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cancer chemotherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230534/knockdown-of-antiapoptotic-genes-in-breast-cancer-cells-by-sirna-loaded-into-hybrid-nanoparticles
#1
Leônidas Mello Júnior, Gabriela Rosa E Souza, Evelyn Winter, Adny Henrique Silva, Frederico Pittella, Tânia Beatriz Creczynski-Pasa
Tumorigenesis is related to an imbalance in controlling mechanisms of apoptosis. Expression of the genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL results in promotion of cell survival by inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, a novel approach to suppress antiapoptotic genes is the use of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in cancer cells. However, there are some limitations for the application of siRNA such as low bioavailability, requiring vectors as a strategy to achieve the nucleic acid transfection. In this study formulations containing CaP-siRNA-PEG-polyanion hybrid nanoparticles were developed to enhance siRNA delivery to cultured human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) in order to evaluate if the silencing of antiapoptotic genes BCL-2 and BCL-xL by siRNA would succeed in increasing cancer cells death...
February 23, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227433/microprinted-tumor-spheroids-enable-anti-cancer-drug-screening
#2
Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Pradip S Thakuri, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana, Stephanie L Ham, Hossein Tavana
Spheroids present a biologically relevant model of avascular tumors and a unique tool for discovery of anti-cancer drugs. Despite being used in research laboratories for several decades, spheroids are not routinely used for drug discovery primarily due to the difficulty of mass-producing uniformly-sized spheroids and intense labor involved in handling, drug treatment, and analyzing them. We overcome this barrier using a novel technology to robotically microprint spheroids in standard 384-well plates. An aqueous drop containing cancer cells is dispensed into a bath of a second, immiscible aqueous phase...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226244/molecularly-organic-inorganic-hybrid-hollow-mesoporous-organosilica-nanocapsules-with-tumor-specific-biodegradability-and-enhanced-chemotherapeutic-functionality
#3
Ping Huang, Yu Chen, Han Lin, Luodan Yu, Linlin Zhang, Liying Wang, Yufang Zhu, Jianlin Shi
Based on the intrinsic features of high stability and unique multifunctionality, inorganic nanoparticles have shown remarkable potentials in combating cancer, but their biodegradability and biocompatibility are still under debate. As a paradigm, this work successfully demonstrates that framework organic-inorganic hybridization can endow the inorganic mesoporous silica nanocarriers with unique tumor-sensitive biodegradability and high biocompatibility. Based on a "chemical homology" mechanism, molecularly organic-inorganic hybridized hollow mesoporous organosilica nanocapsules (HMONs) with high dispersity and sub-50 nm particle dimension were constructed in mass production...
February 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225974/do-you-know-this-syndrome-hand-foot-syndrome
#4
Cintia Santos Braghiroli, Rodrigo Ieiri, Juliana Polizel Ocanha, Rafael Bispo Paschoalini, Hélio Amante Miot
Hand-foot syndrome is a common cutaneous adverse effect associated with certain systemic chemotherapy drugs. It is characterized by erythema, edema, and burning sensation, especially over palmoplantar surfaces. We report the case of an elderly patient undergoing chemotherapy after a breast cancer surgery who developed symptoms two months after the start of the regimen. There are no studies that explore specific therapies. Suggestive therapy include reducing agent dosage, increasing the interval between cycles, or even stopping chemotherapy...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225139/redox-and-light-responsive-alginate-nanoparticles-as-effective-drug-carriers-for-combinational-anticancer-therapy
#5
Chuangnian Zhang, Gaona Shi, Ju Zhang, Jinfeng Niu, Pingsheng Huang, Zhihong Wang, Yanming Wang, Weiwei Wang, Chen Li, Deling Kong
Nanoparticles have been extensively explored as effective means to deliver chemotherapeutic agents or photosensitizers for chemotherapy or photodynamic therapy (PDT) against cancer. In the present work, pheophorbide A (PheoA), a hydrophobic photosensitizer, was conjugated via a redox-sensitive disulfide linkage to alginate (PheoA-ALG). Anticancer agent, doxorubicin (DOX), was also loaded within the PheoA-ALG nanoparticles (DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs) and used as drug carriers for combinational antitumor treatment. The DOX/PheoA-ALG NPs were spherical in shape with a uniform diameter of approximately 210 nm...
February 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225086/uvrag-deficiency-exacerbates-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#6
Lin An, Xiao-Wen Hu, Shasha Zhang, Xiaowen Hu, Zongpei Song, Amber Naz, Zhenguo Zi, Jian Wu, Can Li, Yunzeng Zou, Lin He, Hongxin Zhu
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective chemotherapeutic drug in the treatment of various types of cancers. However, its clinical application has been largely limited by potential development of cardiotoxicity. Previously we have shown that ultra-violet radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), an autophagy-related protein, is essential for the maintenance of autophagic flux in the heart under physiological conditions. Here, we sought to determine the role of UVRAG-mediated autophagy in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223821/asparaginyl-endopeptidase-improves-the-resistance-of-microtubule-targeting-drugs-in-gastric-cancer-through-iqgap1-modulating-the-egfr-jnk-erk-signaling-pathway
#7
Yuehong Cui, Qian Li, Hong Li, Yan Wang, Hongshan Wang, Weidong Chen, Shangmin Zhang, Jian Cao, Tianshu Liu
PURPOSE: In recent years, understanding of the role of asparaginyl endopeptidase (AEP) in tumorigenesis has steadily increased. In this study, we investigated whether AEP expression correlates with sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs in gastric cancer and explored the mechanism. PATIENTS AND METHODS: AEP expression in the serum of patients' peripheral blood was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Patient survival time was evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223815/antitumor-effects-of-oncolytic-herpes-simplex-virus-type-2-against-colorectal-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#8
Lei Yin, Chunhong Zhao, Jixia Han, Zengjun Li, Yanan Zhen, Ruixue Xiao, Zhongfa Xu, Yanlai Sun
BACKGROUND: The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on the rise. Furthermore, late-stage diagnoses and limited efficacious treatment options make CRC a complex clinical challenge. Therefore, a new therapeutic regimen with a completely novel therapeutic mechanism is necessary for CRC. In the present study, the therapeutic efficacy of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 2 (oHSV2) in CRC was assessed in vitro and in vivo. oHSV2 is an oncolytic agent derived from herpes simplex virus type 2 that encodes granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223694/combination-of-ruthenium-ii-arene-complex-ru-%C3%AE-6-p-cymene-cl2-pta-rapta-c-and-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitor-erlotinib-results-in-efficient-angiostatic-and-antitumor-activity
#9
Robert H Berndsen, Andrea Weiss, U Kulsoom Abdul, Tse J Wong, Patrick Meraldi, Arjan W Griffioen, Paul J Dyson, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223691/cellular-glycosylation-affects-herceptin-binding-and-sensitivity-of-breast-cancer-cells-to-doxorubicin-and-growth-factors
#10
Diluka Peiris, Alexander F Spector, Hannah Lomax-Browne, Tayebeh Azimi, Bala Ramesh, Marilena Loizidou, Hazel Welch, Miriam V Dwek
Alterations in protein glycosylation are a key feature of oncogenesis and have been shown to affect cancer cell behaviour perturbing cell adhesion, favouring cell migration and metastasis. This study investigated the effect of N-linked glycosylation on the binding of Herceptin to HER2 protein in breast cancer and on the sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DXR) and growth factors (EGF and IGF-1). The interaction between Herceptin and recombinant HER2 protein and cancer cell surfaces (on-rate/off-rate) was assessed using a quartz crystal microbalance biosensor revealing an increase in the accessibility of HER2 to Herceptin following deglycosylation of cell membrane proteins (deglycosylated cells Bmax: 6...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223166/efficacy-of-photochemical-internalisation-using-disulfonated-chlorin-and-porphyrin-photosensitisers-an-in-vitro-study-in-2d-and-3d-prostate-cancer-models
#11
Alejandra Martinez de Pinillos Bayona, Josephine H Woodhams, Hayley Pye, Rifat A Hamoudi, Caroline M Moore, Alexander J MacRobert
This study shows the therapeutic outcome of Photochemical Internalisation (PCI) in prostate cancer in vitro surpasses that of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) and could improve prostate PDT in the clinic, whilst avoiding chemotherapeutics side effects. In addition, the study assesses the potential of PCI with two different photosensitisers (TPCS2a and TPPS2a) in prostate cancer cells (human PC3 and rat MatLyLu) using standard 2D monolayer culture and 3D biomimetic model. Photosensitisers were used alone for photodynamic therapy (PDT) or with the cytotoxin saporin (PCI)...
February 18, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223142/glucose-capped-silver-nanoparticles-induce-cell-cycle-arrest-in-hela-cells
#12
Elisa Panzarini, Stefania Mariano, Cristian Vergallo, Elisabetta Carata, Gian Maria Fimia, Francesco Mura, Marco Rossi, Viviana Vergaro, Giuseppe Ciccarella, Marco Corazzari, Luciana Dini
This study aims to determine the interaction (uptake and biological effects on cell viability and cell cycle progression) of glucose capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs-G) on human epithelioid cervix carcinoma (HeLa) cells, in relation to amount, 2×10(3) or 2×10(4) NPs/cell, and exposure time, up to 48h. The spherical and well dispersed AgNPs (30±5nm) were obtained by using glucose as reducing agent in a green synthesis method that ensures to stabilize AgNPs avoiding cytotoxic soluble silver ions Ag(+) release...
February 18, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222666/dynamic-tracing-for-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutations-in-urinary-circulating-dna-in-gastric-cancer-patients
#13
Xiu-Qin Shi, Wen-Hua Xue, Song-Feng Zhao, Xiao-Jian Zhang, Wukong Sun
The mutations of epidermal growth factor receptor are detected in gastric cancer, indicating its suitability as a target for receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, as well as a marker for clinical outcome of chemotherapeutic treatments. However, extraction of quality tumor tissue for molecular processes remains challenging. Here, we aimed to examine the clinical relevance of urinary cell-free DNA as an alternative tumor material source used specifically for monitoring epidermal growth factor receptor mutations...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222467/design-and-synthesis-of-new-1-3-4-oxadiazole-benzothiazole-and-hydrazone-derivatives-as-promising-chemotherapeutic-agents
#14
Betül Kaya, Weiam Hussin, Leyla Yurttaş, Gülhan Turan-Zitouni, Hülya Karaca Gençer, Merve Baysal, Abdullah Burak Karaduman, Zafer Asim Kaplancıklı
Looking for new cytotoxic and antimicrobial agents with improved antitumor activity, a series of hydrazide and oxadiazole derivatives were designed and synthesized using 3-methoxyphenol as starting substance. Novel N'-(arylidene)-2-(3-methoxyphenoxy)acetohydrazide derivatives (4a-f)/1-(4-substitutedphenyl)-2-[(5-[(3-methoxyphenoxy)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio]ethan-1-one derivatives (6a-f)/N-(6-substitutedbenzothiazol-2-yl)-2-[(5-[(3-methoxyphenoxy)methyl]-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)thio]acetamide derivatives (7a-e) were obtained and evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against various gram-positive, gram-negative bacteria and fungi...
February 21, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220885/cancer-cell-mitochondria-targeting-by-pancratistatin-analogs-is-dependent-on-functional-complex-ii-and-iii
#15
Dennis Ma, Christopher Pignanelli, Daniel Tarade, Tyler Gilbert, Megan Noel, Fadi Mansour, Scott Adams, Alexander Dowhayko, Kyle Stokes, Sergey Vshyvenko, Tomas Hudlicky, James McNulty, Siyaram Pandey
Enhanced mitochondrial stability and decreased dependence on oxidative phosphorylation confer an acquired resistance to apoptosis in cancer cells, but may present opportunities for therapeutic intervention. The compound pancratistatin (PST) has been shown to selectively induce apoptosis in cancer cells. However, its low availability in nature has hindered its clinical advancement. We synthesized PST analogs and a medium-throughput screen was completed. Analogs SVTH-7, -6, and -5 demonstrated potent anti-cancer activity greater than PST and several standard chemotherapeutics...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220831/the-distribution-of-the-apparent-diffusion-coefficient-as-an-indicator-of-the-response-to-chemotherapeutics-in-ovarian-tumour-xenografts
#16
Monique C Tourell, Ali Shokoohmand, Marietta Landgraf, Nina P Holzapfel, Patrina S P Poh, Daniela Loessner, Konstantin I Momot
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) was used to evaluate the effects of single-agent and combination treatment regimens in a spheroid-based animal model of ovarian cancer. Ovarian tumour xenografts grown in non-obese diabetic/severe-combined-immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice were treated with carboplatin or paclitaxel, or combination carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy regimens. After 4 weeks of treatment, tumours were extracted and underwent DW-MRI, mechanical testing, immunohistochemical and gene expression analyses...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219046/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-novel-pyrazolic-chalcone-derivatives-as-novel-hepatocellular-carcinoma-therapeutics
#17
Mohammed M A Hawash, Deniz Cansen Kahraman, Fikriye Eren, Rengul Cetin Atalay, Sultan Nacak Baytas
Despite having the second highest mortality associated with cancer, currently Sorafenib is the only FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agent available for liver cancer patients which can only improve survival for few months. In this study, various pyrazolic chalcone analogous compounds were synthesized and evaluated as potential chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Modifying the central pyrazole ring at the C(3)-position with different heteroaryl rings and substituting the C(4)-position of pyrazole with differently substituted chalcone moiety produced fouthy two variant compounds...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218672/photodynamic-synergistic-effect-of-pheophorbide-a-and-doxorubicin-in-combined-treatment-against-tumoral-cells
#18
Rubén Ruiz-González, Paula Milán, Roger Bresolí-Obach, Juan Carlos Stockert, Angeles Villanueva, Magdalena Cañete, Santi Nonell
A combination of therapies to treat cancer malignancies is at the forefront of research with the aim to reduce drug doses (ultimately side effects) and diminish the possibility of resistance emergence given the multitarget strategy. With this goal in mind, in the present study, we report the combination between the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (DOXO) and the photosensitizing agent pheophorbide a (PhA) to inactivate HeLa cells. Photophysical studies revealed that DOXO can quench the excited states of PhA, detracting from its photosensitizing ability...
February 17, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218497/chemotherapy-induces-tumor-immune-evasion-by-upregulation-of-programmed-cell-death-ligand%C3%A2-1-expression-in-bone-marrow-stromal-cells
#19
Mengqi Yang, Panpan Liu, Kefeng Wang, Christophe Glorieux, Yumin Hu, Shijun Wen, Wenqi Jiang, Peng Huang
Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a negative regulator of the immune response that enables tumor cells to escape T-cell immunity. Although PD-L1 expression in cancer cells has been extensively studied, the expression of PD-L1 in stromal cells and its clinical significance remain largely unknown. Here, we show that bone marrow stromal cells express a low level of PD-L1 and that this molecule is significantly upregulated by key drugs used in the treatment of lymphoma at clinically relevant concentrations...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218036/chemopreventive-effect-of-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-atorvastatin-in-rats-with-bladder-cancer
#20
Nahla E El-Ashmawy, Eman G Khedr, Hoda A El-Bahrawy, Samar M Al-Tantawy
Bladder cancer remains a huge concern for the medical community because of its incidence and prevalence rates, as well as high percentage of recurrence and progression. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and atorvastatin proved anti-inflammatory effects through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma mechanism. However, their chemopreventive effect still remained to be examined and clarified. In this study, bladder cancer was induced in rats by the chemical carcinogen N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl)nitrosamine...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
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