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Programmed cell death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046052/protective-effect-of-different-antioxidant-agents-in-uvb-irradiated-keratinocytes
#1
Sara Salucci, Sabrina Burattini, Francesca Buontempo, Alberto Maria Martelli, Elisabetta Falcieri, Michela Battistelli
Skin cells can respond to UVB-induced damage either by tolerating it, or restoring it through antioxidant activation and DNA repair mechanisms or, ultimately, undergoing programmed cell death, when damage is massive. Nutritional factors, in particular, food antioxidants, have attracted much interest because of their potential use in new preventive, protective, and therapeutic strategies for chronic degenerative diseases, including skin inflammation and cancer. Some polyphenols, present in virgin olive oil, well tolerated by organism after oral administration, show a variety of pharmacological and clinical benefits such as anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and neuro-protective activities...
September 18, 2017: European Journal of Histochemistry: EJH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045749/immune-checkpoint-inhibitor-related-myocarditis
#2
Kazuko Tajiri, Kazutaka Aonuma, Ikuo Sekine
Immune checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated significant clinical benefit in many cancers. The clinical benefit afforded by these treatments can be accompanied by a unique and distinct spectrum of adverse events. Recently, several fatal cases of immune checkpoint inhibitor-related myocarditis were reported. Although its frequency is comparatively lower than that of other immune-related adverse events, myocarditis can lead to circulatory collapse and lethal ventricular arrhythmia. Immune checkpoints, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), play important roles in establishing peripheral tolerance to the heart...
October 17, 2017: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045540/phase-ii-trial-of-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-platinum-refractory-germ-cell-tumors-a-hoosier-cancer-research-network-study-gu14-206
#3
N Adra, L H Einhorn, S K Althouse, N R Ammakkanavar, D Musapatika, C Albany, D Vaughn, N H Hanna
Background: Despite remarkable results with salvage standard-dose or high-dose chemotherapy about 15% of patients with relapsed germ-cell tumors (GCT) are incurable. Immune checkpoint inhibitors have produced significant remission in multiple tumor types. We report the first study of immunotherapy in patients with GCT. Patients and Methods: Single arm phase 2 trial investigating pembrolizumab 200mg IV Q3weeks until disease progression in patients with relapsed GCT and no curable options...
October 17, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045250/clinical-decision-making-for-immunotherapy-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#4
Manuela Schmidinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the treatment options in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) in the light of new immunotherapy results. RECENT FINDINGS: Second-line treatment strategies for treatment of mRCC after progression on first-line VEGF-targeted therapy have recently undergone a major change. Treatment guidelines currently recommend the use of either nivolumab, a programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) inhibitor, or cabozantinib, an inhibitor of multiple receptor tyrosine kinases, as preferred choices...
October 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045188/rapid-evolution-of-thyroid-dysfunction-in-patients-treated-with-nivolumab
#5
Grenye O'Malley, Hanna J Lee, Samir Parekh, Matthew D Galsky, Cardinale B Smith, Philip Friedlander, Robert T Yanagisawa, Emily J Gallagher
OBJECTIVE: To describe the evolution of thyroid dysfunction in a series of patients with cancer treated with the immune checkpoint inhibitor anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody, nivolumab. METHODS: Cases of thyroid dysfunction after initiation of checkpoint inhibitor treatment were identified from the Division of Endocrinology clinical practice at Mount Sinai Hospital, New York from April 2016 to February 2017. Charts were reviewed to identify patients treated with nivolumab with new onset of thyroid dysfunction...
October 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045036/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-regulates-oxygen-glucose-deprivation-induced-parthanatos-in-human-sh-sy5y-cells-via-improvement-of-intracellular-ros
#6
Hai-Feng Wang, Zong-Qi Wang, Ye Ding, Mei-Hua Piao, Chun-Sheng Feng, Guang-Fan Chi, Yi-Nan Luo, Peng-Fei Ge
AIMS: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been demonstrated to regulate neuronal death caused by ischemic insults via activation of apoptosis, but it still remains unclear whether ER stress participates in regulation of parthanatos, a new type of programmed cell death characterized by PARP-1 overactivation and intracellular accumulation of PAR polymer. METHODS: we used oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and human SH-SY5Y cells to simulate neuronal damage caused by ischemia...
October 16, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044503/clinical-significance-of-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1-expression-and-the-immune-microenvironment-at-the-invasive-front-of-colorectal-cancers-with-high-microsatellite-instability
#7
Shotaro Korehisa, Eiji Oki, Makoto Iimori, Yu Nakaji, Mototsugu Shimokawa, Hiroshi Saeki, Shinji Okano, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
Immunotherapy is reportedly effective in colorectal cancers (CRCs) with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H); however, the specific cell types that respond to immune checkpoint therapy are unclear. Herein, we aimed to examine the expression of programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and related proteins in MSI-H and microsatellite-stable (MSS) CRCs to investigate the immune microenvironment at the tumor's invasive front. The MSI status was retrospectively assessed in 499 patients undergoing surgical resection of primary CRC; of these, 48 were classified as MSI-H...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043842/the-protective-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-fucoidan-against-7-12-dimethyl-benz-a-anthracene-induced-experimental-mammary-carcinogenesis-through-the-pd1-pdl1-signaling-pathway-in-rats
#8
Meilan Xue, Hui Liang, Qingjuan Tang, Chuanxing Xue, Xinjia He, Li Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Zhengyan Liang, Kang Bian, Lichen Zhang, Zhuxin Li
Fucoidan is a sulfated polysaccharide that is extracted from brown algae seaweed. This study was designed to evaluate the protective and immunomodulatory effects of dietary fucoidan on 7,12-dimethyl benz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced experimental mammary carcinogenesis in rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four equal groups: the control group (control group), the cancer model group (model group), and the F1 and F2 groups, which were fed fucoidan at concentrations of 200 and 400 mg/kg·body weight, respectively...
October 18, 2017: Nutrition and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041905/clinicopathological-and-prognostic-significance-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-expression-in-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#9
Hye Min Kim, Jinae Lee, Ja Seung Koo
BACKGROUND: Programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) may be a useful molecule for targeted immunotherapy. Therefore, this meta-analysis aimed to investigate PD-L1 expression in breast cancer and its associations with clinicopathological factors and outcomes, which may help determine whether PD-L1 expression is a useful prognostic marker. METHODS: The Medline Ovid, Cochrane, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched for studies that evaluated the prognostic or clinicopathological significance of PD-L1 expression in patients with breast cancer, and reported at least one survival-related outcome...
October 17, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039099/assessing-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-by-nanoparticles
#10
Bhawna Sharma, Christopher B McLeland, Timothy M Potter, Stephan T Stern, Pavan P Adiseshaiah
NLRP3 inflammasome activation is one of the initial steps in an inflammatory cascade against pathogen/danger-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs), such as those arising from environmental toxins or nanoparticles, and is essential for innate immune response. NLRP3 inflammasome activation in cells can lead to the release of IL-1β cytokine via caspase-1, which is required for inflammatory-induced programmed cell death (pyroptosis). Nanoparticles are commonly used as vaccine adjuvants and drug delivery vehicles to improve the efficacy and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038748/virulence-test-using-nematodes-to-prescreen-nocardia-species-capable-of-inducing-neurodegeneration-and-behavioral-disorders
#11
Claire Bernardin Souibgui, Anthony Zoropogui, Jeremy Voisin, Sebastien Ribun, Valentin Vasselon, Petar Pujic, Veronica Rodriguez-Nava, Patrick Belly, Benoit Cournoyer, Didier Blaha
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a disorder characterized by dopaminergic neuron programmed cell death. The etiology of PD remains uncertain-some cases are due to selected genes associated with familial heredity, others are due to environmental exposure to toxic components, but over 90% of cases have a sporadic origin. Nocardia are Actinobacteria that can cause human diseases like nocardiosis. This illness can lead to lung infection or central nervous system (CNS) invasion in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038297/tumor-pdcd1lg2-pd-l2-expression-and-the-lymphocytic-reaction-to-colorectal-cancer
#12
Yohei Masugi, Reiko Nishihara, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Mingyang Song, Annacarolina da Silva, Keisuke Kosumi, Mancang Gu, Yan Shi, Wanwan Li, Li Liu, Daniel Nevo, Kentaro Inamura, Yin Cao, Xiaoyun Liao, Katsuhiko Nosho, Andrew T Chan, Marios Giannakis, Adam J Bass, F Stephen Hodi, Gordon J Freeman, Scott J Rodig, Charles S Fuchs, Zhi Rong Qian, Jonathan A Nowak, Shuji Ogino
Expression of the immune-checkpoint ligand CD274 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1, PD-L1, from gene CD274) contributes to suppression of antitumor T cell-mediated immune response in various tumor types. However, the role of PDCD1LG2 (PD-L2, CD273, from gene PDCD1LG2) in the tumor microenvironment remains unclear. We hypothesized that tumor PDCD1LG2 expression might be inversely associated with lymphocytic reactions to colorectal cancer. We examined tumor PDCD1LG2 expression by immunohistochemistry in 823 colon and rectal carcinoma cases within two U...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038249/anti-pd-1-antibody-treatment-promotes-clearance-of-persistent-cryptococcal-lung-infection-in-mice
#13
Jonathan A Roussey, Steven P Viglianti, Seagal Teitz-Tennenbaum, Michal A Olszewski, John J Osterholzer
Activation of immunomodulatory pathways in response to invasive fungi can impair clearance and promote persistent infections. The programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) signaling pathway inhibits immune effector responses against tumors, and immune checkpoint inhibitors that block this pathway are being increasingly used as cancer therapy. The objective of this study was to investigate whether this pathway contributes to persistent fungal infection and to determine whether anti-PD-1 Ab treatment improves fungal clearance...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038008/fibrinogen-cleavage-products-and-tlr4-promote-the-generation-of-programmed-cell-death-1-ligand-2-pd-l2-dendritic-cells-in-allergic-asthma
#14
Minkyoung Cho, Jeong-Eun Lee, Hoyong Lim, Hyun-Woo Shin, Roza Khalmuratova, Garam Choi, Hyuk Soon Kim, Wahn Soo Choi, Young-Jun Park, Inbo Shim, Byung-Seok Kim, Chang-Yuil Kang, Jae-Ouk Kim, Shinya Tanaka, Masato Kubo, Yeonseok Chung
BACKGROUND: Inhaled protease allergens preferentially trigger Th2-mediated inflammation in allergic asthma. The role of dendritic cells (DCs) on the induction of Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma has been well documented; however, the mechanism by which protease allergens induce Th2-favorable DCs in the airway remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine a subset of DCs responsible for Th2 cell responses in allergic asthma and the mechanism by which protease allergens induce the DC subset in the airway...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036791/globo-h-expression-is-associated-with-driver-mutations-and-pd-l1-expressions-in-stage-i-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Ching-Yao Yang, Mong-Wei Lin, Yih-Leong Chang, Chen-Tu Wu
BACKGROUND: Globo H is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen exclusively expressed in cancer cells rather than normal tissue. Globo H has been found on many cancers of epithelial origins, and become an attractive target for cancer vaccine. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to study the expression of Globo H in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and correlated its expression with common driver mutations, clinical outcomes, and status of immune checkpoint, programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
September 29, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036261/development-of-halo-nevi-in-a-lung-cancer-patient-a-novel-immune-related-cutaneous-event-from-atezolizumab
#16
Mathew R Birnbaum, Michelle W Ma, Michael A Casey, Bijal D Amin, Mark Jacobson, Haiying Cheng, Beth N McLellan
Immunotherapy-induced vitiligo is an immune-related adverse event (irAE) observed in metastatic melanoma patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) pathways. To date, the development of leukoderma, poliosis, and halo nevi during immunotherapy has largely been reported in metastatic melanoma patients. We report a case of immunotherapy-induced leukoderma presenting as halo nevi in a patient with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with atezolizumab, a programmed cell death ligand (PD-L1) antibody...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034589/involvement-of-local-renin-angiotensin-system-in-immunosuppression-of-tumor-microenvironment
#17
Kenta Nakamura, Tomonori Yaguchi, Gaku Ohmura, Asuka Kobayashi, Naoshi Kawamura, Takashi Iwata, Yukiko Kiniwa, Ryuhei Okuyama, Yutaka Kawakami
To improve the current cancer immunotherapies, strategies to modulate various immunosuppressive cells including myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) which were shown to be negative factors in the immune-checkpoint blockade therapy, need to be developed. In this study, we have evaluated the role of local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in the tumor immune-microenvironment using murine models bearing tumor cell lines in which RAS was not involved in their proliferation and angiogenetic ability. Administration of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) to C57BL/6 mice bearing murine colon cancer cell line MC38 resulted in significant enhancement of tumor antigen gp70 specific T cells...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034543/pd-l1-expression-is-mainly-regulated-by-ifn-%C3%AE-associated-with-jak-stat-pathway-in-gastric-cancer
#18
Kousaku Mimura, Jun Liang Teh, Hirokazu Okayama, Kensuke Shiraishi, Ley-Fang Kua, Vivien Koh, Duane T Smoot, Hassan Ashktorab, Takahiro Oike, Yoshiyuki Suzuki, Zul Fazreen, Bernadette R Asuncion, Asim Shabbir, Wei-Peng Yong, Jimmy So, Richie Soong, Koji Kono
Despite multidisciplinary treatment for patients with advanced gastric cancer, their prognosis still remains poor. Therefore, the development of novel therapeutic strategies is urgently needed, and immunotherapy utilizing anti-programmed death 1/-programmed death ligand-1 mAb is an attractive approach. However, as there is limited information on how programmed death ligand-1 is upregulated on tumor cells within the tumor microenvironment, we examined the mechanism of programmed death ligand-1 regulation with a particular focus on interferon gamma in in-vitro setting and in clinical samples...
October 16, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033592/is-this-the-end-of-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-in-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#20
REVIEW
Guilherme Rabinowits
Although cytotoxic chemotherapy has been used often in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), its benefit remains uncertain. Despite being considered a chemosensitive disease, the duration of response is generally short, and the survival benefit is unclear. With the recent FDA approval of the anti-programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) antibody avelumab for patients with advanced MCC and the limited and controversial data on chemotherapy, it is important to put in perspective whether conventional chemotherapy should remain an option for these patients...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
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