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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910515/proton-pinhole-imaging-on-the-national-ignition-facility
#1
A B Zylstra, H-S Park, J S Ross, F Fiuza, J A Frenje, D P Higginson, C Huntington, C K Li, R D Petrasso, B Pollock, B Remington, H G Rinderknecht, D Ryutov, F H Séguin, D Turnbull, S C Wilks
Pinhole imaging of large (mm scale) carbon-deuterium (CD) plasmas by proton self-emission has been used for the first time to study the microphysics of shock formation, which is of astrophysical relevance. The 3 MeV deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion proton self-emission from these plasmas is imaged using a novel pinhole imaging system, with up to five different 1 mm diameter pinholes positioned 25 cm from target-chamber center. CR39 is used as the detector medium, positioned at 100 cm distance from the pinhole for a magnification of 4 ×...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910513/spatial-resolution-of-a-spherical-x-ray-crystal-spectrometer-at-various-magnifications
#2
Lan Gao, K W Hill, M Bitter, P C Efthimion, L Delgado-Aparicio, N A Pablant, E O Baronova, N R Pereira
A high spatial resolution of a few μm is often required for probing small-scale high-energy-density plasmas using high resolution x-ray imaging spectroscopy. This resolution can be achieved by adjusting system magnification to overcome the inherent limitation of the detector pixel size. Laboratory experiments on investigating the relation between spatial resolution and system magnification for a spherical crystal spectrometer are presented. Tungsten Lβ2 rays from a tungsten-target micro-focus x-ray tube were diffracted by a Ge 440 crystal, which was spherically bent to a radius of 223 mm, and imaged onto an x-ray CCD with 13-μm pixel size...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910507/the-progress-in-development-of-edge-tangential-thomson-scattering-system-on-hl-2a-tokamak
#3
C H Liu, Y Huang, Y Q Wang, Z Feng, Z P Hou, B Z Fu
The edge tangential Thomson scattering system (ETTSS) was developed for the first time on a HL-2A tokamak. A Nd:YAG laser with a 1064 nm wavelength, 4 J energy, and 30 Hz repetition rate is employed on the ETTSS. The laser beam injects the plasma in the tangential direction on the mid-plane of the machine, and the angles between the laser injection direction and the scattered light collection direction are in the range from 157.5° to 162.8°. The scattered light collection optics with 0.21-0.47 magnification is utilized to collect the scattered light of measurement range from R = 1900 mm to 2100 mm (the normalized radius is from r/a = 0...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910489/resolving-hot-spot-microstructure-using-x-ray-penumbral-imaging-invited
#4
B Bachmann, T Hilsabeck, J Field, N Masters, C Reed, T Pardini, J R Rygg, N Alexander, L R Benedetti, T Döppner, A Forsman, N Izumi, S LePape, T Ma, A G MacPhee, S Nagel, P Patel, B Spears, O L Landen
We have developed and fielded x-ray penumbral imaging on the National Ignition Facility in order to enable sub-10 μm resolution imaging of stagnated plasma cores (hot spots) of spherically shock compressed spheres and shell implosion targets. By utilizing circular tungsten and tantalum apertures with diameters ranging from 20 μm to 2 mm, in combination with image plate and gated x-ray detectors as well as imaging magnifications ranging from 4 to 64, we have demonstrated high-resolution imaging of hot spot plasmas at x-ray energies above 5 keV...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910486/a-high-spatio-temporal-resolution-optical-pyrometer-at-the-orion-laser-facility
#5
Emma Floyd, Edward T Gumbrell, Jim Fyrth, James D Luis, Jonathan W Skidmore, Siddharth Patankar, Samuel Giltrap, Roland Smith
A streaked pyrometer has been designed to measure the temperature of ≈100 μm diameter heated targets in the warm dense matter region. The diagnostic has picosecond time resolution. Spatial resolution is limited by the streak camera to 4 μm in one dimension; the imaging system has superior resolution of 1 μm. High light collection efficiency means that the diagnostic can transmit a measurable quantity of thermal emission at temperatures as low as 1 eV to the detector. This is achieved through the use of an f/1...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910471/the-national-ignition-facility-modular-kirkpatrick-baez-microscope
#6
L A Pickworth, J Ayers, P Bell, N F Brejnholt, J G Buscho, D Bradley, T Decker, S Hau-Riege, J Kilkenny, T McCarville, T Pardini, J Vogel, C Walton
Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ∼10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908838/pain-related-rumination-but-not-magnification-or-helplessness-mediates-race-and-sex-differences-in-experimental-pain
#7
Samantha M Meints, Madison Stout, Samuel Abplanalp, Adam T Hirsh
: Compared to White individuals and men, Black individuals and women demonstrate a lower tolerance for experimental pain stimuli. Previous studies suggest that pain catastrophizing is important in this context, but little is known about which components of catastrophizing contribute to these race and sex differences. The purpose of the current study was to examine the individual components of catastrophizing (rumination, magnification, and helplessness) as candidate mediators of race and sex differences in experimental pain tolerance...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908059/parameter-study-of-time-delay-magnification-in-a-biologically-inspired-mechanically-coupled-acoustic-sensor-array
#8
Ming Yang, Xinlei Zhu, Yaqiong Zhang, Na Ta, Zhushi Rao
Sound source localization uses interaural time difference (ITD) or interaural intensity difference cues, and most of the methods based on ITD are limited by the aperture of array. However, a kind of parasitoid fly called Ormia ochracea with coupled ears has a remarkable ability to localize calling of crickets regardless of the fly's small body size. The structure of fly's ear is generalized, and a multi-dimensional coupled system with an acoustic sensor array is proposed. The magnification factor of the phase difference in this system, which can be used to describe the ITD changes of signals from the coupled system, is chosen as the kernel parameter to measure the effect of coupling...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906140/management-of-citrus-waste-by-switching-in-the-production-of-nanocellulose
#9
Sania Naz, Naveed Ahmad, Javeed Akhtar, Nasir Mehmood Ahmad, Attarad Ali, Muhammad Zia
Citrus fruit processing industries produce a vast quantity of waste materials as peel and pulp that are not handled properly. In present study, waste generated from citrus has been used for extraction of cellulose and nanocellulose. The aggregated cellulose, derived after alkaline treatment, was acid hydrolysed; resulted in reduction of the size of cellulose fibre. The cellulose showed amorphous structure revealed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy analysis explained densely packed structure of nanocellulose...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905282/distribution-of-parasites-detected-in-stool-samples-of-patients-admitted-to-our-parasitology-laboratory-during-a-three-year-period-between-2012-and-2014
#10
Mehmet Burak Selek, Bayhan Bektöre, Ergenekon Karagöz, Orhan Baylan, Mustafa Özyurt
OBJECTIVE: Parasitic diseases are among the major public health issues worldwide. A number of tests are available for diagnosis, but the sentivity and specifity of these tests are assumed to be insufficient. Nevertheless, the most common diagnostic method is microscopic examination. In this study, we aimed to introduce the distribution of parasites detected in stool samples of patients admitted to our laboratory on the basis of parameters such as, age, and gender during a 3-year period between 2012 and 2014...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904180/evaluation-of-clinical-significance-of-dermoscopy-in-alopecia-areata
#11
Akhila Sai Guttikonda, Chintaginjala Aruna, D V S B Ramamurthy, K Sridevi, Senthil Kumar L Alagappan
BACKGROUND: Alopecia areata (AA) is a common, chronic inflammatory disease characterized by nonscarring hair loss on the scalp or any hair-bearing area of the body. Recently, dermoscopy, a noninvasive diagnostic procedure, has been employed for the diagnosis of AA. AIM: To evaluate various dermoscopic patterns in AA and correlate these patterns with the disease activity and severity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dermoscopy was performed on AA patients using DL1 dermoscope (magnification ×10 was used)...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900943/collagen-type-iii-glomerulopathy-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#12
Xinghua Chen, Huiming Wang, Wanwen Xu, Jili Zhu
To summarize the clinical and pathological features of collagen type III glomerulopathy, the present report describes a case of collagen type III glomerulopathy and reviewed more than 60 cases recorded by other groups in English literature over the last few years. A 24-year-old female patient was admitted because of lower limbs edema, without any other discomforts. The lab examination of the patient reported proteinuria (2.42 g/24 h urine), microscopic hematuria, and the serum creatinine was 71 μmol/L. She received renal biopsy...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899041/electromagnetic-and-electrohydraulic-shock-wave-lithotripsy-induced-urothelial-damage-is-there-a-difference
#13
Mahmoud Mustafa, Honood Aburas, Fatema Helo, Laila Qarawi
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the acute effect of electromagnetic and electrohydraulic extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) on the urothelial layers of kidney and ureter. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients (29 males (58%), 21 females (42%), with average age 51.68 years (range: 37-70) who underwent SWL application in two different centers were included. Twenty-eight patients (56%) were treated with electrohydraulic and 22 (44%) were treated with electromagnetic lithotripsy...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896975/computer-aided-image-segmentation-and-classification-for-viable-and-non-viable-tumor-identification-in-osteosarcoma
#14
Harish Babu Arunachalam, Rashika Mishra, Bogdan Armaselu, Ovidiu Daescu, Maria Martinez, Patrick Leavey, Dinesh Rakheja, Kevin Cederberg, Anita Sengupta, Molly Ni'suilleabhain
Osteosarcoma is one of the most common types of bone cancer in children. To gauge the extent of cancer treatment response in the patient after surgical resection, the H&E stained image slides are manually evaluated by pathologists to estimate the percentage of necrosis, a time consuming process prone to observer bias and inaccuracy. Digital image analysis is a potential method to automate this process, thus saving time and providing a more accurate evaluation. The slides are scanned in Aperio Scanscope, converted to digital Whole Slide Images (WSIs) and stored in SVS format...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894916/reliability-of-extended-dorsal-intercostal-artery-perforator-propeller-flaps-for-reconstruction-of-large-myelomeningocele-defects
#15
Goktekin Tenekeci, Yavuz Basterzi
Reconstruction of large myelomeningocele defects using extended (elongated beyond the lateral margin of the latissimus dorsi muscle) dorsal intercostal artery perforator (DICAP) propeller flaps is not recommended by previous studies. However, to provide tension-free and successful closure of a defect, the DICAP propeller flaps must sometimes be elongated beyond this margin. Our experience and results in this issue are discussed. In this article, reconstruction of 11 consecutive cases, with large myelomeningocele defects in which standard DICAP propeller flaps were incapable to close the defect, was achieved using extended DICAP propeller flaps between June 2013 and November 2015...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893523/variable-size-bead-layer-as-standard-reference-for-endothelial-microscopes
#16
Simona Tufo, Erica Prazzoli, Lorenzo Ferraro, Federica Cozza, Alessandro Borghesi, Silvia Tavazzi
PURPOSE: For morphometric analysis of the cell mosaic of corneal endothelium, checking accuracy and precision of instrumentation is a key step. In this study, a standard reference sample is proposed, developed to reproduce the cornea with its shape and the endothelium with its intrinsic variability in the cell size. METHODS: A polystyrene bead layer (representing the endothelium) was deposited on a lens (representing the cornea). Bead diameters were 20, 25, and 30 μm (fractions in number 55%, 30%, and 15%, respectively)...
November 23, 2016: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885713/a-new-tool-to-quantify-the-geometrical-characteristics-of-facial-skin-pores-changes-with-age-and-a-making-up-procedure-in-caucasian-women
#17
A Shaiek, F Flament, G François, V Lefebvre-Descamps, C Barla, M Vicic, F Giron, R Bazin
BACKGROUND: Facial skin pores (FSP) are common and benign signs that generate frequent esthetic concerns or complaints. Despite their worldwide prevalence, related literature remains scarce. Hence, a new device has been developed and applied to validating studies, aiming at best describing FSP as they are self-perceived, i.e. their anatomic features, their possible alterations with age and their appearance after application of a make-up product. METHODS: Dermascore+(®) is an imaging device dedicated to a direct observation and acquisition of various characteristics of the skin surface...
November 25, 2016: Skin Research and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875911/identification-of-the-optimal-visual-recording-system-in-open-abdominal-surgery-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
D P O'Leary, E Deering-McCarthy, D McGrath, D Walsh, J C Coffey
INTRODUCTION: Current methodologies used to record and render the surgeon's point of view in open operative surgery remain limited. Chief among these limitations is a failure to demonstrate, in high definition and magnification, the planar roadmap that surgeons utilise in colorectal surgery. The high magnification and high resolution views provided during laparoscopic surgery simultaneously capture the planar road map and surgeon's point of view. We developed an arm-mounted external laparoscope (exoscope) system and compared its performance against multiple standard recording modalities...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visual Communication in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869499/capsaicinoids-improve-egg-production-by-regulating-ovary-nuclear-transcription-factors-against-heat-stress-in-quail
#19
N Sahin, C Orhan, M Tuzcu, V Juturu, K Sahin
1. To examine the molecular mechanism of capsaicinoid supplementation from Capsicum extract, laying Japanese quail (n=180, 5 weeks old) were reared either at 22(o)C for 24 h/d (thermoneutral, TN) or 34(o)C for 8 h/d (heat stress, HS) and fed on one of three diets containing 0, 25 or 50 mg of capsaicinoids per kg for 12 weeks (2x3 factorial arrangement). 2. The results revealed that exposure to HS decreased feed consumption by 10.7% and egg production by 13.6%, increased serum and ovary malondialdehyde (MDA) levels by 66...
November 21, 2016: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867708/in-vivo-volumetric-fluorescence-sectioning-microscopy-with-mechanical-scan-free-hybrid-illumination-imaging
#20
Chen-Yen Lin, Wei-Hsin Lin, Ju-Hsuan Chien, Jui-Chang Tsai, Yuan Luo
Optical sectioning microscopy in wide-field fashion has been widely used to obtain three-dimensional images of biological samples; however, it requires scanning in depth and considerable time to acquire multiple depth information of a volumetric sample. In this paper, in vivo optical sectioning microscopy with volumetric hybrid illumination, with no mechanical moving parts, is presented. The proposed system is configured such that the optical sectioning is provided by hybrid illumination using a digital micro-mirror device (DMD) for uniform and non-uniform pattern projection, while the depth of imaging planes is varied by using an electrically tunable-focus lens with invariant magnification and resolution...
October 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
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