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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778774/continuous-opioid-substitution-treatment-over-five-years-heroin-use-trajectories-and-outcomes
#1
Brian Eastwood, John Strang, John Marsden
BACKGROUND: This is the first national study in England of continuous long-term opioid substitution treatment (OST). METHODS: All adults were admitted to community OST for opioid use disorder (OUD) in 2008/09 with continuous enrolment to 2013/14 (n = 7719). Heroin use trajectories were identified by multilevel Latent Class Growth Analysis. In Year 6 and 7 of follow-up, the outcome measure (analysed by multilevel, multivariable logistic regression) was 'successful completion and no re-presentation' (SCNR) to community treatment within six months...
May 16, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#2
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773669/unresolved-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-engenders-immune-resistant-latent-pancreatic-cancer-metastases
#3
Arnaud Pommier, Naishitha Anaparthy, Nicoletta Memos, Z Larkin Kelley, Alizée Gouronnec, Ran Yan, Cédric Auffray, Jean Albrengues, Mikala Egeblad, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue, Scott K Lyons, Douglas T Fearon
The majority of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) develop metastatic disease after resection of their primary tumor. We found that livers from patients and mice with PDA harbor single, disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) lacking expression of cytokeratin-19 (CK19) and major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI). We created a mouse model to determine how these DCCs develop. Intra-portal injection of immunogenic PDA cells into pre-immunized mice seeded livers only with single, non-replicating DCCs that were CK19- and MHCI- The DCCs exhibited an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response but, paradoxically lacked both inositol-requiring enzyme 1α activation and expression of the spliced form of transcription factor XBP1 (XBP1s)...
May 17, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771559/body-mass-index-across-adolescence-and-substance-use-problems-in-early-adulthood
#4
Ashley N Gearhardt, Rebecca Waller, Jennifer M Jester, Luke W Hyde, Robert A Zucker
Excessive substance use and obesity are underpinned by a number of shared risk factors (e.g., reward dysfunction, impulsivity). Food and drugs of abuse engage similar reward-related neural circuitry and the food-drug competition hypothesis proposes that excess consumption of food may diminish desire for drugs of abuse by competing for neural receptors associated with reward and motivation. Adolescence is a high-risk period for both increased substance use and excessive weight gain. In the present study, the authors tested whether, consistent with the food-drug competition hypothesis, elevated body mass index (BMI) across adolescence predicted fewer substance use problems in young adulthood...
May 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770728/disability-pathways-preceding-death-in-england-by-socio-economic-status
#5
Cecilia Potente, Christiaan Monden
The role of socio-economic status (SES) in the last years of life is an under-researched aspect of health inequalities. This study examines disability patterns preceding death using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. We use repeated measures latent class analysis to identify the most common pathways preceding death in terms of walking ability and limitations in activities of daily living. Three pathways emerge: one characterized by consistently low disability; a second by a constant high level of functional limitations; and a third by medium impairment...
May 17, 2018: Population Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766761/use-of-home-and-community-based-services-in-taiwan-s-national-10-year-long-term-care-plan
#6
Hsiao-Wei Yu, Yu-Kang Tu, Po-Hsiu Kuo, Ya-Mei Chen
We aimed to understand the relationships between care recipients' profiles and home- and community-based services (HCBS use patterns. Data were from the 2010 to 2013 Long-Term Care Service Management System in Taiwan ( N = 78,205). We used latent class analysis and multinomial logistic regression analyses. Three HCBS use patterns were found. Care recipients who lived alone, lived in less urbanized areas, and had instrumental activities of daily living disabilities were more likely to be in the home-based personal care group...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Gerontology: the Official Journal of the Southern Gerontological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765295/incentives-for-blood-donation-a-discrete-choice-experiment-to-analyze-extrinsic-motivation
#7
Andrew Sadler, Ling Shi, Susanne Bethge, Axel Mühlbacher
Background: Demographic trends affect size and age structure of populations. One of the consequences will be an increasing need for blood products to treat age-related diseases. Donation services rely on voluntariness and charitable motivation. It might be questioned whether there will be sufficient blood supply with voluntary donation. The present study focused on elicitation of preferences for incentives and aimed to contribute to the discussion on how to increase donation rates. Methods: A self-administered discrete choice experiment (DCE) was applied...
April 2018: Transfusion Medicine and Hemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762741/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-intergenerational-transmission-of-health-inequality
#8
Andrea E Willson, Kim M Shuey
Objectives: Empirical investigations of cumulative dis/advantage typically treat health inequality as an intra-individual process rooted in early-life conditions and operating within the span of the individual life course, while literature on processes of intergenerational transmission has historically focused on socioeconomic mobility, largely overlooking health. The current study examines the persistence of work disability across generations and multiple explanations for this relationship, including the role of early life disadvantage, childhood health, educational attainment, and social mobility...
May 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762655/longitudinal-physical-activity-patterns-among-older-adults-a-latent-transition-analysis
#9
Stephen J Mooney, Spruha Joshi, Magdalena Cerdá, Gary J Kennedy, John R Beard, Andrew G Rundle
Most epidemiologic studies of physical activity measure either total energy expenditure or engagement in a single activity type, such as walking. These approaches may gloss over important nuances in activity patterns. We performed a latent transition analysis to identify patterns of activity types as well as neighborhood and individual determinants of changes in those activity patterns over two years in a cohort of 2,023 older adult residents of New York City, NY, surveyed between 2011 and 2013. We identified seven latent classes: 1) Mostly Inactive, 2) Walking, 3) Exercise, 4) Household Activities and Walking, 5) Household Activities and Exercise, 6) Gardening and Household Activities, and 7) Gardening, Household Activities, and Exercise...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761934/assessing-the-heterogeneity-of-autism-spectrum-symptoms-in-a-school-population
#10
Paula Morales-Hidalgo, Pere J Ferrando, Josefa Canals
The aim of the present study was to assess whether the nature of the main autistic features (i.e., social communication problems and repetitive and restrictive patterns) are better conceptualized as dimensional or categorical in a school population. The study was based on the teacher ratings of two different age groups: 2,585 children between the ages of 10 and 12 (Primary Education; PE) and 2,502 children between the ages of 3 and 5 (Nursery Education; NE) from 60 mainstream schools. The analyses were based on Factor Mixture Analysis, a novel approach that combines dimensional and categorical features and prevents spurious latent classes from appearing...
May 15, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761579/latent-class-analysis-differentiation-of-adjustment-disorder-and-demoralization-more-severe-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders-and-somatic-symptoms-in-patients-with-cancer
#11
I Bobevski, D W Kissane, S Vehling, D P McKenzie, H Glaesmer, A Mehnert
OBJECTIVES: Demoralization as a form of existential distress involves poor coping, low morale, hopelessness, helplessness and meaninglessness. In a secondary analysis of a cohort of German cancer patients, we aimed to explore latent class structure to assess the contribution that symptoms of demoralization make to anhedonic depression, anxiety, adjustment and somatic disorders. METHODS: Measures of demoralization, depression, anxiety, physical symptoms and functional impairment had been completed cross-sectionally by 1527 patients with early or advanced cancer...
May 14, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761569/cognitive-and-functional-progression-in-alzheimer-disease-a-prediction-model-of-latent-classes
#12
Miriam L Haaksma, Amaia Calderón-Larrañaga, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, René J F Melis, Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos
OBJECTIVE: We sought to replicate a previously published prediction model for progression, developed in the Cache County Dementia Progression Study, using a clinical cohort from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center. METHODS: We included 1120 incident Alzheimer disease (AD) cases with at least one assessment after diagnosis, originating from 31 AD centres from the United States. Trajectories of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating sum of boxes (CDR-sb) were modelled jointly over time using parallel-process growth mixture models in order to identify latent classes of trajectories...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759915/social-interaction-anxiety-and-personality-traits-predicting-engagement-in-health-risk-sexual-behaviors
#13
Ryan L Rahm-Knigge, Mark A Prince, Bradley T Conner
Individuals with social interaction anxiety, a facet of social anxiety disorder, withdraw from or avoid social encounters and generally avoid risks. However, a subset engages in health risk sexual behavior (HRSB). Because sensation seeking, emotion dysregulation, and impulsivity predict engagement in HRSB among adolescents and young adults, the present study hypothesized that latent classes of social interaction anxiety and these personality traits would differentially predict likelihood of engagement in HRSB...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754066/predicting-risky-health-behaviors-35-years-later-are-parents-or-teacher-s-reports-of-childhood-behavior-problems-a-better-judge-of-outcomes
#14
Jaimee Stuart
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to understand (1) whether parents and teachers reports of childhood behavioral problems could predict smoking and alcohol consumption 35 years later, and (2) whether propensity for smoking and alcohol consumption differed on the basis of informant agreement in their classification of behavioral syndromes. METHODS: Participants included those from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s study (ACONF) with full childhood information as well as self-reports in adulthood (n = 1342)...
May 4, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752248/psychobehavioral-profiles-to-assist-tailoring-of-interventions-for-patients-with-hypertension-latent-profile-analysis
#15
Rika Tanaka, Robert P Nolan
BACKGROUND: Practice guidelines advocate combining pharmacotherapy with lifestyle counseling for patients with hypertension. To allow for appropriate tailoring of interventions to meet individual patient needs, a comprehensive understanding of baseline patient characteristics is essential. However, few studies have empirically assessed behavioral profiles of hypertensive patients in Web-based lifestyle counseling programs. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this study were to (1) specify baseline psychobehavioral profiles of patients with hypertension who were enrolled in a Web-based lifestyle counseling trial, and (2) examine mean differences among the identified profile groups in demographics, psychological distress, self-reported self-care behaviors, physiological outcomes, and program engagement to determine prognostic implications...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752221/reprint-of-oasis-obesity-awareness-and-insight-scale
#16
Philip Gerretsen, Julia Kim, Parita Shah, Lena Quilty, Thushanthi Balakumar, Fernando Caravaggio, Eric Plitman, Jun Ku Chung, Yusuke Iwata, Bruce G Pollock, Satya Dash, Sanjeev Sockalingam, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
AIMS: Impaired illness awareness or not accepting that one has obesity is an understudied phenomenon that may negatively influence treatment adherence and clinical outcomes. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of available measures of obesity awareness, and subsequently develop and validate a novel scale that measures the core domains of obesity awareness. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature revealed no illness specific measure of subjective obesity awareness...
May 8, 2018: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752060/age-related-hearing-loss-and-its-association-with-depression-in-later-life
#17
Katharine K Brewster, Adam Ciarleglio, Patrick J Brown, Chen Chen, Hae-Ok Kim, Steven P Roose, Justin S Golub, Bret R Rutherford
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between age-related hearing loss (ARHL) and depressive symptoms in older adults over time. METHODS: Data from the Health Aging and Body Composition study (N = 3075, aged 70-79 at baseline) were used previously to conduct a longitudinal latent class analysis to evaluate depression trajectories (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression [CES-D] Scale) over 10 years. Restricting to the subset of subjects who had hearing information available (N = 1204), self-reported hearing categories were evaluated over the same period...
April 13, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751762/hiv-latency-reversing-agents-act-through-tat-post-translational-modifications
#18
Georges Khoury, Talia M Mota, Shuang Li, Carolin Tumpach, Michelle Y Lee, Jonathan Jacobson, Leigh Harty, Jenny L Anderson, Sharon R Lewin, Damian F J Purcell
BACKGROUND: Different classes of latency reversing agents (LRAs) are being evaluated to measure their effects in reactivating HIV replication from latently infected cells. A limited number of studies have demonstrated additive effects of LRAs with the viral protein Tat in initiating transcription, but less is known about how LRAs interact with Tat, particularly through basic residues that may be post-translationally modified to alter the behaviour of Tat for processive transcription and co-transcriptional RNA processing...
May 11, 2018: Retrovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749297/health-behavior-related-indicator-of-lifestyle-application-in-the-elsa-brasil-study
#19
Ana Luísa Patrão, Maria-da-Conceição C Almeida, Sheila Alvim, Dora Chor, Estela M L Aquino
Various behaviors are considered health enhancing. Nevertheless, according to the current scientific literature, four health behaviors are considered particularly risky in view of their association with a group of chronic diseases: 1) smoking; 2) excessive alcohol consumption; 3) poor diet; and 4) lack of physical activity. Theoretically, it should be possible to make improvements to one's health by maximizing the number of healthy behaviors and minimizing the unhealthy ones. However, in reality, the different behaviors interconnect to create more complex lifestyles...
May 1, 2018: Global Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748737/psychosocial-risks-for-constipation-and-soiling-in-primary-school-children
#20
Carol Joinson, Mariusz T Grzeda, Alexander von Gontard, Jon Heron
To examine prospective associations between psychosocial problems and childhood constipation and soiling. We used latent classes of constipation and soiling ('constipation alone', 'soiling alone', 'constipation with soiling') extracted from longitudinal maternally reported data on constipation (4-10 years) and soiling (4-9 years) from 8435 children (4353 males, 4082 females) from the ALSPAC cohort. We examined the association between maternally reported psychosocial problems at 2-3 years (difficult temperament, behaviour/emotional problems, temper tantrums, behavioural sleep problems and stressful events) and the latent classes using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for a range of confounders relating to the child and family (reference category = normative latent class with very low probability of constipation/soiling)...
May 10, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
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