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Programmed cell death

Duy C Tran, A Dimitrios Colevas, Anne Lynn S Chang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: JAMA Dermatology
Cinthia C Stempin, Claudia C Motrán, María P Aoki, Cristian R Falcón, Fabio M Cerbán, Laura Cervi
Macrophage plasticity is critical for controlling inflammation including those produced by helminth infections, where alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) are accumulated in tissues. AAM expressing the co-inhibitory molecule programmed death ligand 2 (PD-L2), which is capable of binding programmed death 1 (PD-1) expressed on activated T cells, have been demonstrated in different parasitic infections. However, the role of PD-L2 during F. hepatica infection has not yet been explored. We observed that F. hepatica infection or a F...
October 21, 2016: Oncotarget
Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Anastasia Glebov, Nimara Asbah, Luigi Bruno, Carolynne Meunier, Tatiana Iouk, Vladimir I Titorenko
We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death...
October 25, 2016: Aging
Yong Huang, Jinxiu Huang, Renli Qi, Qi Wang, Yongjiang Wu, Jing Wang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules that regulate growth, development, and programmed death of cells. A newly-published study has shown that miRNA-23a could regulate 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation. Here, we identified miRNA-23a as a negative regulator of 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation again. Over-expression of miRNA-23a inhibited differentiation and decreased lipogenesis as well as down-regulated mRNA and protein expression of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ and fatty acid binding protein (FABP) 4, whereas knock down of miRNA-23a showed the opposite effects on differentiation as well as increasing the number of apoptotic cells...
October 24, 2016: Genes
Jake S O'Donnell, Mark J Smyth, Michele W L Teng
Anti-programmed cell death 1 (PD1) immunotherapies are among the most effective anti-cancer immunotherapies available; however, a large number of patients present with or develop resistance to them. Unfortunately, very little is known regarding the mechanisms of resistance to such therapies. A recent study sought to identify mutations associated with resistance to anti-PD1 therapy. Results from this study demonstrated that mutations which affected the sensitivity of tumor cells to T-cell-derived interferons, and mutations limiting tumor-cell antigen presentation, could cause acquired resistance...
October 25, 2016: Genome Medicine
Alberto Bertolini, Elisa Petrussa, Sonia Patui, Marco Zancani, Carlo Peresson, Valentino Casolo, Angelo Vianello, Enrico Braidot
BACKGROUND: Senescence is a key developmental process occurring during the life cycle of plants that can be induced also by environmental conditions, such as starvation and/or darkness. During senescence, strict control of genes regulates ordered degradation and dismantling events, the most remarkable of which are genetically programmed cell death (PCD) and, in most cases, an upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis in the presence of light. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites that play multiple essential roles in development, reproduction and defence of plants, partly due to their well-known antioxidant properties, which could affect also the same cell death machinery...
October 26, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Youping Wu, Chun-Shiang Chung, Yaping Chen, Sean Farrell Monaghan, Sima Patel, Xin Huang, Daithi Seamus Heffernan, Alfred Ayala
Studies imply that intestinal barrier dysfunction is a key contributor to morbid events associated with sepsis. Recently, co-inhibitory molecule, programmed death-ligand1 (PD-L1) has been shown to be involved in the regulation of intestinal immune tolerance and/or inflammation. Our previous studies showed that PD-L1 gene deficiency reduced sepsis-induced intestinal injury morphologically. However, it isn't known how PD-L1 expression impacts intestinal barrier dysfunction during sepsis. Here we tested the hypothesis that PD-L1 expressed on intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) has a role in sepsis-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Medicine
FuNien Tsai, Harris Perlman, Carla M Cuda
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic multi-factorial autoimmune disease initiated by genetic and environmental factors, which in combination trigger disease onset in susceptible individuals. Damage to the kidney as a consequence of lupus nephritis (LN) is one of the most prevalent and severe outcomes, as LN affects up to 60% of SLE patients and accounts for much of SLE-associated morbidity and mortality. As remarkable strides have been made in unlocking new inflammatory mechanisms associated with signaling molecules of programmed cell death pathways, this review explores the available evidence implicating the action of these pathways specifically within dendritic cells and macrophages in the control of kidney disease...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Marta Denel-Bobrowska, Małgorzata Łukawska, Aneta Rogalska, Ewa Forma, Magdalena Bryś, Irena Oszczapowicz, Agnieszka Marczak
Oxazolinodoxorubicin (O-DOX) and oxazolinodaunorubicin (O-DAU) are novel anthracycline derivatives with a modified daunosamine moiety. In the present study, we evaluated the cytotoxicities, genotoxicities and abilities of O-DOX and O-DAU to induce apoptosis in cancer cell lines (SKOV-3; A549; HepG2), and compared the results with their parent drugs. We assessed antiproliferative activity by MTT assay. We evaluated apoptosis-inducing ability by double-staining with fluorescent probes (Hoechst 33258/propidium iodide), and by determining expression levels of genes involved in programmed cell death by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction...
October 22, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Sgb Furness, D L Hare, A Kourakis, A M Turnley, P J Wookey
We have discovered that the accumulation of an anti-calcitonin receptor (anti-CTR) antibody conjugated to a fluorophore (mAb2C4:AF568) provides a robust signal for cells undergoing apoptotic programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is an absolute requirement for normal development of metazoan organisms. PCD is a hallmark of common diseases such as cardiovascular disease and tissue rejection in graft versus host pathologies, and chemotherapeutics work by increasing PCD. This robust signal or high fluorescent events were verified by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry in several cell lines and a primary culture in which PCD had been induced...
2016: Cell Death Discovery
Lauren Van Der Kraak, Gaurav Goel, Krishnaveni Ramanan, Christof Kaltenmeier, Lin Zhang, Daniel P Normolle, Gordon J Freeman, Daolin Tang, Katie S Nason, Jon M Davison, James D Luketich, Rajeev Dhupar, Michael T Lotze
BACKGROUND: Resistance to chemotherapy is a major obstacle in the effective treatment of cancer patients. B7-homolog 1, also known as programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1), is an immunoregulatory protein that is overexpressed in several human cancers. Interaction of B7-H1 with programmed death 1 (PD-1) prevents T-cell activation and proliferation, sequestering the T-cell receptor from the cell membrane, inducing T-cell apoptosis, thereby leading to cancer immunoresistance. B7-H1 upregulation contributes to chemoresistance in several types of cancer, but little is known with respect to changes associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or gastrointestinal cancers...
2016: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
B R Cardoso, D J Hare, A I Bush, B R Roberts
Glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPx4) is an antioxidant enzyme reported as an inhibitor of ferroptosis, a recently discovered non-apoptotic form of cell death. This pathway was initially described in cancer cells and has since been identified in hippocampal and renal cells. In this Perspective, we propose that inhibition of ferroptosis by GPx4 provides protective mechanisms against neurodegeneration. In addition, we suggest that selenium deficiency enhances susceptibility to ferroptotic processes, as well as other programmed cell death pathways due to a reduction in GPx4 activity...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Yong-Bo Li, Xiang-Ru Li, Ting Yang, Jin-Xing Wang, Xiao-Fan Zhao
Autophagy regulates cell survival (or cell death in several cases), whereas apoptosis regulates cell death. However, the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis and the regulative mechanism is unclear. We report that steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) promotes switching from autophagy to apoptosis by increasing intracellular calcium levels in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Helicoverpa armigera. Autophagy and apoptosis sequentially occurred during midgut programmed cell death under 20E regulation, in which lower concentrations of 20E induced microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-phosphatidylethanolamine (LC3-II, also known as autophagy-related gene 8, ATG8) expression and autophagy...
October 21, 2016: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Leila Katirayi, Caspian Chouraya, Kwashie Kudiabor, Mohammed Ali Mahdi, Mary Pat Kieffer, Karen Marie Moland, Thorkild Tylleskar
BACKGROUND: Swaziland has one of the highest HIV prevalence rates in sub-Saharan Africa, 26 % of the adult population is infected with HIV. The prevalence is highest among pregnant women, at 41.1 %. According to Swaziland's prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) guidelines, approximately 50 % of pregnant women are eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) by CD4 criteria (<350 cells/ml). Studies have shown that most mother-to-child transmission and postnatal deaths occur among women who are eligible for ART...
October 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Kelly D Moynihan, Cary F Opel, Gregory L Szeto, Alice Tzeng, Eric F Zhu, Jesse M Engreitz, Robert T Williams, Kavya Rakhra, Michael H Zhang, Adrienne M Rothschilds, Sudha Kumari, Ryan L Kelly, Byron H Kwan, Wuhbet Abraham, Kevin Hu, Naveen K Mehta, Monique J Kauke, Heikyung Suh, Jennifer R Cochran, Douglas A Lauffenburger, K Dane Wittrup, Darrell J Irvine
Checkpoint blockade with antibodies specific for cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein (CTLA)-4 or programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1; also known as PD-1) elicits durable tumor regression in metastatic cancer, but these dramatic responses are confined to a minority of patients. This suboptimal outcome is probably due in part to the complex network of immunosuppressive pathways present in advanced tumors, which are unlikely to be overcome by intervention at a single signaling checkpoint. Here we describe a combination immunotherapy that recruits a variety of innate and adaptive immune cells to eliminate large tumor burdens in syngeneic tumor models and a genetically engineered mouse model of melanoma; to our knowledge tumors of this size have not previously been curable by treatments relying on endogenous immunity...
October 24, 2016: Nature Medicine
Erin A Henslee, Ruth M Torcal Serrano, Fatima H Labeed, Rita I Jabr, Christopher H Fry, Michael P Hughes, Kai F Hoettges
A loss of ability of cells to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death, whereby the cell ceases to function and destroys itself) is commonly associated with cancer, and many anti-cancer interventions aim to restart the process. Consequently, the accurate quantification of apoptosis is essential in understanding the function and performance of new anti-cancer drugs. Dielectrophoresis has previously been demonstrated to detect apoptosis more rapidly than other methods, and is low-cost, label-free and rapid, but has previously been unable to accurately quantify cells through the apoptotic process because cells in late apoptosis disintegrate, making cell tracking impossible...
October 24, 2016: Analyst
Analía Rial, Florencia Ferrara, Norma Suárez, Paola Scavone, Juan Martín Marqués, José Alejandro Chabalgoity
Respiratory tract infections are among the most frequent infections in humans causing millions of deaths especially in children and the elderly. Antibiotics and vaccines are the main available tools of control, but resistant strains are continuously arising and available vaccines only account for few of many pathogens involved. Non-specific immunotherapies are an emerging alternative to induce protective immunity at the airways. Mucosally administered polyvalent bacterial lysates (PBLs) have been widely used for decades for prevention of respiratory diseases, but the bases of their proposed therapeutic effectiveness are still controversial...
October 20, 2016: Microbes and Infection
Nataliya Di Donato, Ying Y Jean, A Murat Maga, Briana D Krewson, Alison B Shupp, Maria I Avrutsky, Achira Roy, Sarah Collins, Carissa Olds, Rebecca A Willert, Agnieszka M Czaja, Rachel Johnson, Jessi A Stover, Steven Gottlieb, Deborah Bartholdi, Anita Rauch, Amy Goldstein, Victoria Boyd-Kyle, Kimberly A Aldinger, Ghayda M Mirzaa, Anke Nissen, Karlla W Brigatti, Erik G Puffenberger, Kathleen J Millen, Kevin A Strauss, William B Dobyns, Carol M Troy, Robert N Jinks
Lissencephaly is a malformation of cortical development typically caused by deficient neuronal migration resulting in cortical thickening and reduced gyration. Here we describe a "thin" lissencephaly (TLIS) variant characterized by megalencephaly, frontal predominant pachygyria, intellectual disability, and seizures. Trio-based whole-exome sequencing and targeted re-sequencing identified recessive mutations of CRADD in six individuals with TLIS from four unrelated families of diverse ethnic backgrounds. CRADD (also known as RAIDD) is a death-domain-containing adaptor protein that oligomerizes with PIDD and caspase-2 to initiate apoptosis...
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Etheresia Pretorius, Jeanette N du Plooy, Janette Bester
Erythrocytes (RBCs) are extremely sensitive cells, and although they do not have nuclei and mitochondria, are important health indicators. This is particularly true because, during inflammation, whether it is systemic or chronic, the haematological system is constantly exposed to circulating inflammatory mediators. RBCs have a highly specialized and organized membrane structure, which interacts and reacts to inflammatory molecule insults, and undergo programmed cell death, similar to apoptosis, known as eryptosis...
October 24, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Joanna Szewińska, Joanna Simińska, Wiesław Bielawski
Proteolysis is an important process for development and germination of cereal seeds. Among the many types of proteases identified in plants are the cysteine proteases (CPs) of the papain and legumain families, which play a crucial role in hydrolysing storage proteins during seed germination as well as in processing the precursors of these proteins and the inactive forms of other proteases. Moreover, all of the tissues of cereal seeds undergo progressive degradation via programed cell death, which is integral to their growth...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Plant Physiology
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