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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040951/perfluoroalkyl-substances-bone-density-and-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors-in-obese-8-12-year-old-children-a-pilot-study
#1
Naila Khalil, James R Ebert, Masato Honda, Miryoung Lee, Ramzi W Nahhas, Antti Koskela, Thomas Hangartner, Kurunthachalam Kannan
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), have been associated with adverse bone, and metabolic changes in adults. However association of PFASs with bone health in children is understudied. Considering their role as endocrine disruptors, we examined relationships of four PFASs with bone health in children. METHODS: In a cross sectional pilot study, 48 obese children aged 8-12 years were enrolled from Dayton's Children Hospital, Ohio...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040890/omega-3-and-omega-6-fatty-acid-levels-in-depressive-and-anxiety-disorders
#2
Carisha S Thesing, Mariska Bot, Yuri Milaneschi, Erik J Giltay, Brenda W J H Penninx
BACKGROUND: Blood levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have been associated to current depression. However, it is unclear whether this association extends to remitted depression and to anxiety disorders. This study examined the relationship of PUFAs with the presence and clinical characteristics of depressive and anxiety disorders. METHODS: Cross-sectional data was used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety, including persons with current pure depressive disorder (n=304), current pure anxiety disorder (n=548), current comorbid depressive and anxiety disorder (n=529), remitted depressive/anxiety disorder(s) (n=897), and healthy controls (n=634)...
October 6, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040880/prolonged-parturition-and-impaired-placenta-expulsion-increase-the-risk-of-postpartum-metritis-and-delay-uterine-involution-in-sows
#3
S Björkman, C Oliviero, J Kauffold, N M Soede, O A T Peltoniemi
It was hypothesized that prolonged parturition and impaired placenta expulsion increase the risk of postpartum metritis and delay uterine involution. At parturition, for 99 Yorkshire x Large White sows (parity 2-5), we determined the number of liveborn (NLP; 14.8 ± 3.4) and stillborn piglets (NSP; 1.1 ± 1.1), farrowing duration (FAR, time between first and last piglet; 333 ± 249 min), placenta expulsion duration (PLA, time between first and last placental part; 292 ± 241 min) and number of expelled placental parts (PART; 3...
October 7, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040839/effects-of-the-dietary-carbohydrate-fat-ratio-on-plasma-phosphatidylcholine-profiles-in-human-and-mouse
#4
Mizuki Inoue, Nanami Senoo, Tomoki Sato, Yuri Nishimura, Takumi Nakagawa, Noriyuki Miyoshi, Toshinao Goda, Akihito Morita, Shinji Miura
Phosphatidylcholines (PCs), a major class of human plasma phospholipids, are composed of highly diverse fatty acids. Because the dietary carbohydrate-fat ratio alters the hepatic fatty acid metabolism, plasma fatty acids that bind PCs, which are secreted as lipoproteins from the liver, may be affected by long-term consumption of a high-carbohydrate diet or a high-fat diet. Therefore, in this study, we profiled the plasma PC species comprehensively in formulated dieting conditions to identify those phospholipid molecules that reflect the dietary carbohydrate-fat ratio...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040821/dietary-intake-and-omega-3-dha-status-in-pregnant-women-who-are-overweight
#5
Adriana V Gaitán, Merritt L Drewery, Carly A Thaxton, Kennet M Carabante, Ericka Seidemann, Karen Elkind-Hirsch, Carol J Lammi-Keefe
OBJECTIVE: To estimate dietary intake of pregnant women who are overweight, assess their omega-3 docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status, and compare results between Black and White women. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study with a longitudinal component (dietary assessment). SETTING: Outpatient clinics at Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, Louisiana and telephone calls. PARTICIPANTS: Pregnant women (N = 21) who were overweight (body mass index = 25...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040745/the-impact-of-shift-work-on-sleep-quality-among-nurses
#6
K McDowall, E Murphy, K Anderson
Background: Shift work is common among nurses, and it is known to be a workplace hazard as it may cause poor sleep quality, which can impact adversely on the health and safety of nurses and their patients. Aims: To explore factors that contribute to poor sleep quality in shift working nurses (SWNs) compared with non-shift working nurses (NSWNs) and to assess the awareness of support from occupational health. Methods: Cross-sectional study of nurses at a National Health Service (NHS) foundation trust, February to March 2016...
October 10, 2017: Occupational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040744/tobacco-exposure-and-sleep-disturbance-in-498-208-uk-biobank-participants
#7
D Boakye, C A Wyse, C A Morales-Celis, S M Biello, M E S Bailey, S Dare, J Ward, J M R Gill, J P Pell, D F Mackay
Background: The prevalence of sleep disturbance is high and increasing. The study investigated whether active, former and passive smoking were associated with sleep disturbance. Methods: This cross-sectional study used data from the UK Biobank: a cohort study of 502 655 participants, of whom 498 208 provided self-reported data on smoking and sleep characteristics. Multivariable multinomial and logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between smoking and sleep disturbance...
August 30, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040646/statins-affect-skeletal-muscle-performance-evidence-for-disturbances-in-energy-metabolism
#8
Neeltje A E Allard, Tom J J Schirris, Rebecca J Verheggen, Frans G M Russel, Richard J Rodenburg, Jan A M Smeitink, Paul D Thompson, Maria T E Hopman, Silvie Timmers
Context: Statin myopathy is linked to disturbances in mitochondrial function and exercise intolerance. Objectives: To determine whether differences exist in exercise performance, muscle function and mitochondrial oxidative capacity and content between symptomatic and asymptomatic statin users, and non-statin using controls. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Department of Physiology of the Radboud University Medical Center...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040633/prevalence-of-pre-antiretroviral-treatment-drug-resistance-by-gender-age-and-other-factors-in-hiv-infected-individuals-initiating-therapy-in-kenya-2013-2014
#9
Rachel A Silverman, Ingrid A Beck, Catherine Kiptinness, Molly Levine, Ross Milne, Christine J McGrath, Steve Bii, Barbra A Richardson, Grace John-Stewart, Bhavna Chohan, Samah R Sakr, James N Kiarie, Lisa M Frenkel, Michael H Chung
Background: Pre-antiretroviral-treatment drug resistance (PDR) is a predictor of HIV treatment failure. We determined PDR-prevalence and correlates in a Kenyan cohort. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of antiretroviral (ARV) treatment-eligible HIV-infected participants in 2013-2014 at three clinics. PDR was defined as ≥2% mutant-frequency in a participant's HIV-quasispecies at pol codons K103N, Y181C, G190A, M184 V, or K65R by oligonucleotide ligation assay...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040594/association-between-exposure-to-second-hand-smoke-and-telomere-length-cross-sectional-study-of-1303-non-smokers
#10
Liya Lu, Cathy Johnman, Liane McGlynn, Daniel F Mackay, Paul G Shiels, Jill P Pell
Background: Both active smoking and second-hand smoke (SHS) are important risk factors for many age-related diseases. Active smoking is associated with shortened telomere length. However, whether SHS accelerates telomere attrition with age is uncertain. The aim of this study was to examine the association between SHS exposure and shortening by age of leukocyte telomere length among adult non-smokers. Methods: We undertook a cross-sectional study of the association between self-reported levels of SHS exposure and telomere length shortening per annum on a subgroup of participants from the Scottish Family Health Study...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040579/cultural-determinants-influence-assisted-reproduction-usage-in-europe-more-than-economic-and-demographic-factors
#11
Patrick Präg, Melinda C Mills
STUDY QUESTION: To what extent do financial, demographic and cultural determinants explain the vast cross-national differences in ART treatments in Europe? SUMMARY ANSWER: The normative cultural acceptance of ART is a major driver of ART treatments in Europe, above and beyond differences in country wealth, demographic aspects and religious composition. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: There are vast differences in the number of ART treatments across European countries, which are to some extent related to country affluence, regulation, and insurance coverage and costs...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040562/collider-scope-when-selection-bias-can-substantially-influence-observed-associations
#12
Marcus R Munafò, Kate Tilling, Amy E Taylor, David M Evans, George Davey Smith
Large-scale cross-sectional and cohort studies have transformed our understanding of the genetic and environmental determinants of health outcomes. However, the representativeness of these samples may be limited-either through selection into studies, or by attrition from studies over time. Here we explore the potential impact of this selection bias on results obtained from these studies, from the perspective that this amounts to conditioning on a collider (i.e. a form of collider bias). Whereas it is acknowledged that selection bias will have a strong effect on representativeness and prevalence estimates, it is often assumed that it should not have a strong impact on estimates of associations...
September 27, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040537/chromosomal-abnormalities-in-1663-infertile-men-with-azoospermia-the-clinical-consequences
#13
R B Donker, V Vloeberghs, H Groen, H Tournaye, C M A van Ravenswaaij-Arts, J A Land
STUDY QUESTION: What is the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in azoospermic men and what are the clinical consequences in terms of increased risk for absent spermatogenesis, miscarriages and offspring with congenital malformations? SUMMARY ANSWER: The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities in azoospermia was 14.4%, and the number of azoospermic men needed to be screened (NNS) to identify one man with a chromosomal abnormality with increased risk for absence of spermatogenesis was 72, to prevent one miscarriage 370-739 and to prevent one child with congenital malformations 4751-23 757...
October 13, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040531/survival-analysis-of-the-association-between-antenatal-care-attendance-and-neonatal-mortality-in-57-low-and-middle-income-countries
#14
David T Doku, Subas Neupane
Background: Neonatal mortality is unacceptably high in most low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). In these countries, where access to emergency obstetric services is limited, antenatal care (ANC) utilization offers improved maternal health and birth outcomes. However, evidence for this is scanty and mixed. We explored the association between attendance for ANC and survival of neonates in 57 LMICs. Methods: Employing standardized protocols to ensure comparison across countries, we used nationally representative cross-sectional data from 57 LMICs ( N  = 464 728) to investigate the association between ANC visits and neonatal mortality...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040530/the-prevalence-of-type-2-diabetes-is-not-increased-in-normal-weight-women-with-pcos
#15
Rasa Pelanis, Jan Roar Mellembakken, Inger Sundström-Poromaa, Pernille Ravn, Laure Morin-Papunen, Juha S Tapanainen, Terhi Piltonen, Johanna Puurunen, Angelica Lindén Hirschberg, Peter Fedorcsak, Marianne Andersen, Dorte Glintborg
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) needed in all women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)? SUMMARY QNSWER: OGTT is not routinely needed in women with PCOS and BMI < 25 kg/m2. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: PCOS is associated with insulin resistance and increased prevalence of prediabetes and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) which is closely linked to obesity and possibly age, ethnicity and PCOS phenotype. Several guidelines recommend OGTT upon diagnosis of PCOS and during follow-up...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040512/fertility-related-knowledge-and-reproductive-goals-in-childhood-cancer-survivors-short-communication
#16
V Lehmann, M C Keim, L Nahata, E L Shultz, J L Klosky, M A Tuinman, C A Gerhardt
STUDY QUESTION: Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? SUMMARY ANSWER: While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized...
September 29, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040509/a-new-use-for-an-old-tool-maternity-waiting-homes-to-improve-equity-in-rural-childbirth-care-results-from-a-cross-sectional-hospital-and-community-survey-in-tanzania
#17
Piera Fogliati, Manuela Straneo, Sabina Mangi, Gaetano Azzimonti, Firma Kisika, Giovanni Putoto
Limited quality of childbirth care in sub-Saharan Africa primarily affects the poor. Greater quality is available in facilities providing advanced management of childbirth complications. We aimed to determine whether Maternity Waiting Homes (MWHs) may be a tool to improve access of lower socio-economic women to such facilities. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional hospital survey from Iringa District, Tanzania was carried out. Women who delivered between October 2011 and May 2012 in the only District facility providing comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care were interviewed...
October 10, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040427/what-is-the-end-of-life-period-trajectories-and-characterization-based-on-primary-caregiver-reports
#18
Jiska Cohen-Mansfield, Rinat Cohen, Michal Skornick-Bouchbinder, Shai Brill
BACKGROUND: As the population lives longer, end of life (EOL) is emerging as a distinct life phase, about which there is still limited understanding. Characterizing this important period is vital for clarifying issues regarding trajectory and decline at EOL and for health service planning on an institutional, communal, and societal level. In this paper we aim to characterize the EOL period, examining the duration and number of EOL stages, as well as the functional, attitudinal and emotional trajectories...
October 12, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040336/characteristics-of-private-partners-in-chiranjeevi-yojana-a-public-private-partnership-to-promote-institutional-births-in-gujarat-india-lessons-for-universal-health-coverage
#19
Veena Iyer, Kristi Sidney, Rajesh Mehta, Dileep Mavalankar, Ayesha De Costa
BACKGROUND: The Chiranjeevi Yojana (CY) is a Public-Private-Partnership between the state and private obstetricians in Gujarat, India, since 2007. The state pays for institutional births of the most vulnerable households (below-poverty-line and tribal) in private hospitals. An innovative remuneration package has been designed to disincentivise unnecessary cesareans. This study examines characteristics of private facilities which participated in the program. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of all facilities which had conducted any births between June 2012 and April 2013 in three districts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040330/the-association-between-toe-grip-strength-and-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee-in-japanese-women-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#20
Daisuke Uritani, Takahiko Fukumoto, Tomoki Myodo, Kazuhito Fujikawa, Miyuki Usui, Daisuke Tatara
We evaluated the relationship between altered foot function and knee osteoarthritis through a specific comparison of toe grip strength in older women with and without knee osteoarthritis. Participants were 120 women with knee osteoarthritis (OA group) and 108 healthy community-dwelling women with no history of knee pain and lower limb surgery (control group). The following factors and outcome variables were included in our analysis: measured toe grip strength, isometric knee extension strength, the timed Up-and-Go, and the WOMAC scale...
2017: PloS One
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