregory G Homish
Background: Much research has focused on stress related to deployments; however, a substantial proportion of soldiers never deploy. In a study of 1.3 million veterans, suicide risk was higher among veterans who had never deployed. Thus, not being deployed may have an impact on soldiers' well-being; however, no measures exist to assess emotions regarding non-deployment. We aimed to develop and test an original measure of non-deployment emotions. Methods: We examined the Non-Deployment Emotions (NDE) questionnaire, a novel four-item measure of guilt, unit value, unit camaraderie, and unit connectedness in a sample of never-deployed male and female US Army Reserve/National Guard (USAR/NG) soldiers (N = 174)...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Grace S Chng, Dongdong Li, Chi Meng Chu, Tabitha Ong, Felicia Lim
Children who enter the child protection system often have complex family problems and have experienced early adverse experiences. Using latent class analysis, this study aimed to identify family classes of child protection cases in Singapore, to ascertain the prevalence of these family classes, and to test the association of family class membership to subsequent recurrence of harm. A sample of 440 cases who entered the Child Protective Service in Singapore was analyzed based on eight familial factors on the household and caregiver levels...
March 13, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Anna Segura, Noemí Pereda, Georgina Guilera
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine whether three different methodological approaches used to assess poly-victimization that apply the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ; Finkelhor, Hamby, Ormrod, & Turner, 2005) identify the same group of adolescent poly-victims. METHOD: The sample consisted of 1,105 adolescents (590 males and 515 females), aged 12-17 years old (M = 14.52, SD = 1.76) and recruited from seven secondary schools in Spain. The JVQ was used to assess lifetime and past-year experiences of victimization...
May 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Maj Hansen, Philip Hyland, Cherie Armour, Tonny E Andersen
Numerous studies investigating dissociative posttraumatic stress disorder (D-PTSD) have emerged. However, there is a lack of studies investigating D-PTSD following a wider range of traumatic exposure. Thus, the present study investigates D-PTSD using latent class analysis (LCA) in sub-acute patients of whiplash and associated risk factors. The results of LCA showed a three-class solution primarily distributed according to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom severity and thus no indication of D-PTSD...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma & Dissociation
Lyndsey M Miller, Carol J Whitlatch, Christopher S Lee, Michael S Caserta
Background and Objectives: Persons with dementia (PWDs) often place greater importance on their care values (i.e., maintaining autonomy and social relations, choosing caregivers, avoiding being a burden) than family caregivers (CGs) perceive, which can detract from dementia care planning (e.g., care arrangements or surrogate decisions). Notable variability has been found across family care dyads (PWD and CG) in their perceptions of care values, suggesting that there may be multiple patterns of perception...
March 12, 2018: Gerontologist
Narges Roustaei, Seyyed Mohammad Taghi Ayatollahi, Najaf Zare
In recent years, the joint models have been widely used for modeling the longitudinal and time-to-event data simultaneously. In this study, we proposed an approach (PA) to study the longitudinal and survival outcomes simultaneously in heterogeneous populations. PA relaxes the assumption of conditional independence (CI). We also compared PA with joint latent class model (JLCM) and separate approach (SA) for various sample sizes (150, 300, and 600) and different association parameters (0, 0.2, and 0.5). The average bias of parameters estimation (AB-PE), average SE of parameters estimation (ASE-PE), and coverage probability of the 95% confidence interval (CP) among the three approaches were compared...
2018: BioMed Research International
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