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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724279/alterations-in-striatal-circuits-underlying-addiction-like-behaviors
#1
REVIEW
Hyun Jin Kim, Joo Han Lee, Kyunghwa Yun, Joung-Hun Kim
Drug addiction is a severe psychiatric disorder characterized by the compulsive pursuit of drugs of abuse despite potential adverse consequences. Although several decades of studies have revealed that psychostimulant use can result in extensive alterations of neural circuits and physiology, no effective therapeutic strategies or medicines for drug addiction currently exist. Changes in neuronal connectivity and regulation occurring after repeated drug exposure contribute to addiction-like behaviors in animal models...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724111/agricultural-conservation-planning-framework-3-land-use-and-field-boundary-database-development-and-structure
#2
Mark D Tomer, David E James, Claudette M J Sandoval-Green
Conservation planning information is important for identifying options for watershed water quality improvement and can be developed for use at field, farm, and watershed scales. Translation across scales is a key issue impeding progress at watershed scales because watershed improvement goals must be connected with implementation of farm- and field-level conservation practices to demonstrate success. This is particularly true when examining alternatives for "trap and treat" practices implemented at agricultural-field edges to control (or influence) water flows through fields, landscapes, and riparian corridors within agricultural watersheds...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723924/a-context-for-the-last-neandertals-of-interior-iberia-los-casares-cave-revisited
#3
Manuel Alcaraz-Castaño, Javier Alcolea-González, Martin Kehl, Rosa-María Albert, Javier Baena-Preysler, Rodrigo de Balbín-Behrmann, Felipe Cuartero, Gloria Cuenca-Bescós, Fernando Jiménez-Barredo, José-Antonio López-Sáez, Raquel Piqué, David Rodríguez-Antón, José Yravedra, Gerd-Christian Weniger
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723920/temperature-modulates-dengue-virus-epidemic-growth-rates-through-its-effects-on-reproduction-numbers-and-generation-intervals
#4
Amir S Siraj, Rachel J Oidtman, John H Huber, Moritz U G Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, Michael A Johansson, T Alex Perkins
Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r-R0 and the generation interval-to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723903/automatic-analysis-and-3d-modelling-of-hi-c-data-using-tadbit-reveals-structural-features-of-the-fly-chromatin-colors
#5
François Serra, Davide Baù, Mike Goodstadt, David Castillo, Guillaume Filion, Marc A Marti-Renom
The sequence of a genome is insufficient to understand all genomic processes carried out in the cell nucleus. To achieve this, the knowledge of its three-dimensional architecture is necessary. Advances in genomic technologies and the development of new analytical methods, such as Chromosome Conformation Capture (3C) and its derivatives, provide unprecedented insights in the spatial organization of genomes. Here we present TADbit, a computational framework to analyze and model the chromatin fiber in three dimensions...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723580/quality-assurance-of-chemical-ingredient-classification-for-the-national-drug-file-reference-terminology
#6
Ling Zheng, Hasan Yumak, Ling Chen, Christopher Ochs, James Geller, Joan Kapusnik-Uner, Yehoshua Perl
The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology consisting of several classification hierarchies on top of an extensive collection of drug concepts. These hierarchies provide important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles connecting drugs to classifications. In previous studies, we have introduced various kinds of Abstraction Networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies in order to facilitate their visual comprehension, and support quality assurance of terminologies...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#7
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723202/structure-guided-design-of-protein-biosensors-for-phenolic-pollutants
#8
Shamayeeta Ray, Santosh Panjikar, Ruchi Anand
Phenolic aromatic compounds are a major source of environmental pollution. Currently there are no in situ methods for specifically and selectively detecting these pollutants. Here, we exploit the nature's biosensory machinery by employing Acinetobacter calcoaceticus NCIB8250 protein, MopR, as a model system to develop biosensors for selective detection of a spectrum of these pollutants. The X-ray structure of the sensor domain of MopR was used as a scaffold for logic-based tunable biosensor design. By employing a combination of in silico structure guided approaches, mutagenesis and isothermal calorimetric studies, we were able to generate biosensor templates, that can selectively and specifically sense harmful compounds like chlorophenols, cresols, catechol, and xylenols...
March 24, 2017: ACS Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722789/tailoring-of-the-tell-us-card-communication-tool-for-nurses-to-increase-patient-participation-using-intervention-mapping
#9
Elise van Belle, Sandra M G Zwakhalen, Josien Caris, Ann Van Hecke, Getty Huisman-de Waal, Maud Heinen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the tailoring of the Tell-us Card intervention for enhanced patient participation to the Dutch hospital setting by using Intervention Mapping as a systematic approach. BACKGROUND: Even though patient participation is essential in any patient to nurse encounter, care plans often fail to take patients' preferences into account. The Tell-us Card intervention seems promising, but needs to be tailored and tested before implementation in a different setting or on large scale...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722689/compressed-h-sub-3-sub-s-inter-sublattice-coulomb-coupling-in-a-high-i-t-i-sub-c-sub-superconductor
#10
Dale R Harshman, Anthony T Fiory
Upon thermal annealing at or above room temperature (RT) and at high hydrostatic pressure <i>P</i> ~ 155 GPa, sulfur trihydride H<sub>3</sub>S exhibits a measured maximum superconducting transition temperature <i>T</i><sub>C</sub> ~ 200 K. Various theoretical frameworks incorporating strong electron-phonon coupling and Coulomb repulsion have reproduced this record-level <i>T</i><sub>C</sub>. Of particular relevance is that experimentally observed H-D isotopic correlations among <i>T</i><sub>C</sub>, <i>P</i>, and annealed order indicate an H-D isotope effect exponent α limited to values ≤ 0...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722417/improving-carrier-lifetime-of-tin-sulfide-via-prediction-and-mitigation-of-harmful-point-defects
#11
Alex Polizzotti, Alireza Faghaninia, Jeremy R Poindexter, Lea Nienhaus, Vera Steinmann, Robert L Z Hoye, Alexandre Felten, Amjad Deyine, Niall Mangan, Juan-Pablo Correa-Baena, Seong Sik Shin, Shaffiq Jaffer, Moungi G Bawendi, Cynthia Lo, Tonio Buonassisi
Tin monosulfide (SnS) is an emerging thin-film absorber material for photovoltaics. An outstanding challenge is to improve carrier lifetimes to >1 ns, which should enable >10% device efficiencies. However, reported results to date have only demonstrated lifetimes at or below 100 ps. In this study, we employ defect modeling to identify the sulfur vacancy and defects from Fe, Co, and Mo as most recombination-active. We attempt to minimize these defects in crystalline samples through high-purity, sulfur-rich growth and experimentally improve lifetimes to >3 ns - thus achieving our 1 ns goal...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722297/assessing-guest-molecule-diffusion-in-heterogeneous-powder-samples-of-metal-organic-frameworks-through-pfg-nmr
#12
Roland Thoma, Jörg Kärger, Nader de Sousa Amadeu, Sandra Nießing, Christoph Janiak
Investigation of guest diffusion in porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) is of major importance since many porosity-related properties of MOFs are influenced by diffusion effects. The diffusion of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) in the metal-organic framework (MOF) MIL-53-NH2(Al) was investigated through pulsed-field-gradient (PFG) NMR spectroscopy. The microporous material was synthesized in small crystallites (under 500 nm), which agglomerated in a large range of particle sizes, giving a morphologically very heterogeneous sample...
July 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720917/exploring-electronic-communication-modes-between-iraqi-faculty-and-students-of-pharmacy-schools-using-the-technology-acceptance-model
#13
Ali Azeez Al-Jumaili, Mohammed D Al-Rekabi, Oday S Alsawad, Omer Q B Allela, Ryan Carnahan, Hiwa Saaed, Alaadin Naqishbandi, Dheyaa J Kadhim, Bernard Sorofman
Objective. To explore for the first time the extent to which Iraqi pharmacy students and faculty use Facebook and university email for academic communications, and to examine factors influencing utilization within the framework of the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Methods. An electronic survey was administered to convenience samples of students and faculty of six Iraqi public schools and colleges of pharmacy in 2015. Results. Responses included 489 student and 128 faculty usable surveys. Both students and faculty use Facebook more than university email for academic communications...
June 2017: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720897/a-predictive-mathematical-modeling-approach-for-the-study-of-doxorubicin-treatment-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#14
Matthew T McKenna, Jared A Weis, Stephanie L Barnes, Darren R Tyson, Michael I Miga, Vito Quaranta, Thomas E Yankeelov
Doxorubicin forms the basis of chemotherapy regimens for several malignancies, including triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Here, we present a coupled experimental/modeling approach to establish an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model to describe how the concentration and duration of doxorubicin therapy shape subsequent cell population dynamics. This work features a series of longitudinal fluorescence microscopy experiments that characterize (1) doxorubicin uptake dynamics in a panel of TNBC cell lines, and (2) cell population response to doxorubicin over 30 days...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720874/knowledge-transfer-learning-for-prediction-of-matrix-metalloprotease-substrate-cleavage-sites
#15
Yanan Wang, Jiangning Song, Tatiana T Marquez-Lago, André Leier, Chen Li, Trevor Lithgow, Geoffrey I Webb, Hong-Bin Shen
Matrix Metalloproteases (MMPs) are an important family of proteases that play crucial roles in key cellular and disease processes. Therefore, MMPs constitute important targets for drug design, development and delivery. Advanced proteomic technologies have identified type-specific target substrates; however, the complete repertoire of MMP substrates remains uncharacterized. Indeed, computational prediction of substrate-cleavage sites associated with MMPs is a challenging problem. This holds especially true when considering MMPs with few experimentally verified cleavage sites, such as for MMP-2, -3, -7, and -8...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720832/deep-ocean-dissolved-organic-matter-reactivity-along-the-mediterranean-sea-does-size-matter
#16
Alba María Martínez-Pérez, Xosé Antón Álvarez-Salgado, Javier Arístegui, Mar Nieto-Cid
Despite of the major role ascribed to marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the global carbon cycle, the reactivity of this pool in the dark ocean is still poorly understood. Present hypotheses, posed within the size-reactivity continuum (SRC) and the microbial carbon pump (MCP) conceptual frameworks, need further empirical support. Here, we provide field evidence of the soundness of the SRC model. We sampled the high salinity core-of-flow of the Levantine Intermediate Water along its westward route through the entire Mediterranean Sea...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720699/cellular-trade-offs-and-optimal-resource-allocation-during-cyanobacterial-diurnal-growth
#17
Alexandra-M Reimers, Henning Knoop, Alexander Bockmayr, Ralf Steuer
Cyanobacteria are an integral part of Earth's biogeochemical cycles and a promising resource for the synthesis of renewable bioproducts from atmospheric CO2 Growth and metabolism of cyanobacteria are inherently tied to the diurnal rhythm of light availability. As yet, however, insight into the stoichiometric and energetic constraints of cyanobacterial diurnal growth is limited. Here, we develop a computational framework to investigate the optimal allocation of cellular resources during diurnal phototrophic growth using a genome-scale metabolic reconstruction of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720140/a-mixed-methods-protocol-for-developing-and-testing-implementation-strategies-for-evidence-based-obesity-prevention-in-childcare-a-cluster-randomized-hybrid-type-iii-trial
#18
Taren Swindle, Susan L Johnson, Leanne Whiteside-Mansell, Geoffrey M Curran
BACKGROUND: Despite the potential to reach at-risk children in childcare, there is a significant gap between current practices and evidence-based obesity prevention in this setting. There are few investigations of the impact of implementation strategies on the uptake of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for obesity prevention and nutrition promotion. This study protocol describes a three-phase approach to developing and testing implementation strategies to support uptake of EBPs for obesity prevention practices in childcare (i...
July 18, 2017: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720106/caretaker-adolescent-communication-on-sexual-and-reproductive-health-a-cross-sectional-study-in-unguja-tanzania-zanzibar
#19
Saada A Seif, Thecla W Kohi, Candida S Moshiro
BACKGROUND: Caretakers/parents/caregivers/guardians play important roles in improving Sexual and Reproductive Health (SRH) of adolescents. Caretaker-adolescent sexual communication suggested to influence young people's sexual behaviours. Despite this significance, the communication is believed to be low in Unguja due to the increase of risky sexual behaviours among adolescents. This study assessed the pattern of such communication using IMB model as a framework. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study targeted caretakers of adolescents aged 15-19...
July 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719365/proposed-model-for-the-cultural-adaptation-of-an-internet-based-depression-prevention-intervention-catch-it-for-arab-adolescents
#20
Zach Abuwalla, Zaynab Kadhem, Tracy Gladstone, Ereny Mikhael, Amir Bishay, Benjamin W Van Voorhees
Background Evidence-based Internet depression prevention intervention programs are not readily available for Arab youth, but may be effective in this group. Cultural adaptation of evidence-based Western psychotherapy is an important step toward better prevention and treatment of depressive illness in the Arab community. Project CATCH-IT is an Internet-based depression prevention intervention tool that is tailored for adolescents and young adults. Methods The PEN-3 theoretical framework was used for the cultural adaptation of Project CATCH-IT for Arab adolescents...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
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