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Programmed cell death

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430938/characterization-of-yjjj-toxin-of-escherichia-coli
#1
Yuki Maeda, Chun-Yi Lin, Yojiro Ishida, Masayori Inouye, Yoshihiro Yamaguchi, Sangita Phadtare
Reminiscent of eukaryotic apoptotic programmed cell death, bacteria also contain a large number of suicide genes, which are in general co-expressed with their cognate antitoxic genes. These systems called the toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are associated with cellular dormancy, and play major roles in biofilm formation and persistent multi-drug resistance of many human pathogens. In recent years, the study on TA system toxins has become a hot topic due to the health implications of these toxins by virtue of their role in bacterial pathogenicity...
April 19, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430664/identification-of-a-novel-pd-l1-positive-solid-tumor-transplantable-in-hla-a-0201-drb1-0101-transgenic-mice
#2
Laurie Rangan, Jeanne Galaine, Romain Boidot, Mohamad Hamieh, Magalie Dosset, Julie Francoual, Laurent Beziaud, Jean-René Pallandre, Elodie Lauret Marie Joseph, Afag Asgarova, Christophe Borg, Talal Al Saati, Yann Godet, Jean Baptiste Latouche, Séverine Valmary-Degano, Olivier Adotévi
HLA-A*0201/DRB1*0101 transgenic mice (A2/DR1 mice) have been developed to study the immunogenicity of tumor antigen-derived T cell epitopes. To extend the use and application of this mouse model in the field of antitumor immunotherapy, we described a tumor cell line generated from a naturally occurring tumor in A2/DR1 mouse named SARC-L1. Histological and genes signature analysis supported the sarcoma origin of this cell line. While SARC-L1 tumor cells lack HLA-DRB1*0101 expression, a very low expression of HLA-A*0201 molecules was found on these cells...
April 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430626/expression-of-pd-l1-and-prognosis-in-breast-cancer-a-meta-analysis
#3
Minghui Zhang, Houbin Sun, Shu Zhao, Yan Wang, Haihong Pu, Yan Wang, Qingyuan Zhang
The associations between programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and the prognosis of various cancers have always been a research topic of considerable interest. However, the prognostic value of PD-L1 in breast cancer patients remains a controversial subject. We aimed to assess the association between PD-L1 protein expression and clinicopathological features and the impact of this relationship on breast cancer survival. We performed a systematic search of the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases to determine the correlations among PD-L1 expression, clinicopathological features and overall survival (OS)...
February 20, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430613/development-of-comprehensive-nomograms-for-evaluating-overall-and-cancer-specific-survival-of-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-patients-treated-with-neck-dissection
#4
Xiao Shi, Wei-Ping Hu, Qing-Hai Ji
BACKGROUND: Neck dissection for laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) patients could provide complementary prognostic information for AJCC N staging, like lymph node ratio (LNR). The aim of this study was to develop effective nomograms to better predict survival for LSCC patients treated with neck dissection. RESULTS: 2752 patients were identified and randomly divided into training (n = 2477) and validation (n = 275) cohorts. The 3- and 5-year probabilities of cancer-specific mortality (CSM) were 30...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430185/phospholipase-c%C3%AE-1-regulates-p38-mapk-activity-and-skin-barrier-integrity
#5
Kaori Kanemaru, Yoshikazu Nakamura, Kengo Totoki, Takatsugu Fukuyama, Madoka Shoji, Hisae Kaneko, Kanako Shiratori, Atsuko Yoneda, Takafumi Inoue, Yoichiro Iwakura, Kenji Kabashima, Kiyoko Fukami
Keratinocytes undergo a unique type of programmed cell death known as cornification, which leads to the formation of the stratum corneum (SC), the main physical barrier of the epidermis. A defective epidermal barrier is a hallmark of the two most common inflammatory skin disorders, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. However, the detailed molecular mechanisms of skin barrier formation are not yet fully understood. Here, we showed that downregulation of phospholipase C (PLC) δ1, a Ca(2+)-mobilizing and phosphoinositide-metabolizing enzyme abundantly expressed in the epidermis, impairs the barrier functions of the SC...
April 21, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429669/what-can-pharmacological-models-of-retinal-degeneration-tell-us
#6
M H Reisenhofer, J Balmer, V Enzmann
Animal models with pharmacologically induced retinal degeneration including sodium iodate (NaIO3) and N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) have been extensively used in ophthalmic research to investigate retinal degeneration. NaIO3 induces degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) followed by photoreceptor (PRC) cell death, mimicking features of age-related macular degeneration. In contrast, MNU leads to rapid destruction of the PRCs only, enabling the use of the MNU model to investigate degeneration induced in retinitis pigmentosa...
March 31, 2017: Current Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429196/expression-of-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-by-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-and-tumor-cells-is-associated-with-advanced-tumor-stage-in-patients-with-esophageal-adenocarcinoma
#7
Dagmar Kollmann, Desislava Ignatova, Julia Jedamzik, Yun-Tsan Chang, Gerd Jomrich, Matthias Paireder, Ivan Kristo, Dmitry Kazakov, Michal Michal, Antonio Cozzio, Wolfram Hoetzenecker, Tobias Schatton, Reza Asari, Matthias Preusser, Emmanuella Guenova, Sebastian F Schoppmann
BACKGROUND: Despite recent advances in the therapy for adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction (AEG), overall prognosis remains poor. Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD1) is a co-inhibitory receptor primarily expressed by T-cells. Tumor cells can escape anticancer immune responses by triggering the PD1 pathway. Moreover, PD1 receptor engagement on cancer cells may trigger tumor-intrinsic growth signals. This study aimed to evaluate the potential clinical relevance of PD1 expression by tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) and cancer cells in the AEG...
April 20, 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428947/update-on-programmed-death-1-and-programmed-death-ligand-1-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-or-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Marco A J Iafolla, Rosalyn A Juergens
PURPOSE: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has a large worldwide prevalence with a high mortality rate. Chemotherapy has offered modest improvements in survival over the past two decades. Immune checkpoint modulation with programmed death-1 (PD-1) or programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) inhibition has shown the promise of changing the future landscape of cancer therapy. This update reviews recent advances in the treatment of NSCLC with immune checkpoint modulation. METHODS: Publications and proceedings were identified from searching PubMed and proceedings from the annual meetings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, European Society for Medical Oncology, and European Lung Cancer Conference...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428883/response-after-treatment-with-pembrolizumab-in-a-patient-with-myelophthisis-due-to-melanoma-the-role-of-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-bone
#9
Samuel Rosner, Filiz Sen, Michael Postow
BACKGROUND: Myelophthisis due to melanoma is a rare phenomenon. Treatment strategies for patients with this serious complication of malignancy have not been well documented, and none have previously reported efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition. Since bone metastases are not measurable lesions per standard response criteria, the efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibition in the bones is also not well described. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with widespread melanoma metastases involving the bone marrow causing myelophthisis and pancytopenia who responded to immune checkpoint inhibition with the anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitor pembrolizumab...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428879/a-systems-biology-approach-to-investigating-the-influence-of-exercise-and-fitness-on-the-composition-of-leukocytes-in-peripheral-blood
#10
Michael P Gustafson, Ara Celi DiCostanzo, Courtney M Wheatley, Chul-Ho Kim, Svetlana Bornschlegl, Dennis A Gastineau, Bruce D Johnson, Allan B Dietz
BACKGROUND: Exercise immunology has become a growing field in the past 20 years, with an emphasis on understanding how different forms of exercise affect immune function. Mechanistic studies are beginning to shed light on how exercise may impair the development of cancer or be used to augment cancer treatment. The beneficial effects of exercise on the immune system may be exploited to improve patient responses to cancer immunotherapy. METHODS: We investigated the effects of acute exercise on the composition of peripheral blood leukocytes over time in a male population of varying fitness...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428785/interferon-gamma-induces-changes-in-natural-killer-nk-cell-ligand-expression-and-alters-nk-cell-mediated-lysis-of-pediatric-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Arianexys Aquino-López, Vladimir V Senyukov, Zlatko Vlasic, Eugenie S Kleinerman, Dean A Lee
Natural killer (NK) cells have therapeutic potential for cancer due to their capacity for targeting tumor cells without prior sensitization. Our laboratory has developed an NK cell expansion protocol that generates large quantities of NK cells for therapeutic infusion that secret 20 times the amount of interferon gamma (IFNγ) than resting NK cells. IFNγ can upregulate major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-class I, an inhibitory ligand for NK cells, but can also upregulate intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) which promotes NK:target cell interaction for an efficient lysis...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427861/divergent-function-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-in-donor-tissue-versus-recipient-immune-system-in-a-murine-model-of-bronchiolitis-obliterans
#12
Katharina Schütte-Nütgen, Olaf Boenisch, Hakima Harrach, Alicia Casey, Indira Guleria, Nader Najafian, Mohamed H Sayegh, Craig J Gerard, Meera Subramaniam
Costimulatory molecules, such as the programmed death ligand (PD-L1), might exert differential effects on T-cell function, depending on the clinical setting and/or immunological environment. Given the impact of T cells on bronchiolitis obliterans (BO) in lung transplantation, we used an established tracheal transplant model inducing BO-like lesions to investigate the impact of PD-L1 on alloimmune responses and histopathological outcome in BO. In contrast to other transplant models in which PD-L1 generally shows protective functions, we demonstrated that PD-L1 has divergent effects depending on its location in donor versus recipient tissue...
April 17, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427522/the-role-of-anti-pd-1-and-anti-pd-l1-agents-in-the-treatment-of-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-the-future-is-now
#13
REVIEW
Luis Miguel Juárez-Salcedo, Jose Sandoval-Sus, Lubomir Sokol, Julio C Chavez, Samir Dalia
Immune checkpoints inhibitors have been incorporated into standard treatment protocols for advanced solid tumors. The aim of T-cell-based immune therapy in cancer has been to generate durable clinical benefits for patients, paired with enhanced side effect profiles. The beneficial antitumoral activity of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been thoroughly demonstrated in certain metastatic malignancies (e.g. melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer, renal cell carcinoma); however, the therapeutic role in lymphoid cancers is complex...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427341/reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-tapetal-programmed-cell-death-in-tobacco-and-tomato
#14
Shi-Xia Yu, Qiang-Nan Feng, Hong-Tao Xie, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Hybrid vigor is highly valued in the agricultural industry. Male sterility is an important trait for crop breeding. Pollen development is under strict control of both gametophytic and sporophytic factors, and defects in this process can result in male sterility. Both in the dicot Arabidopsis and in the moncot rice, proper timing of programmed cell death (PCD) in the tapetum ensures pollen development. Dynamic ROS levels have been reported to control tapetal PCD, and thus pollen development, in Arabidopsis and rice...
April 20, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427156/the-effects-of-dleu1-gene-expression-in-burkitt-lymphoma-bl-potential-mechanism-of-chemoimmunotherapy-resistance-in-bl
#15
Sanghoon Lee, Wen Luo, Tishi Shah, Changhong Yin, Timmy O'Connell, Tae-Hoon Chung, Sherrie L Perkins, Rodney R Miles, Janet Ayello, Erin Morris, Lauren Harrison, Carmella van de Ven, Mitchell S Cairo
Following a multivariant analysis we demonstrated that children and adolescents with Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and a 13q14.3 deletion have a significant decrease in event free survival (EFS) despite identical short intensive multi-agent chemotherapy. However, how this deletion in the 13q14.3 region is associated with a significant decrease in EFS in children and adolescents with BL is largely unknown. The gene Deleted in Lymphocytic Leukemia 1 (DLEU1) is located in the region of 13q14.3. Here, we report that DLEU1 expression is implicated in the regulation of BL programmed cell death, cell proliferation, and expression of apoptotic genes in transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN)s-induced DLEU1 knockdown and DLEU1 overexpressing BL cell lines...
February 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424988/overcoming-chemotherapy-drug-resistance-by-targeting-inhibitors-of-apoptosis-proteins-iaps
#16
REVIEW
Rama Rathore, Jennifer E McCallum, Elizabeth Varghese, Ana-Maria Florea, Dietrich Büsselberg
Inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs) are a family of proteins that play a significant role in the control of programmed cell death (PCD). PCD is essential to maintain healthy cell turnover within tissue but also to fight disease or infection. Uninhibited, IAPs can suppress apoptosis and promote cell cycle progression. Therefore, it is unsurprising that cancer cells demonstrate significantly elevated expression levels of IAPs, resulting in improved cell survival, enhanced tumor growth and subsequent metastasis. Therapies to target IAPs in cancer has garnered substantial scientific interest and as resistance to anti-cancer agents becomes more prevalent, targeting IAPs has become an increasingly attractive strategy to re-sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapies, antibody based-therapies and TRAIL therapy...
April 19, 2017: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424703/immune-responses-to-bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-vaccination-why-do-they-fail-to-protect-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#17
REVIEW
Juan I Moliva, Joanne Turner, Jordi B Torrelles
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is the current leading cause of death due to a single infectious organism. Although curable, the broad emergence of multi-, extensive-, extreme-, and total-drug resistant strains of M.tb has hindered eradication efforts of this pathogen. Furthermore, computational models predict a quarter of the world's population is infected with M.tb in a latent state, effectively serving as the largest reservoir for any human pathogen with the ability to cause significant morbidity and mortality...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424218/gop-1-promotes-apoptotic-cell-degradation-by-activating-the-small-gtpase-rab2-in-c-elegans
#18
Jianhua Yin, Yaling Huang, Pengfei Guo, Siqi Hu, Sawako Yoshina, Nan Xuan, Qiwen Gan, Shohei Mitani, Chonglin Yang, Xiaochen Wang
Apoptotic cells generated by programmed cell death are engulfed by phagocytes and enclosed within plasma membrane-derived phagosomes. Maturation of phagosomes involves a series of membrane-remodeling events that are governed by the sequential actions of Rab GTPases and lead to formation of phagolysosomes, where cell corpses are degraded. Here we identified gop-1 as a novel regulator of apoptotic cell clearance in Caenorhabditis elegans Loss of gop-1 affects phagosome maturation through the RAB-5-positive stage, causing defects in phagosome acidification and phagolysosome formation, phenotypes identical to and unaffected by loss of unc-108, the C...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424162/pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-with-richter-s-transformation-and-relapsed-cll
#19
Wei Ding, Betsy R LaPlant, Timothy G Call, Sameer A Parikh, Jose F Leis, Rong He, Tait D Shanafelt, Sutapa Sinha, Jennifer Le-Rademacher, Andrew L Feldman, Thomas M Habermann, Thomas E Witzig, Gregory A Wiseman, Yi Lin, Erik Asmus, Grzegorz S Nowakowski, Michael J Conte, Deborah A Bowen, Casey N Aitken, Daniel L Van Dyke, Patricia T Greipp, Xin Liu, Xiaosheng Wu, Henan Zhang, Charla R Secreto, Shulan Tian, Esteban Braggio, Linda E Wellik, Ivana Micallef, David S Viswanatha, Huihuang Yan, Asher A Chanan-Khan, Neil E Kay, Haidong Dong, Stephen M Ansell
CLL patients progressed early on ibrutinib often develop Richter's transformation (RT) with short survival about 4 months. Preclinical studies suggest that programmed death 1 (PD-1) pathway is critical to inhibit immune surveillance in CLL. This phase 2 study MC1485 (NCT02332980) was designed to test the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab, a humanized PD-1-blocking antibody, at a dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks in relapsed and transformed CLL. Twenty-five patients including 16 relapsed CLL and 9 RT (all proven diffuse large cell lymphoma) patients were enrolled and 60% received prior ibrutinib...
April 19, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423520/prognostic-role-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-pd-l1-expressing-tumor-infiltrating-lymphocytes-in-testicular-germ-cell-tumors
#20
Michal Chovanec, Zuzana Cierna, Viera Miskovska, Katarina Machalekova, Daniela Svetlovska, Katarina Kalavska, Katarina Rejlekova, Stanislav Spanik, Karol Kajo, Pavel Babal, Jozef Mardiak, Michal Mego
PURPOSE: Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are nearly universally curable malignancies. Nevertheless, standard cisplatin-based chemotherapy is not curative in a small subgroup of patients. Previously, we showed that PD-L1 overexpression is associated with worse prognosis in TGCTs, while tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are prognostic in different types of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of PD-1 and PD-L1 expressing TILs in TGCTs. RESULTS: PD-L1 positive TILs were found significantly more often in seminomas (95...
March 28, 2017: Oncotarget
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