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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319783/development-of-an-evaluation-framework-for-publicly-funded-r-d-projects-the-case-of-korea-s-next-generation-network
#1
Eungdo Kim, Soyoung Kim, Hongbum Kim
For decades, efforts have been made globally to measure the performance of large-scale public projects and to develop a framework to perform such measurements due to the complexity and dynamics of R&D and stakeholder interests. Still, limitations such as the use of a simply modified model and the lack of a comprehensive viewpoint are prevalent in existing approaches. In light of these research gaps, this study suggests a practical model to evaluate the performance of large-scale and publicly funded projects...
February 28, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319711/why-coastal-upwelling-is-expected-to-increase-along-the-western-iberian-peninsula-over-the-next-century
#2
Magda Catarina Sousa, Maite deCastro, Ines Alvarez, Moncho Gomez-Gesteira, João Miguel Dias
Former studies about coastal upwelling along the Western Iberian Peninsula (WIP) using historical data indicated contradictory results, showing either its strengthening or reduction, while previous studies using Global Climate Models (GCMs) indicated that global warming is likely to intensify this phenomenon although predicting different rates and not justifying the patterns found. Taking advantage of the recent high spatial resolution Regional Climate Models (RCMs) projections from EURO-CORDEX project (Representative Concentration Pathway, RCP 8...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319709/towards-an-integrated-understanding-of-how-micro-scale-processes-shape-groundwater-ecosystem-functions
#3
Susanne I Schmidt, Mark O Cuthbert, Marc Schwientek
Micro scale processes are expected to have a fundamental role in shaping groundwater ecosystems and yet they remain poorly understood and under-researched. In part, this is due to the fact that sampling is rarely carried out at the scale at which microorganisms, and their grazers and predators, function and thus we lack essential information. While set within a larger scale framework in terms of geochemical features, supply with energy and nutrients, and exchange intensity and dynamics, the micro scale adds variability, by providing heterogeneous zones at the micro scale which enable a wider range of redox reactions...
March 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319706/fire-spread-predictions-sweeping-uncertainty-under-the-rug
#4
Akli Benali, Ana C L Sá, Ana R Ervilha, Ricardo M Trigo, Paulo M Fernandes, José M C Pereira
Predicting fire spread and behavior correctly is crucial to minimize the dramatic consequences of wildfires. However, our capability of accurately predicting fire spread is still very limited, undermining the utility of such simulations to support decision-making. Improving fire spread predictions for fire management purposes, by using higher quality input data or enhanced models, can be expensive, unfeasible or even impossible. Fire managers would benefit from fast and inexpensive ways of improving their decision-making...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319661/atomistic-insights-into-nucleation-and-formation-of-hexagonal-boron-nitride-on-ni-from-first-principles-based-reactive-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#5
Song Liu, Adri C T van Duin, Diana M van Duin, Bin Liu, James H Edgar
Atomistic-scale insights into the growth of a continuous, atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) lattice from elemental boron and nitrogen on Ni substrates were obtained from multi-scale modeling combining density functional theory (DFT) and reactive molecular dynamics (rMD). The quantum mechanical calculations focused on the adsorption and reaction energetics for the hBN building-block species, i.e., atomic B, N, BxNy (x, y = 1-2), on Ni(111) and Ni(211), and the diffusion pathways of elemental B and N on these slab model surfaces and in the sublayer...
March 20, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319460/power-and-sample-size-for-the-s-t-repeated-measures-design-combined-with-a-linear-mixed-effects-model-allowing-for-missing-data
#6
Toshiro Tango
Tango (Biostatistics 2016) proposed a new repeated measures design called the S:T repeated measures design, combined with generalized linear mixed-effects models and sample size calculations for a test of the average treatment effect that depend not only on the number of subjects but on the number of repeated measures before and after randomization per subject used for analysis. The main advantages of the proposed design combined with the generalized linear mixed-effects models are (1) it can easily handle missing data by applying the likelihood-based ignorable analyses under the missing at random assumption and (2) it may lead to a reduction in sample size compared with the simple pre-post design...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319199/a-computational-analysis-of-in-vivo-vegfr-activation-by-multiple-co-expressed-ligands
#7
Lindsay E Clegg, Feilim Mac Gabhann
The splice isoforms of vascular endothelial growth A (VEGF) each have different affinities for the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the coreceptor NRP1, which leads to distinct vascular phenotypes in model systems expressing only a single VEGF isoform. ECM-immobilized VEGF can bind to and activate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) directly, with a different pattern of site-specific phosphorylation than diffusible VEGF. To date, the way in which ECM binding alters the distribution of isoforms of VEGF and of the related placental growth factor (PlGF) in the body and resulting angiogenic signaling is not well-understood...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319164/modeling-the-potential-impact-on-the-us-blood-supply-of-transfusing-critically-ill-patients-with-fresher-stored-red-blood-cells
#8
Arianna Simonetti, Hussein Ezzeldin, Mikhail Menis, Stephen McKean, Hector Izurieta, Steven A Anderson, Richard A Forshee
BACKGROUND: Although some studies have suggested that transfusion recipients may have better medical outcomes if transfused with red blood cell units stored for a short time, the overall body of evidence shows mixed results. It is important to understand how using fresher stored red blood cell units for certain patient groups may affect blood availability. METHODS: Based on the Stock-and-Flow simulation model of the US blood supply developed by Simonetti et al. 2014, we evaluated a newly implemented allocation method of preferentially transfusing fresher stored red blood cell units to a subset of high-risk group of critically ill patients and its potential impact on supply...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319155/relationships-between-abiotic-environment-plant-functional-traits-and-animal-body-size-at-mount-kilimanjaro-tanzania
#9
David Schellenberger Costa, Alice Classen, Stefan Ferger, Maria Helbig-Bonitz, Marcell Peters, Katrin Böhning-Gaese, Ingolf Steffan-Dewenter, Michael Kleyer
The effect-response framework states that plant functional traits link the abiotic environment to ecosystem functioning. One ecosystem property is the body size of the animals living in the system, which is assumed to depend on temperature or resource availability, among others. For primary consumers, resource availability may directly be related to plant traits, while for secondary consumers the relationship is indirect. We used plant traits to describe resource availability along an elevational gradient on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319044/fibroblastic-niches-prime-t-cell-alloimmunity-through-delta-like-notch-ligands
#10
Jooho Chung, Christen L Ebens, Eric Perkey, Vedran Radojcic, Ute Koch, Leonardo Scarpellino, Alexander Tong, Frederick Allen, Sherri Wood, Jiane Feng, Ann Friedman, David Granadier, Ivy T Tran, Qian Chai, Lucas Onder, Minhong Yan, Pavan Reddy, Bruce R Blazar, Alex Y Huang, Todd V Brennan, D Keith Bishop, Burkhard Ludewig, Christian W Siebel, Freddy Radtke, Sanjiv A Luther, Ivan Maillard
Alloimmune T cell responses induce graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a serious complication of allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (allo-BMT). Although Notch signaling mediated by Delta-like 1/4 (DLL1/4) Notch ligands has emerged as a major regulator of GVHD pathogenesis, little is known about the timing of essential Notch signals and the cellular source of Notch ligands after allo-BMT. Here, we have shown that critical DLL1/4-mediated Notch signals are delivered to donor T cells during a short 48-hour window after transplantation in a mouse allo-BMT model...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318843/development-of-a-conceptual-etiological-model-of-treatment-regimen-fatigue-among-patients-engaged-in-hiv-care-a-qualitative-study
#11
Kasey Claborn, Mary Beth Miller, Ellen Meier, Sofia Carbone
Treatment regimen fatigue (TRF) is a decreased desire and motivation to maintain vigilance in adhering to treatment, and little is known about TRF in people living with HIV. We aimed to develop a conceptual framework of TRF. Five focus groups were conducted in 2014. Eligible participants were (a) HIV infected, (b) at least 18 years of age, (c) prescribed antiretroviral therapy, and (d) fluent in English. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Analyses revealed these themes: patient experiences of TRF; etiological factors at the systems, provider, and patient levels; strategies to manage TRF; consequences of TRF; and protective factors that prevent the occurrence of TRF...
March 3, 2017: Journal of the Association of Nurses in AIDS Care: JANAC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318825/riparian-erosion-vulnerability-model-based-on-environmental-features
#12
Alejandra Botero-Acosta, Maria L Chu, Jorge A Guzman, Patrick J Starks, Daniel N Moriasi
Riparian erosion is one of the major causes of sediment and contaminant load to streams, degradation of riparian wildlife habitats, and land loss hazards. Land and soil management practices are implemented as conservation and restoration measures to mitigate the environmental problems brought about by riparian erosion. This, however, requires the identification of vulnerable areas to soil erosion. Because of the complex interactions between the different mechanisms that govern soil erosion and the inherent uncertainties involved in quantifying these processes, assessing erosion vulnerability at the watershed scale is challenging...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318667/paying-medicare-advantage-plans-to-level-or-tilt-the-playing-field
#13
Jacob Glazer, Thomas G McGuire
Medicare beneficiaries are eligible for health insurance through the public option of traditional Medicare (TM) or may join a private Medicare Advantage (MA) plan. Both are highly subsidized but in different ways. Medicare pays for most of costs directly in TM, and subsidizes MA plans based on a "benchmark" for each beneficiary choosing a private plan. The level of this benchmark is arguably the most important policy decision Medicare makes about the MA program. Many analysts recommend equalizing Medicare's subsidy across the options - referred to in policy circles as a "level playing field...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318544/stereolithography-a-new-method-for-processing-dental-ceramics-by-additive-computer-aided-manufacturing
#14
Marion Dehurtevent, Lieven Robberecht, Jean-Christophe Hornez, Anthony Thuault, Etienne Deveaux, Pascal Béhin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the physical and mechanical properties of stereolithography (SLA)- manufactured alumina ceramics of different composition to those of subtractive- manufactured ceramics and to produce suitable dental crown frameworks. METHODS: The physical and mechanical properties of a control and six experimental SLA ceramics prepared from slurries with small (S) and large (L) particles (0.46±0.03 and 1.56±0.04μm, respectively) and three dry matter contents (70%, 75%, 80%) were evaluated by dynamic rheometry, hydrostatic weighing, three3-point flexural strength measurements, and Weibull analyses, and by the micrometrics measurement of shrinkage ratio before and after the heat treatments...
March 16, 2017: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318468/understanding-adolescent-personality-pathology-from-growth-trajectories-of-childhood-oddity
#15
Barbara De Clercq, Lize Verbeke, Elien De Caluwé, Tom Vercruysse, Joeri Hofmans
Research on developmental trajectories of early maladaptive features for understanding later personality disorders (PDs) is increasingly recognized as an important study area. The course of early odd features is highly relevant in this regard, as only a few researchers have addressed childhood oddity in the context of emerging PDs. Using latent growth modeling, the current study explores growth parameters of odd features in a mixed sample of Flemish community and referred children (N = 485) across three measurement waves with 1-year time intervals...
March 20, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318420/bayesian-penalized-log-likelihood-ratio-approach-for-dose-response-clinical-trial-studies
#16
Yuanyuan Tang, Chunyan Cai, Liangrui Sun, Jianghua He
In literature, there are a few unified approaches to test proof of concept and estimate a target dose, including the multiple comparison procedure using modeling approach, and the permutation approach proposed by Klingenberg. We discuss and compare the operating characteristics of these unified approaches and further develop an alternative approach in a Bayesian framework based on the posterior distribution of a penalized log-likelihood ratio test statistic. Our Bayesian approach is much more flexible to handle linear or nonlinear dose-response relationships and is more efficient than the permutation approach...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317961/synthesis-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-new-layered-phosphate-halides-sr2cu5-po4-4x2%C3%A2-8h2o-x-cl-br-with-a-crown-like-building-unit
#17
Chaoqun Qiu, Zhangzhen He, Meiyan Cui, Yingying Tang, Sihuai Chen
Two new compounds Sr2Cu5(PO4)4X2·8H2O (X = Cl and Br) are synthesized by a conventional hydrothermal method. Sr2Cu5(PO4)4Cl2·8H2O crystallizes in the tetragonal system with a space group of P4212, while Sr2Cu5(PO4)4Br2·8H2O crystallizes in the space group P4/nmm, which are found to have a similar framework of layered structure, in which the crown-like {Cu5(PO4)4X2} building units connect to each other forming a 2D corrugated sheet with vacancies, while the Sr(2+) cations are located along the vacancies. The spin lattice of two compounds built by Cu(2+) ions shows a new type of corrugated square...
March 20, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317611/accumulated-exposure-to-rural-areas-of-residence-over-the-life-course-is-associated-with-overweight-and-obesity-in-adulthood-a-25-year-prospective-cohort-study
#18
Kira A E Patterson, Seana L Gall, Alison J Venn, Petr Otahal, Leigh Blizzard, Terry Dwyer, Verity J Cleland
PURPOSE: This prospective cohort study investigated whether body mass index (BMI) and weight status in mid-adulthood were predicted by trajectories of urban-rural residence from childhood to adulthood. METHODS: Participants aged 7-15 years in 1985 (n = 8498) were followed up in 2004-2006 (n = 3999, aged 26-36 years) and 2009-2011 (n = 3049, aged 31-41 years). Area of residence (AOR) was classified as urban or rural at each time point. BMI and/or weight status was calculated from self-reported weight and height (2009-2011)...
March 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317296/how-to-make-more-out-of-community-data-a-conceptual-framework-and-its-implementation-as-models-and-software
#19
Otso Ovaskainen, Gleb Tikhonov, Anna Norberg, F Guillaume Blanchet, Leo Duan, David Dunson, Tomas Roslin, Nerea Abrego
Community ecology aims to understand what factors determine the assembly and dynamics of species assemblages at different spatiotemporal scales. To facilitate the integration between conceptual and statistical approaches in community ecology, we propose Hierarchical Modelling of Species Communities (HMSC) as a general, flexible framework for modern analysis of community data. While non-manipulative data allow for only correlative and not causal inference, this framework facilitates the formulation of data-driven hypotheses regarding the processes that structure communities...
March 20, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317133/a-common-ground-in-clinical-discussion-groups-intersubjective-resonance-and-implicit-operational-theories
#20
Ricardo Bernardi
Clinical discussion groups based on the Three-Level Model for Observing Patient Transformations (3-LM) enable us to reflect on the clinical common ground shared by psychoanalysts who have different theoretical frameworks. The very existence of this common ground is controversial. While analysts such as Wallerstein support it, others, like Green, think it is just a myth. In their 2005 controversy Wallerstein and Green proposed an observation procedure that might clarify this matter. This procedure bears great similarity to the one used by clinical discussion groups that apply the 3-LM...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Psycho-analysis
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