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cancer chemotherapeutics

Maria Mrakovcic, Leopold F Fröhlich
Autophagy is an indispensable mechanism of the eukaryotic cell, facilitating the removal and renewal of cellular components and thereby balancing the cell's energy consumption and homeostasis. Deregulation of autophagy is now regarded as one of the characteristic key features contributing to the development of tumors. In recent years, the suppression of autophagy in combination with chemotherapeutic treatment has been approached as a novel therapy in cancer treatment. However, depending on the type of cancer and context, interference with the autophagic machinery can either promote or disrupt tumorigenesis...
March 21, 2018: Biomolecules
Wei Wang, Dong Xing, Yingjian Song, Feiyu Liu
BACKGROUND: Esophageal cancer is one of the worst malignant digestive neoplasms with poor treatment outcomes. Definitive concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT) has become the standard nonsurgical treatment option for locally advanced esophageal cancer. The chemotherapeutic drugs 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin have been most commonly used in CRT of esophageal cancer. However, radiotherapy combined with 5-FU/cisplatin often delivers severe toxicity to patients. S-1 as an oral chemotherapeutic drug exhibits higher anti-tumor activity, less adverse effects, and better biological availability...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Soodabeh Davaran, Hamed Fazeli, Aliyeh Ghamkhari, Fariborz Rahimi, Ommoleila Molavi, Maryam Anzabi, Roya Salehi
A Novel poly [2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-Lactide-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate quaternary ammonium alkyl halide] [P(HEMA-LA-MADQUAT)] copolymer was synthesized through combination of ring opening polymerization (ROP) and 'free' radical initiated polymerization methods. This newly developed copolymer was fully characterized by FT-IR,1 HNMR and13 CNMR spectroscopy. Micellization of the copolymer was performed by dialysis membrane method and obtained micelles were characterized by FESEM, dynamic light scattering (DLS), zeta potential (ξ), and critical micelle concentration (CMC) measurements...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Sudipta Senapati, Arun Kumar Mahanta, Sunil Kumar, Pralay Maiti
Although conventional chemotherapy has been successful to some extent, the main drawbacks of chemotherapy are its poor bioavailability, high-dose requirements, adverse side effects, low therapeutic indices, development of multiple drug resistance, and non-specific targeting. The main aim in the development of drug delivery vehicles is to successfully address these delivery-related problems and carry drugs to the desired sites of therapeutic action while reducing adverse side effects. In this review, we will discuss the different types of materials used as delivery vehicles for chemotherapeutic agents and their structural characteristics that improve the therapeutic efficacy of their drugs and will describe recent scientific advances in the area of chemotherapy, emphasizing challenges in cancer treatments...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Ya Liu, Jie Huang, Wen Li, Yujuan Chen, Xuejuan Liu, Jing Wang
Objective: The prognostic value of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phospho-STAT3 in breast cancer remains controversial in heterogeneous. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate STAT3 and phospho-STAT3 expression on the prognosis of breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Embase, Web of Science, Chinese CNKI, and Wan Fang were searched up to 19th June 2017. Studies which investigated the STAT3 or phospho-STAT3 expression of patients with breast cancer on the basis of patient survival data or survival curve were eligible...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Inge C Van Gool, Emily Rayner, Elisabeth M Osse, Remi A Nout, Carien L Creutzberg, Ian Tomlinson, David N Church, Vincent T H B M Smit, Niels de Wind, Tjalling Bosse, Mark Drost
PURPOSE: Pathogenic POLE proofreading domain mutations are found in many malignancies where they are associated with ultramutation and favorable prognosis. The extent to which this prognosis depends on their sensitivity to adjuvant treatment is unknown, as is the optimal therapy for advanced-staged or recurrent POLE-mutant cancers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We examined the recurrence-free survival of women with POLE-mutant and POLE-wild-type endometrial cancers (ECs) in the observation arm of the randomized PORTEC-1 EC trial (N=245 patients with stage I EC for analysis)...
March 20, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Sana Hibino, Shunsuke Chikuma, Taisuke Kondo, Minako Ito, Hiroko Nakatsukasa, Setsuko Omata-Mise, Akihiko Yoshimura
Enhanced infiltration of regulatory T (Treg) cells into tumor tissue is detrimental to cancer patients and closely associated with poor prognosis as they create an immunosuppressive state that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses. Therefore, breaking Treg-mediated immune tolerance is important when considering cancer immunotherapy. Here we show that the Nr4a nuclear receptors, key transcription factors maintaining Treg cell genetic programs, contribute to Treg-mediated suppression of anti-tumor immunity in the tumor microenvironment...
March 20, 2018: Cancer Research
Gabriela Basile Carballo, Jéssica Ribeiro Honorato, Giselle Pinto Farias de Lopes, Tania Cristina Leite de Sampaio E Spohr
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an essential role during vertebrate embryonic development and tumorigenesis. It is already known that Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway is important for the evolution of radio and chemo-resistance of several types of tumors. Most of the brain tumors are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, consequently, they have a poor prognosis. So, a better knowledge of the Shh pathway opens an opportunity for targeted therapies against brain tumors considering a multi-factorial molecular overview...
March 20, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Garcia-Chagollan Mariel, Carranza-Torres Irma Edith, Carranza-Rosales Pilar, Guzmán-Delgado Nancy Elena, Ramírez-Montoya Humberto, Martínez-Silva María Guadalupe, Mariscal-Ramirez Ignacio, Barrón-Gallardo Carlos Alfredo, Pereira-Suárez Ana Laura, Aguilar-Lemarroy Adriana, Jave-Suárez Luis Felipe
BACKGROUND: Currently, one of the most used strategies for the treatment of newly diagnosed patients with breast cancer is neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on the application of taxanes and anthracyclines. However, despite the high number of patients who develop a complete pathological clinical response, resistance and relapse following this therapy continue to be a clinical challenge. As a component of the innate immune system, the cytotoxic function of Natural Killer (NK) cells plays an important role in the elimination of tumor cells...
January 1, 2018: Technology in Cancer Research & Treatment
Viviana Izzo, Bruno Charlier, Elena Bloise, Marine Pingeon, Marianna Romano, Antonietta Finelli, Alfonso Vietri, Valeria Conti, Valentina Manzo, Maria Alfieri, Amelia Filippelli, Fabrizio Dal Piaz
Exposure of healthcare workers to anticancer drugs requires the combined action of environmental and biological monitoring to assess the effective level of exposure to these chemicals, to improve awareness and to avoid adverse health effects on this category of workers. Cancer chemotherapeutic drugs show different mechanisms of action due to diverse chemical structures; consequently, they differ in hydrophobicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Therefore, the appearance, accumulation and elimination of each of these molecules in body fluids and tissues might be extremely variable; this prompts the need for a rapid and versatile analytical protocol for the biological monitoring of possible exposure of workers involved in the manipulation, administration and disposal of cancer chemotherapeutic drugs...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Hee Kyoung Kang, Moon-Chang Choi, Chang Ho Seo, Yoonkyung Park
Various organisms exist in the oceanic environment. These marine organisms provide an abundant source of potential medicines. Many marine peptides possess anticancer properties, some of which have been evaluated for treatment of human cancer in clinical trials. Marine anticancer peptides kill cancer cells through different mechanisms, such as apoptosis, disruption of the tubulin-microtubule balance, and inhibition of angiogenesis. Traditional chemotherapeutic agents have side effects and depress immune responses...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Md Saiful Islam Roney, Song-Kyu Park
Cancer is one of the deadliest diseases in the world. Despite extensive studies, treating metastatic cancers remains challenging. Years of research have linked a rare set of cells known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) to drug resistance, leading to the suggestion that eradication of CSCs might be an effective therapeutic strategy. However, few drug candidates are active against CSCs. New drug discovery is often a lengthy process. Drug screening has been advantageous in identifying drug candidates. Current understanding of cancer biology has revealed various clues to target cancer from different points of view...
March 19, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Qi-Bing Wu, Xin Sheng, Ning Zhang, Ming-Wei Yang, Fan Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the main tumor-related causes of death worldwide. The fact that the majority of the patients develop resistance to chemoradiotherapy (CRT) is a major obstacle for the treatment of CRC. In order to develop more effective treatment strategies, it is crucial to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the development of resistance to CRT. Several studies have recently indicated the regulatory effects of microRNAs (miRNAs) in response to antitumor agents. For example, miR-34a attenuates the chemoresistance of colon cancer to 5-FU by inhibiting E2F3 and SIRT1...
April 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Lingling Shan, Xin Zhuo, Fuwu Zhang, Yunlu Dai, Guizhi Zhu, Bryant C Yung, Wenpei Fan, Kefeng Zhai, Orit Jacobson, Dale O Kiesewetter, Ying Ma, Guizhen Gao, Xiaoyuan Chen
Folate receptor (FR) has proven to be a valuable target for chemotherapy using folic acid (FA) conjugates. However, FA-conjugated chemotherapeutics still have low therapeutic efficacy accompanied with side effects, resulting from complications such as short circulation half-life, limited tumor delivery, as well as high kidney accumulation. Herein, we present a novel FA-conjugated paclitaxel (PTX) prodrug which was additionally conjugated with an Evans blue (EB) derivative for albumin binding. The resulting bifunctional prodrug prolonged blood circulation, enhanced tumor accumulation, and consequently improved tumor therapeutic efficacy...
2018: Theranostics
Jeffrey R Ashton, Katherine D Castle, Yi Qi, David G Kirsch, Jennifer L West, Cristian T Badea
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are emerging as promising agents for both cancer therapy and computed tomography (CT) imaging. AuNPs absorb x-rays and subsequently release low-energy, short-range photoelectrons during external beam radiation therapy (RT), increasing the local radiation dose. When AuNPs are near tumor vasculature, the additional radiation dose can lead to increased vascular permeability. This work focuses on understanding how tumor vascular permeability is influenced by AuNP-augmented RT, and how this effect can be used to improve the delivery of nanoparticle chemotherapeutics...
2018: Theranostics
Yunlei Zhang, Wei Ji, Lian He, Yiyan Chen, Xuezhi Ding, Yunjun Sun, Shengbiao Hu, Huijun Yang, Weitao Huang, Youming Zhang, Fei Liu, Liqiu Xia
Purpose: Systemic administration of free chemotherapeutic drugs leads to severe toxic effects, and physiological characteristics of solid tumors restrain the drugs from reaching the hypoxic regions. E. coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) has been known to penetrate the barrier and proliferate in the interface between the viable and necrotic regions of tumors. This study aimed to fabricate a nanoscale minicell via genetic engineering of EcN for targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to the hypoxic regions of tumors for cancer therapy...
2018: Theranostics
Louisa Stern, Nathalia Giese, Thilo Hackert, Oliver Strobel, Peter Schirmacher, Klaus Felix, Matthias M Gaida
Bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) are G-protein coupled transmembrane proteins initially identified in the gustatory system as sensors for the taste of bitter. Recent evidence on expression of these receptors outside gustatory tissues suggested alternative functions, and there is growing interest of their potential role in cancer biology. In this study, we report for the first time, expression and functionality of the bitter receptor family member T2R10 in both human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue and PDAC derived cell lines...
2018: Journal of Cancer
Chao Wang, Le Kang, Xipeng Wang, Yanping Liu, Xia Zhao
The correlation between miR-200a expression and chemotherapeutic treatment efficacy of glioma was investigated. There were 45 patients with glioma in observation group whose cancer tissues, paracancerous tissues and serum samples were harvested. Additionally, there were 23 healthy subjects in the control group whose serum samples were also collected. The expression levels of miR-200a in cancer tissues, paracancerous tissues and serum samples were measured by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Xiaojie Sun, Manhua Cui, Ding Wang, Baofeng Guo, Ling Zhang
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a member of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily and functions to promote apoptosis by binding to cell surface death receptor (DR)4 and DR5. Cancer cells are more sensitive than normal cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis, and TRAIL-based therapeutic strategies have shown promise for the treatment of cancer. The present study investigated whether enforced overexpression of TRAIL in cervical cancer cells promoted cell death in the presence or absence of Taxol, an important first-line cancer chemotherapeutic drug...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Anna Kovalchuk, Yaroslav Ilnytskyy, Rocio Rodriguez-Juarez, Amanda Katz, David Sidransky, Bryan Kolb, Olga Kovalchuk
While the refinement of existing and the development of new chemotherapeutic regimens has significantly improved cancer treatment outcomes and patient survival, chemotherapy still causes many persistent side effects. Central nervous system (CNS) toxicity is of particular concern, as cancer patients experience significant deficits in memory, learning, cognition, and decision-making. These chemotherapy-induced cognitive changes are termed chemo brain, and manifest in more than half of cancer survivors. Moreover, recent studies have emerged suggesting that neurocognitive deficits manifest prior to cancer diagnosis and treatment, and thus may be associated with tumor presence, a phenomenon recently termed "tumor brain...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
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