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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342871/oxidative-damage-induces-apoptosis-and-promotes-calcification-in-disc-cartilage-endplate-cell-through-ros-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-implications-for-disc-degeneration
#1
Yingchao Han, Xinhua Li, Meijun Yan, Mingjie Yang, Shanjin Wang, Jie Pan, Lili Jun, Jun Tan
Cartilage endplate (CEP) cell calcification and apoptosis play a vital role in the intervertebral disc degeneration (IVDD). Oxidative stress is a key factor in inducing programmed cell death and cartilage calcification. However, the cell death and calcification of cartilage endplate cells under oxidative stress have never been described. The present study investigated the apoptosis and calcification in the cartilage endplate cell under oxidative stress induced by H2O2 to understand the underlying mechanism of IVDD...
March 23, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340378/current-fda-approved-treatments-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-potential-biomarkers-for-its-detection
#2
REVIEW
Karla A Ruiz-Ceja, Yolanda I Chirino
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading worldwide cancer with almost 1.5 million deaths every year. Some drugs for lung cancer treatment have been available on the market for decades, but novel drugs have emerged promising better outcomes, especially for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), which represents 75% of lung cancer cases. However, how much do drugs have evolved for NSCLC treatment? Are they sharing the same mechanism of action? AIM: In this review we analyzed how the approved drugs by Federal Drug Agency for NSCLC have advanced in the last four decades identifying shared mechanism of action of medicines against NSCLC treatment and some of the potential biomarkers for early detection...
March 21, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340172/repositioning-disulfiram-as-a-radiosensitizer-against-atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor
#3
Young Eun Lee, Seung Ah Choi, Pil Ae Kwack, Hak Jae Kim, Il Han Kim, Kyu-Chang Wang, Ji Hoon Phi, Ji Yeoun Lee, Sangjoon Chong, Sung-Hye Park, Kyung Duk Park, Do Won Hwang, Kyeung Min Joo, Seung-Ki Kim
Background.: Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is one of the most common malignant brain tumors in infants. Although cancer stem cells of AT/RT express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH), effective chemotherapies against AT/RT have not been established. Here, we examined radiosensitizing effects of disulfiram (DSF), an irreversible inhibitor of ALDH against AT/RT for a novel therapeutic method. Methods.: Patient-derived primary cultured AT/RT cells (SNU.AT/RT-5 and SNU...
March 17, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338711/the-effects-of-age-on-crash-risk-associated-with-driver-distraction
#4
Feng Guo, Sheila G Klauer, Youjia Fang, Jonathan M Hankey, Jonathan F Antin, Miguel A Perez, Suzanne E Lee, Thomas A Dingus
Background: Driver distraction is a major contributing factor to crashes, which are the leading cause of death for the US population under 35 years of age. The prevalence of secondary-task engagement and its impacts on distraction and crashes may vary substantially by driver age. Methods: Driving performance and behaviour data were collected continuously using multiple cameras and sensors in situ for 3542 participant drivers recruited for up to 3 years for the Second Strategic Highway Research Program Naturalistic Driving Study...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338655/evolution-of-caspase-mediated-cell-death-and-differentiation-twins-separated-at-birth
#5
REVIEW
Ryan A V Bell, Lynn A Megeney
The phenotypic and biochemical similarities between caspase-mediated apoptosis and cellular differentiation are striking. They include such diverse phenomenon as mitochondrial membrane perturbations, cytoskeletal rearrangements and DNA fragmentation. The parallels between the two disparate processes suggest some common ancestry and highlight the paradoxical nature of the death-centric view of caspases. That is, what is the driving selective pressure that sustains death-inducing proteins throughout eukaryotic evolution? Plausibly, caspase function may be rooted in a primordial non-death function, such as cell differentiation, and was co-opted for its role in programmed cell death...
March 24, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337817/the-cytotoxic-effects-of-camptothecin-and-mastoparan-on-the-unicellular-green-alga-chlamydomonas-reinhardtii
#6
Jürgen Voigt, Markus Morawski, Johannes Wöstemeyer
We have recently reported that protease inhibitors affecting the activity of the proteasome cause necrotic cell death in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii instead of inducing apoptosis as shown for some mammalian cell lines. Therefore, we have studied other well-known inducers of apoptosis in mammalian cells for their effects on C. reinhardtii cells. Mastoparan caused rapid cell death without a prominent lag-phase under all growth conditions, whereas the cytotoxic effect of the topoisomerase I inhibitor camptothecin exclusively occured during the cell-division phase...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336131/modulating-the-dna-damage-response-to-improve-treatment-response-in-cervical-cancer
#7
L H Cossar, A G Schache, J M Risk, J J Sacco, N J Jones, R Lord
Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide and new therapeutic approaches are needed to improve clinical outcomes for this group of patients. Current treatment protocols for locally advanced and metastatic disease consist of ionising radiation and chemotherapy. Chemoradiation induces cytotoxic levels of DNA double-strand breaks, which activates programmed cell death via the DNA damage response (DDR). Cervical cancers are unique given an almost exclusive association with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection; a potent manipulator of the DDR, with the potential to alter tumour sensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and influence treatment response...
March 20, 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335992/varicella-zoster-virus-vasculopathy-the-expanding-clinical-spectrum-and-pathogenesis
#8
REVIEW
Maria A Nagel, Dallas Jones, Ann Wyborny
Varicella zoster virus (VZV) is a ubiquitous, human alphaherpesvirus that produces varicella on primary infection then becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. In elderly and immunocompromised individuals, VZV reactivates and travels along nerve fibers peripherally resulting in zoster. However, VZV can also spread centrally and infect cerebral and extracranial arteries (VZV vasculopathy) to produce transient ischemic attacks, stroke, aneurysm, sinus thrombosis and giant cell arteritis, as well as granulomatous aortitis...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335643/prospects-and-progress-of-atezolizumab-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Johan Vansteenkiste, Els Wauters, Keunchil Park, Achim Rittmeyer, Alan Sandler, Alexander Spira
Immunotherapy has recently come to the forefront of oncology treatment as a potential means of combating cancer by restoring the body's adaptive cancer-immunity cycle. Atezolizumab is a monoclonal antibody agent that specifically targets programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), a key molecule in the cancer-immunity pathway, to block binding to its receptors PD-1 and B7.1. Areas covered: This review covers the role of atezolizumab in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Several studies have reported promising efficacy in this indication...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335520/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-unfolded-protein-response-in-cartilage-pathophysiology-contributing-factors-to-apoptosis-and-osteoarthritis
#10
REVIEW
Alexandria Hughes, Alexandra E Oxford, Ken Tawara, Cheryl L Jorcyk, Julia Thom Oxford
Chondrocytes of the growth plate undergo apoptosis during the process of endochondral ossification, as well as during the progression of osteoarthritis. Although the regulation of this process is not completely understood, alterations in the precisely orchestrated programmed cell death during development can have catastrophic results, as exemplified by several chondrodystrophies which are frequently accompanied by early onset osteoarthritis. Understanding the mechanisms that underlie chondrocyte apoptosis during endochondral ossification in the growth plate has the potential to impact the development of therapeutic applications for chondrodystrophies and associated early onset osteoarthritis...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334399/association-of-hiv-status-with-local-immune-response-to-anal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-implications-for-immunotherapy
#11
Elizabeth L Yanik, Genevieve J Kaunitz, Tricia R Cottrell, Farah Succaria, Tracee L McMiller, Maria L Ascierto, Jessica Esandrio, Haiying Xu, Aleksandra Ogurtsova, Toby Cornish, Evan J Lipson, Suzanne L Topalian, Eric A Engels, Janis M Taube
Importance: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) pathway play an important immunosuppressive role in cancer and chronic viral infection, and have been effectively targeted in cancer therapy. Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is associated with both human papillomavirus and HIV infection. To date, patients with HIV have been excluded from most trials of immune checkpoint blocking agents, such as anti-PD-1 and anti-PD-L1, because it was assumed that their antitumor immunity was compromised compared with immunocompetent patients...
March 23, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334041/virus-mediated-suppression-of-host-non-self-recognition-facilitates-horizontal-transmission-of-heterologous-viruses
#12
Songsong Wu, Jiasen Cheng, Yanping Fu, Tao Chen, Daohong Jiang, Said A Ghabrial, Jiatao Xie
Non-self recognition is a common phenomenon among organisms; it often leads to innate immunity to prevent the invasion of parasites and maintain the genetic polymorphism of organisms. Fungal vegetative incompatibility is a type of non-self recognition which often induces programmed cell death (PCD) and restricts the spread of molecular parasites. It is not clearly known whether virus infection could attenuate non-self recognition among host individuals to facilitate its spread. Here, we report that a hypovirulence-associated mycoreovirus, named Sclerotinia sclerotiorum mycoreovirus 4 (SsMYRV4), could suppress host non-self recognition and facilitate horizontal transmission of heterologous viruses...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332589/cell-cycle-arrest-and-biochemical-changes-accompanying-cell-death-in-harmful-dinoflagellates-following-exposure-to-bacterial-algicide-iri-160aa
#13
Kaytee L Pokrzywinski, Charles L Tilney, Mark E Warner, Kathryn J Coyne
Bacteria may play a role in regulating harmful algal blooms, but little is known about the biochemical and physiological changes associated with cell death induced by algicidal bacteria. Previous work characterized an algicidal exudate (IRI-160AA) produced by Shewanella sp. IRI-160 that is effective against dinoflagellates, while having little to no effect on other phytoplankton species in laboratory culture experiments. The objective of this study was to evaluate biochemical changes associated with cell death and impacts on the cell cycle in three dinoflagellate species (Prorocentrum minimum, Karlodinium veneficum and Gyrodinium instriatum) after exposure to IRI-160AA...
March 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331527/determinants-to-antiretroviral-treatment-non-adherence-among-adult-hiv-aids-patients-in-northern-ethiopia
#14
Berhe Beyene Gebrezgabher, Yigzaw Kebede, Melaku Kindie, Desalegn Tetemke, Mebrahtu Abay, Yalemzewod Assefa Gelaw
BACKGROUND: Adhering 95% and above of antiretroviral therapy reduces the rate of disease progression and death among people's living human immunodeficiency virus. Though manifold factors have reported as determinant factors of antiretroviral therapy adherence status, perhaps determinants of non-adherence differ up on the activities of patients in the study setting. METHODS: An institution based unmatched case-control study was conducted in Aksum town. Individuals who had a 6-month follow-up with complete individual information were included in the study...
2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331165/tim-3-and-pd-1-regulate-cd8-t-cell-function-to-maintain-early-pregnancy-in-mice
#15
Yuan-Yuan Xu, Song-Cun Wang, Yi-Kong Lin, Da-Jin Li, Mei-Rong DU
During pregnancy, CD8(+) T cells are important regulators in the balance of fetal tolerance and antiviral immunity. T-cell immunoglobulin mucin-3 (Tim-3) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) are well-recognized negative co-stimulatory molecules involved in viral persistence and tumor metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that CD8(+) T cells co-expressing Tim-3 and PD-1 were down-regulated in the deciduae of female mice in abortion-prone matings compared with normal pregnant mice. In addition to their reduced numbers, the Tim-3(+)PD-1(+)CD8(+) T cells produced lower levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10, as well as a higher level of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ, relative to those from normal pregnancy...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330474/hypercholesterolemia-downregulates-autophagy-in-the-rat-heart
#16
Zoltán Giricz, Gábor Koncsos, Tomáš Rajtík, Zoltán V Varga, Tamás Baranyai, Csaba Csonka, Adrián Szobi, Adriana Adameová, Roberta A Gottlieb, Péter Ferdinandy
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that efficiency of ischemic conditioning is diminished in hypercholesterolemia and that autophagy is necessary for cardioprotection. However, it is unknown whether isolated hypercholesterolemia disturbs autophagy or the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways. Therefore, we investigated whether isolated hypercholesterolemia modulates cardiac autophagy-related pathways or programmed cell death mechanisms such as apoptosis and necroptosis in rat heart...
March 23, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328302/pembrolizumab-for-platinum-and-cetuximab-refractory-head-and-neck-cancer-results-from-a-single-arm-phase-ii-study
#17
Joshua Bauml, Tanguy Y Seiwert, David G Pfister, Francis Worden, Stephen V Liu, Jill Gilbert, Nabil F Saba, Jared Weiss, Lori Wirth, Ammar Sukari, Hyunseok Kang, Michael K Gibson, Erminia Massarelli, Steven Powell, Amy Meister, Xinxin Shu, Jonathan D Cheng, Robert Haddad
Purpose There are no approved treatments for recurrent/metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma refractory to platinum and cetuximab. In the single-arm, phase II KEYNOTE-055 study, we evaluated pembrolizumab, an anti-programmed death 1 receptor antibody, in this platinum- and cetuximab-pretreated population with poor prognosis. Methods Eligibility stipulated disease progression within 6 months of platinum and cetuximab treatment. Patients received pembrolizumab 200 mg every 3 weeks. Imaging was performed every 6 to 9 weeks...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326889/aquaporin-4-autoimmunity-in-patients-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-predominantly-population-based-study
#18
Nasrin Asgari, Sven Jarius, Helle Laustrup, Hanne Pb Skejoe, Soeren T Lillevang, Brian G Weinshenker, Anne Voss
BACKGROUND: Serum immunoglobulin G targeting the astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4) in the central nervous system (CNS) is a biomarker for neuromyelitis optica spectrum disease (NMOSD). Co-existence of NMOSD with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) putatively suggests susceptibility to antibody-mediated autoimmune disease. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of NMOSD in SLE and investigate the immunogenetic background for an association of NMOSD and SLE...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326081/the-smac-mimetic-bv6-improves-nk-cell-mediated-killing-of-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-by-simultaneously-targeting-tumor-and-effector-cells
#19
Kyra Fischer, Sara Tognarelli, Stefanie Roesler, Cathinka Boedicker, Ralf Schubert, Alexander Steinle, Thomas Klingebiel, Peter Bader, Simone Fulda, Evelyn Ullrich
Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common cancer of connective tissues in pediatrics, is often resistant to conventional therapies. One underlying mechanism of this resistance is the overexpression of Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) proteins, leading to a dysfunctional cell death program within tumor cells. Smac mimetics (SM) are small molecules that can reactivate the cell death program by antagonizing IAP proteins and thereby compensating their overexpression. Here, we report that SM sensitize two RMS cell lines (RD and RH30) toward natural killer (NK) cell-mediated killing on the one hand, and increase the cytotoxic potential of NK cells on the other...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325262/the-roles-of-reactive-oxygen-species-ros-and-autophagy-in-the-survival-and-death-of-leukemia-cells
#20
REVIEW
Yong-Feng Chen, Hao Liu, Xin-Jing Luo, Zhiqiang Zhao, Zhen-You Zou, Jing Li, Xiao-Jing Lin, Yong Liang
As a clonal disease of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), the etiology and pathogenesis of leukemia is not fully understood. Recent studies suggest that cellular homeostasis plays an essential role in maintaining the function of HSCs because dysregulation of cellular homeostasis is one of the major factors underlying the malignant transformation of HSCs. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy, key factors regulating cellular homeostasis, are commonly observed in the human body. Autophagy can be induced by ROS through a variety of signaling pathways, and conversely inhibits ROS-induced damage to cells and tissues...
April 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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