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Modeling framework

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231620/sustaining-guideline-implementation-a-multi-site-perspective-on-activities-challenges-and-supports
#1
Kathryn Smith Higuchi, Barbara Davies, Jenny Ploeg
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine activities conducted, challenges encountered, and supports used when sustaining nursing practice guideline implementation in multiple health care organizations over three years. BACKGROUND: Numerous models and frameworks exist to guide the implementation of guidelines, yet very few focus on sustaining improved practice changes. It is not known if one intervention or multiple interventions are required, nor the long-term activities, challenges, and supports for sustaining improved practices...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231539/a-new-model-to-predict-diffusive-self-heating-during-composting-incorporating-the-reaction-engineering-approach-rea-framework
#2
Aditya Putranto, Xiao Dong Chen
During composting, self-heating may occur due to the exothermicities of the chemical and biological reactions. An accurate model for predicting maximum temperature is useful in predicting whether the phenomena would occur and to what extent it would have undergone. Elevated temperatures would lead to undesirable situations such as the release of large amount of toxic gases or sometimes would even lead to spontaneous combustion. In this paper, we report a new model for predicting the profiles of temperature, concentration of oxygen, moisture content and concentration of water vapor during composting...
February 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231346/in-vitro-three-dimensional-accuracy-of-digital-implant-impressions-the-effect-of-implant-angulation
#3
Vanessa A Chia, Roxanna J Esguerra, Khim Hean Teoh, Juin Wei Teo, Keng Mun Wong, Keson B Tan
PURPOSE: To compare the three-dimensional (3D) accuracy of conventional impressions (CIs) with digital scans (DSs) using an intraoral scanner (IOS) with intraoral scan bodies (SBs) and varying buccolingual interimplant angulations. A secondary aim was to measure the SB machining tolerance and height with and without application of torque. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three master models (MMs) with two implants simulating an implant-supported three-unit fixed partial denture for bone-level implants were used...
February 23, 2017: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231342/nonlinear-image-registration-with-bidirectional-metric-and-reciprocal-regularization
#4
Shihui Ying, Dan Li, Bin Xiao, Yaxin Peng, Shaoyi Du, Meifeng Xu
Nonlinear registration is an important technique to align two different images and widely applied in medical image analysis. In this paper, we develop a novel nonlinear registration framework based on the diffeomorphic demons, where a reciprocal regularizer is introduced to assume that the deformation between two images is an exact diffeomorphism. In detail, first, we adopt a bidirectional metric to improve the symmetry of the energy functional, whose variables are two reciprocal deformations. Secondly, we slack these two deformations into two independent variables and introduce a reciprocal regularizer to assure the deformations being the exact diffeomorphism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231324/a-framework-for-analyzing-contagion-in-assortative-banking-networks
#5
Thomas R Hurd, James P Gleeson, Sergey Melnik
We introduce a probabilistic framework that represents stylized banking networks with the aim of predicting the size of contagion events. Most previous work on random financial networks assumes independent connections between banks, whereas our framework explicitly allows for (dis)assortative edge probabilities (i.e., a tendency for small banks to link to large banks). We analyze default cascades triggered by shocking the network and find that the cascade can be understood as an explicit iterated mapping on a set of edge probabilities that converges to a fixed point...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231313/a-stochastic-hybrid-systems-based-framework-for-modeling-dependent-failure-processes
#6
Mengfei Fan, Zhiguo Zeng, Enrico Zio, Rui Kang, Ying Chen
In this paper, we develop a framework to model and analyze systems that are subject to dependent, competing degradation processes and random shocks. The degradation processes are described by stochastic differential equations, whereas transitions between the system discrete states are triggered by random shocks. The modeling is, then, based on Stochastic Hybrid Systems (SHS), whose state space is comprised of a continuous state determined by stochastic differential equations and a discrete state driven by stochastic transitions and reset maps...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230971/multifaceted-gold-palladium-bimetallic-nanorods-and-their-geometric-compositional-and-catalytic-tunabilities
#7
Lichao Sun, Qingfeng Zhang, Guangfang Grace Li, Esteban Villarreal, Xiaoqi Fu, Hui Wang
Kinetically controlled, seed-mediated coreduction provides a robust and versatile synthetic approach to multimetallic nanoparticles with precisely controlled geometries and compositions. Here we demonstrate that single-crystalline cylindrical Au nanorods selectively transform into a series of structurally distinct Au@Au-Pd alloy core-shell bimetallic nanorods with exotic multifaceted geometries enclosed by specific types of facets upon seed-mediated Au-Pd coreduction under diffusion controlled conditions. By adjusting several key synthetic parameters, such as the Pd/Au precursor ratio, the reducing agent concentration, the capping surfactant concentration, and foreign metal ion additives, we have been able to simultaneously fine-tailor the atomic-level surface structures and fine-tune the compositional stoichiometries of the multifaceted Au-Pd bimetallic nanorods...
February 23, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230909/a-general-instrumental-variable-framework-for-regression-analysis-with-outcome-missing-not-at-random
#8
Eric J Tchetgen Tchetgen, Kathleen E Wirth
The instrumental variable (IV) design is a well-known approach for unbiased evaluation of causal effects in the presence of unobserved confounding. In this article, we study the IV approach to account for selection bias in regression analysis with outcome missing not at random. In such a setting, a valid IV is a variable which (i) predicts the nonresponse process, and (ii) is independent of the outcome in the underlying population. We show that under the additional assumption (iii) that the IV is independent of the magnitude of selection bias due to nonresponse, the population regression in view is nonparametrically identified...
February 23, 2017: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230845/dynamic-models-of-large-scale-brain-activity
#9
REVIEW
Michael Breakspear
Movement, cognition and perception arise from the collective activity of neurons within cortical circuits and across large-scale systems of the brain. While the causes of single neuron spikes have been understood for decades, the processes that support collective neural behavior in large-scale cortical systems are less clear and have been at times the subject of contention. Modeling large-scale brain activity with nonlinear dynamical systems theory allows the integration of experimental data from multiple modalities into a common framework that facilitates prediction, testing and possible refutation...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230844/network-neuroscience
#10
REVIEW
Danielle S Bassett, Olaf Sporns
Despite substantial recent progress, our understanding of the principles and mechanisms underlying complex brain function and cognition remains incomplete. Network neuroscience proposes to tackle these enduring challenges. Approaching brain structure and function from an explicitly integrative perspective, network neuroscience pursues new ways to map, record, analyze and model the elements and interactions of neurobiological systems. Two parallel trends drive the approach: the availability of new empirical tools to create comprehensive maps and record dynamic patterns among molecules, neurons, brain areas and social systems; and the theoretical framework and computational tools of modern network science...
February 23, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230725/towards-a-semantic-web-of-things-a-hybrid-semantic-annotation-extraction-and-reasoning-framework-for-cyber-physical-system
#11
Zhenyu Wu, Yuan Xu, Yunong Yang, Chunhong Zhang, Xinning Zhu, Yang Ji
Web of Things (WoT) facilitates the discovery and interoperability of Internet of Things (IoT) devices in a cyber-physical system (CPS). Moreover, a uniform knowledge representation of physical resources is quite necessary for further composition, collaboration, and decision-making process in CPS. Though several efforts have integrated semantics with WoT, such as knowledge engineering methods based on semantic sensor networks (SSN), it still could not represent the complex relationships between devices when dynamic composition and collaboration occur, and it totally depends on manual construction of a knowledge base with low scalability...
February 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230275/the-development-and-correlates-of-gender-role-attitudes-in-african-american-youth
#12
Chun Bun Lam, Christine Stanik, Susan M McHale
This research examined the longitudinal trajectories and family correlates of gender role attitudes in African American youth in a sample of 166 sibling pairs residing with their mothers and fathers. Multilevel modelling revealed that (1) girls and boys exhibited significant declines in gender attitude traditionality from ages 9 to 15 that levelled off through age 18, (2) mothers' (but not fathers') gender role attitude traditionality was positively related to youth's attitude traditionality, and (3) within-person variation in mothers' (but not fathers') racial discrimination experiences was negatively related to within-person variation in youth's gender role attitude traditionality...
February 23, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229478/students-experiences-of-role-relationships-and-learning-in-two-clerkship-models
#13
D Jill Konkin, Carol Suddards
CONTEXT: An increasing number of medical schools around the world are implementing longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). The University of Alberta's third-year LIC admits a small group of each class. Those not in the LIC undertake a rotation-based clerkship (RBC). All students have a fourth-year RBC. Meaningful participation in patient care and guidance have been identified as affordances for work-based learning. METHODS: This qualitative study is part of an ongoing research programme conducted in a hermeneutic phenomenological frame...
February 22, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229157/predation-with-the-tongue-through-viscous-adhesion-a-scaling-approach
#14
Maurine Houze, Pascal Damman
Some predators, mainly lizards and amphibians, capture their prey with their tongue. The process of capture involves strong adhesion mechanisms to overcome inertial forces that should be related to a viscous mucus produced at the tongue tip. A scaling model of prey capture independent of the anatomic details of the animals is developed from a study of viscous adhesion with a probe-tack geometry. This model is then successfully applied to describe the nonlinear evolution of the maximum prey size with the predator length for chameleons...
February 23, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228544/correction-to-an-integrated-modelling-framework-for-neural-circuits-with-multiple-neuromodulators
#15
Alok Joshi, Vahab Youssofzadeh, Vinith Vemana, T M McGinnity, Girijesh Prasad, KongFatt Wong-Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228543/characterization-of-dependencies-between-growth-and-division-in-budding-yeast
#16
Michael B Mayhew, Edwin S Iversen, Alexander J Hartemink
Cell growth and division are processes vital to the proliferation and development of life. Coordination between these two processes has been recognized for decades in a variety of organisms. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this coordination or 'size control' appears as an inverse correlation between cell size and the rate of cell-cycle progression, routinely observed in G1 prior to cell division commitment. Beyond this point, cells are presumed to complete S/G2/M at similar rates and in a size-independent manner...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228466/health-and-social-exclusion-in-older-age-evidence-from-understanding-society-the-uk-household-longitudinal-study
#17
Amanda Sacker, Andy Ross, Catherine A MacLeod, Gopal Netuveli, Gill Windle
BACKGROUND: Social exclusion of the elderly is a key policy focus but evidence on the processes linking health and social exclusion is hampered by the variety of ways that health is used in social exclusion research. We investigated longitudinal associations between health and social exclusion using an analytical framework that did not conflate them. METHODS: Data employed in this study came from 4 waves of Understanding Society, the UK Household Longitudinal Study 2009-2013...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#18
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227965/multiscale-brain-machine-interface-decoders
#19
Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi, Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi, Han-Lin Hsieh, Maryam M Shanechi
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have vastly used a single scale of neural activity, e.g., spikes or electrocorticography (ECoG), as their control signal. New technology allows for simultaneous recording of multiple scales of neural activity, from spikes to local field potentials (LFP) and ECoG. These advances introduce the new challenge of modeling and decoding multiple scales of neural activity jointly. Such multi-scale decoding is challenging for two reasons. First, spikes are discrete-valued and ECoG/LFP are continuous-valued, resulting in fundamental differences in statistical characteristics...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227886/development-of-an-open-source-cosimulation-method-of-the-knee
#20
Anne Schmitz, Davide Piovesan, Anne Schmitz, Davide Piovesan, Anne Schmitz, Davide Piovesan
Rigid body dynamics and soft tissue loads are solved simultaneously in a cosimulation framework to couple musculoskeletal dynamics and tissue mechanics. The goal of this work was to implement a validated, open-source cosimulation framework of the knee to determine how this coupling affects computed cartilage loads. The kinematic knee joint of a generic whole body model in the open-source software OpenSim was replaced by a previously developed discrete element knee model that consisted of a six degree of freedom (dof) tibiofemoral joint and one dof patellofemoral joint...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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